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Topic: Proton (physics)


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In the News (Mon 25 Jun 18)

  
  AllRefer.com - proton (Physics) - Encyclopedia
The proton is the lightest of the baryon class of elementary particles.
The antiparticle of the proton, the antiproton, was discovered in 1955; it has the same mass as the proton but a unit negative charge and opposite magnetic moment.
Protons are frequently used in a particle accelerator as either the bombarding (accelerated) particle, the target nucleus, or both.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/P/proton.html   (397 words)

  
 Proton - MSN Encarta
Proton, elementary particle that carries a positive electric charge and, along with the electron and the neutron, is one of the building blocks of all atoms.
Protons and neutrons are the building blocks of the atomic nucleus, the center of the atom.
Protons are affected by all four of the fundamental forces that govern all interactions between particles and energy in the universe.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761577976/Proton.html   (1390 words)

  
 About Proton Therapy: Indiana University Cyclotron Facility
Proton therapy addresses this mandate because the physics of proton therapy is fundamentally different from the physics of traditional radiation.
Proton radiation (white) delivers maximum dose at the target depth and falls off rapidly protecting tissue beyond the target.
Proton beam radiation delivers most of the dose to the prostate and less than 10% of the maximum to the rectum.
www.iucf.indiana.edu /proton/why.php   (549 words)

  
 The Nature of the Proton   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The structure of a proton is a micro replica of the structure of a Primordial Singularity.
The "trapped gamma ray" in a proton resonates inside the atomic particle at 1/2 of 137th of the wavelength of the trapped gamma ray.
As with all atomic singular particles, the trapped gamma ray inside the proton revolves at a small sub-harmonic (1/2 of 137th of the wavelength of the gamma ray) As in the structure of an electron, it is hollow, with its substance concentrated in the periphery of the particle.
www.newphysics2000.org /proton.htm   (3047 words)

  
 Proton Radiation Treatment at Loma Linda: What's New?
The main focus was on the physics underlying proton radiation treatment and the practical applications thereof that are desirable to those seeking to establish a hospital-based proton treatment facility.
In his presentation, "Physical processes in track structure of heavy ions and protons for applications in biology," he noted that protons and heavy ions have physical and biological advantages in cancer radiotherapy: about 90 percent of the total radiation dose can be concentrated in tumor volumes.
Physics is its bedrock, and the many advances being contemplated for the future, such as scanning beams, rely on a profound understanding of physics principles for their realization.
www.llu.edu /proton/newspubs/whats-new.html   (1897 words)

  
 Physics > Proton
In physics, the proton is a subatomic particle with a positive fundamental electric charge of 1.6 × 10
The nucleus of the most common isotope of the hydrogen atom, H, is a single proton.
It is taken that the positron (antielectron) has the same magnitude charge as the electron but opposite in sign; the same applies for the antiproton and proton.
www.physics.teleactivities.net /particles/proton.htm   (231 words)

  
 Proton Summary
A subatomic particle, a proton (proton means "first" in Greek) is the fundamental unit of positive electricity in the atom, with a charge equal to an electron's negative charge.
Protons may be transmuted into neutrons by inverse beta decay (that is, by capturing an electron); since neutrons are heavier than protons, this process does not occur spontaneously but only when energy is supplied.
Protons and neutrons are both nucleons, which may be bound by the nuclear force into atomic nuclei.
www.bookrags.com /Proton   (1664 words)

  
 Introduction : Proton Therapy In Russia (ITEP Medical Physics Department official site)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
These advantages of protons are particularly clearly seen in irradiation of targets of complex spatial configuration, and they are decisive in irradiation of pathologic structures in close vicinity of vitally important organs.
In 1998, ITEP Proton Therapy Facility was given the status of a Moscow City Out-patient Center of Proton Therapy.
In these units, the proton beam is delivered to the target by a system of magnets providing ±180° rotation of the beam in vertical plane.
www.protontherapy.itep.ru /intro.html   (1442 words)

  
 Proton decay Summary
In particle physics, proton decay is an unobserved radioactive decay in which the proton decays into lighter subatomic particles, usually a neutral pion and a positron.
Since it is assumed in cosmology that the particles we see were created using the same physics we measure today, it would normally be expected that the overall baryon number should be zero, as matter and antimatter should have been created in roughly equal amounts.
Proton decay is one of the few observable effects of the various proposed GUTs, the other major one being magnetic monopoles.
www.bookrags.com /Proton_decay   (1134 words)

  
 Physics News Graphics: Pions Deform the Proton's Charge Cloud
Theoretical models based on quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of the strong force, have long suggested that the proton's electric charge distribution may not be spherically symmetric, but deformed slightly due to the strong forces of the gluons that hold together the quarks in the nucleon.
According to quantum mechanics, the proton simultaneously exists in a combination or "superposition" of energy states.
The results suggest that the pion cloud surrounding the proton may play a much larger role in producing the observed charge deformation compared to the quarks.
www.aip.org /mgr/png/2002/162.htm   (502 words)

  
 Protons and neutrons
The proton is a baryon and is considered to be composed of two up quarks and one down quark.
Decay of the proton would violate the conservation of baryon number, and in doing so would be the only known process in nature which does so.
The nature of quark confinement suggests that the quarks are surrounded by a cloud of gluons, and within the tiny volume of the proton other quark-antiquark pairs can be produced and then annihilated without changing the net external appearance of the proton.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/particles/proton.html   (1196 words)

  
 Varian Medical Systems: Radiation Therapy: Proton Planning
Proton plans can be combined and compared with other modalities, or used as the base dose for a boost.
The proton calculation model is adaptable to a variety of beam lines, as the calculation of proton fluence in air is separated from the dose calculation in the patient.
Proton plans can be combined, compared, and evaluated, along with photon, electron, and brachytherapy modalities in a single integrated Eclipse environment.
www.varian.com /orad/prd130.html   (654 words)

  
 Proton - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The proton is observed to be stable, although some theories predict that the proton may decay.
Protons may be transmuted into neutrons by inverse beta decay (that is, by capturing an electron); since neutrons are heavier than protons, this process does not occur spontaneously but only when energy is supplied.
Protons and neutrons are both nucleons, which may be bound by the nuclear force into atomic nuclei.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Proton   (788 words)

  
 ScienceDaily: 'Strange' Physics Experiment Is Unraveling Structure Of Proton
Zooming In On A Proton Packed With Surprises (December 5, 2003) -- The structure of the proton is under the microscope at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in Newport News, Virginia, where a series of...
Proton -- The proton is a subatomic particle with an electric charge of one positive fundamental unit and a mass of 938.3 MeV/c2, or about 1836 times the mass of an electron.
Spin (physics) -- In physics, spin refers to the angular momentum intrinsic to a body, as opposed to orbital angular momentum, which is generated by the motion of its center of mass about an external...
www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2005/06/050617235754.htm   (1749 words)

  
 Proton-proton fusion
The fusing of two protons which is the first step of the proton-proton cycle created great problems for early theorists because they recognized that the interior temperature of the sun (some 14 million Kelvins) would not provide nearly enough energy to overcome the coulomb barrier of electric repulsion between two protons.
With the development of quantum mechanics, it was realized that on this scale the protons must be considered to have wave properties and that there was the possibility of tunneling through the coulomb barrier.
In the proton-proton fusion process, deuterium is produced by the weak interaction in a quark transformation which converts one of the protons to a neutron.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/astro/procyc.html   (403 words)

  
 Strange Magnetism and the Proton, Physics Research Highlights, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Widespread applications of the proton's magnetic properties, such as the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques used in biology and medicine, have been developed despite a lack of fundamental understanding of the basic dynamics that generates this magnetism.
Evidence is also shown for the existence of a parity-violating electromagnetic effect known as the anapole moment of the proton.
The proton's anapole moment is not yet well understood theoretically, but it could have important implications for precision weak interaction studies.
www.physics.uiuc.edu /Research/Highlights/strange-magnetism.htm   (393 words)

  
 MIT Physics Faculty: Bernd Surrow
The spin physics program at RHIC at BNL focuses on the collision of polarized protons to gain a deeper understanding of the spin structure of the proton in a new, previously unexplored territory.
Exploring the structure of the proton and atomic nuclei at a future electron-ion collider facility at BNL would allow researchers to probe QCD in a manner previously not possible such as the polarized quark and gluon distributions at low x and in particular possible saturation phenomenon at high patron density.
Surrow received a Ph.D. in Physics in 1998 by the University of Hamburg and was awarded the DESY Ph.D. Thesis prize and the Ph.D. Thesis prize by the Department of Physics at the University of Hamburg.
web.mit.edu /physics/facultyandstaff/faculty/bernd_surrow.html   (750 words)

  
 Proton - Engineering - a Wikia wiki
The proton is observed to be stable [[3]], with a lower limit on its half-life [[4]] of about 10
In chemistry [[6]] and biochemistry [[7]], the proton is thought of as the hydrogen[[8]] ion [[9]], denoted H
In this context, a proton donor is an acid [[10]] and a proton acceptor a base[[11]] (see acid-base reaction theories) [[12]].
engineering.wikia.com /wiki/Proton   (161 words)

  
 Graduate Study in Physics - The Ohio State University
Its main physics aims are to refine the understanding of the top quark (co-discovered by CDF in 1995) and to search for the Higgs Boson, a key prediction of the Standard Model that will lead to fundamental understanding of the origin of mass.
Its key physics goals are the precision measurement of the structure of the proton, the searches for quark and lepton substructures, and the testing of the strong interaction theory quantum chromo-dynamics (QCD).
The goal of BTEV is a comprehensive study of the violation of CP invariance in the b-quark sector.
www.physics.ohio-state.edu /grad/brochure/highengexperiment.html   (530 words)

  
 Proton -- from Eric Weisstein's World of Physics
The proton is a charged elementary particle that can exist freely or an an atomic nucleus.
The ratio of the proton mass to the electron mass is
Weingarten (1993) calculated the mass of the proton to within 6% using "lattice" quantum chromodynamics.
scienceworld.wolfram.com /physics/Proton.html   (326 words)

  
 Proton Driver Physics Study   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
A design for a new Proton Driver was completed in December 2000.
The Physics Case: Transparencies of a talk summarizing the results of the study.
Proton Economics: A talk summarizing the intensity gains to be had from various versions of the Proton Driver.
projects.fnal.gov /protondriver   (238 words)

  
 Proton decay - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In particle physics, proton decay is a radioactive decay in which the proton decays into lighter subatomic particles, usually a neutral pion and a positron.
Since it is assumed in cosmology that the particles we see were created using the same physics we measure today, it would normally be expected that the overall baryon number should be zero, as matter and antimatter should have been created in roughly equal amounts.
Proton decay is one of the few observable effects of the various proposed GUTs, the other major one being magnetic monopoles.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Proton_decay   (897 words)

  
 Neutrino Super Beam, Detectors and Proton Decay   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
It is being jointly sponsored by BNL/UCLA and the Neutrino Study group of the American Physical Society.
As has become evident in recent years, the fields of neutrino physics and proton decay are of fundamental importance to the understanding of particle physics and in particular the breadth of the standard model.
This is a follow up to a workshop held at UCLA in December 2003, which explored the issues of neutrino oscillations, proton decay, and the establishment of a national underground laboratory.
www.bnl.gov /physics/superbeam   (183 words)

  
 Elementary Particles Today
But the proton, which has almost twice the mass of a kaon and nearly seven times the mass of a pion, seems to be absolutely stable.
If the proton lifetime is indeed 10**30 years, and we watch 10**30 protons for one year, we would expect to observe one proton decay.
The only way an experimenter could hope to observe a proton decay would be to put the detector deep underground, where the earth would shield it from all but the most energetic cosmic rays.
www.davidparker.com /janine/epntoday.html   (1647 words)

  
 Press Release: The 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
This year's Nobel Prize in Physics deals with these fundamental questions, problems that occupied physicists throughout the 20th century and still challenge both theoreticians and experimentalists working at the major particle accelerators.
The strong force is the one that is dominant in the atomic nucleus, acting between the quarks inside the proton and the neutron.
This theory was an important contribution to the Standard Model, the theory that describes all physics connected with the electromagnetic force (which acts between charged particles), the weak force (which is important for the sun's energy production) and the strong force (which acts between quarks).
nobelprize.org /nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2004/press.html   (579 words)

  
 UF Physics - THE PROTON   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
featured by Physical Review Focus, this paper verifies the key feature of a mechanism to explain the anomalously strong and coherent magnetic fields seen in galaxies and galactic clusters.
University of Florida, Department of Physics Professor, Dr. Richard Woodard became involved in this interdisciplinary project while attending the CAPP-2000 Conference in Verbier, Switzerland.
Woodard describes himself as "awed" by the fact that quantum effects can occur on cosmological scales and he is actively engaged in studying them.
www.phys.ufl.edu /news/proton/latest_02.htm   (401 words)

  
 PackPhysics1
The proton pack......a seemingly complex device, used by the company known as
The following is a diagram of the proton pack, labeled in detail highlighting technical features pertinent to its basic operation: 
As the stream (proton stream) is released from the neutrona wand, the positively-charged subatomic particles are immediately drawn to the negatively-charged ectoplasmic occurrence (negatively-charged, electron-based ectoplasmic form); thus, the proton stream, in effect, the stream "lassos" the entity (by use of subatomic magnetism) until such time as containment within a foot pedal trap may occur.
www.gbdetroit.com /PackPhysics1.html   (179 words)

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