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Topic: Proton rocket

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  Proton: Nucleus of Russia's Space Future
The Proton rocket with the Sesat communications satellite is installed on the launch pad in Baikonur.
That rocket, called Proton, has become an instrument that serves as a bridge from the old space race to today’s new competition; shaped by a quest for profits first and prestige later.
A similar evolution was underway in the rocket stables of the U.S. In the aftermath of the Challenger accident, new U.S. space policy called for commercializing the existing rocket fleets.
www.space.com /news/spacehistory/proton_history_000707.html   (1249 words)

 Proton rocket facilities in Baikonur
The 4th Test Directorate of the NIIP-5 test range was responsible for the processing of the Proton rocket.
This is the last step in Proton integration, after which the entire complex is loaded by cranes on the flat railroad transporter and it is ready for rollout to the launch pad.
All umbilical devices are connected to the Proton rocket at the time of the launch through the special interface at the bottom of the rocket.
www.russianspaceweb.com /baikonur_proton.html   (1165 words)

 Spaceflight Now | Proton Launch Report | The Proton rocket
Proton's three-stage configuration is used primarily to launch large payloads into low earth orbit, while the four-stage configuration is used to launch spacecraft into high-energy trajectories (geo-transfer, geosynchronous, geostationary, and interplanetary).
Proton's fourth stage possesses a multiple restart capability that allows it to perform all orbit change maneuvers necessary to place a spacecraft into its final orbit, without requiring use of the spacecraft's on-board propellant supply.
The Proton model numbers D, D-1, D-1-e, SL-13, and SL-12 are the designations currently in common use in the United States, with the D numbers having been applied by the Library of Congress and the SL numbers originating with the U.S. Department of Defense.
www.spaceflightnow.com /proton/astra1k/proton.html   (1255 words)

 Proton rocket - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Proton initially started life as a "super ICBM." It was designed to throw a 10-Megaton (or larger) nuclear warhead over a distance of 12,000 km.
Proton launched the Salyut space stations, the Mir core segment and expansion modules, and both the Zarya and Zvezda modules of the ISS.
Proton is fuelled by unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Proton_rocket   (1237 words)

 Proton | UR-500 | 8K82 | SL-9
The rocket for this mission arrived to Baikonur around Sept. 28 and the launch was previously scheduled for November 19 and November 23, 2001.
The Proton rocket rocket equipped with Block DM-3 upper stage and carrying the Astra-1K communications satellite for a Luxemburg-based operator, blasted off from Pad 23 at Area 81 in Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan, at 04:04 local time on Nov. 26, 2002.
The Proton rocket with the L1 spacecraft for the circumlunar mission is poised for launch in Baikonur.
www.russianspaceweb.com /proton.html   (7738 words)

His OKB-52 was formed in 1953 to develop winged rockets, and by the end of the 1950’s had produced some complex cruise missiles for the Soviet navy.
The UR-700 was the member of Vladimir Chelomei's Universal Rocket family designed to allow direct manned flight by the LK-700 spacecraft to the surface of the moon....
This four stage version of the Proton was a modification of the original Block D / 11S824M for launch of late 1980's Lavochkin OKB probes on missions to Mars.
www.astronautix.com /lvfam/ur.htm   (1047 words)

 Soviet Interplanetary Propulsion Systems   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The Molniia and Soyuz rockets are launched from a large concrete pad atop a water cooled fire pit.
The rocket fuel also determines many factors in the specific impulse of an engine (heat of reaction, propellant density, exhaust-gas volume, specific heat, etc).
The claim that the giant four-stage N-1 moon rocket was derived from the 24-meter G-4 are based naively on their similar cone-shaped appearance.
www.mentallandscape.com /V_LaunchVehicles.htm   (1822 words)

 Space Today Online - Russian space rockets - Proton 300th flight milestone
Protons with three rocket stages can be used to launch satellites weighing up to 23 metric tons to low Earth orbits around 125 miles altitude.
Protons were used to ferry the Salyut and Mir space stations to orbit, as well as elements of the current International Space Station (ISS).
The 300th Proton flight mission was carried out by International Launch Services, a joint venture company formed back in 1995 to market Proton rockets and U.S. Atlas rockets.
www.spacetoday.org /Rockets/Russia/Proton300.html   (598 words)

 Russia's Proton rocket takes satellite to space
Russia's Strategic Rocket Force was in charge of the launch and also controls the satellite's placement in orbit and its operation, the Strategic Rocket Force press service told Interfax.
The Strategic Rocket Force was in charge of the launch and also controls the placement of the satellite in orbit and its operation.
The rocket also known as the Dnepr carrier rocket was to be launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome at 2 p.m.
www.spacedaily.com /news/launcher-russia-00h.html   (312 words)

 Proton Rocket - Marketed by ILS
Breeze-M is a larger version of the Breeze-K. By using the Breeze-M, the Proton Rocket increases its GTO payload capability by 25% to 12,125 lb.
The Proton Launch Vehicle was developed in the 1960's by the Chelomei Design Bureau (OKB-52) as a two stage intercontinental ballistic missile capable of launching the heaviest warheads in Soviet Union's arsenal.
The largest rocket was the N-1 which was going to be used to land Soviet Cosmonauts on the moon.
www.aerospaceguide.net /lv/proton.html   (352 words)

 Russian Rockets   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The Proton is used in both 3 and 4-stage versions, with the 3-stage version used for many of the Mir support missions.
The 4-stage Proton is used primarily for geostationary satellite missions.
The 3-stage Proton launch vehicle can place over 44,000 pounds into low-earth orbit and will be used for the largest of the Space Station components that are launched by the Russian Space Agency.
liftoff.msfc.nasa.gov /rsa/rockets.html   (370 words)

 ShowNews Online: PARIS 2003
This was the 300th flight of a Proton vehicle, the first Proton launch of 2003 for ILS, and its 14th launch of a satellite for a member of the SES Global family of companies.
Proton is used to launch all Russian geostationary and interplanetary missions under Khrunichev, while ILS oversees the majority of commercial satellite launches.
The Proton K launch vehicle is used as a three-stage vehicle primarily to launch large space station type payloads into low-earth orbit (LEO), and as a four-stage vehicle to launch spacecraft into high-energy (geosynchronous transfer, geosynchronous and interplanetary) trajectories.
www.aviationnow.com /shownews/03paris/topstor22.htm   (491 words)

 SPACE.com -- Proton Rocket Launches Arab Communications Satellite   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The rocket motor is flying with its attached payload in a highly inclined, highly elliptical intermediate orbit.
Proton is 75 km in altitude as the second stage engines continue to fire.
The rocket is passing 40 km in altitude and 50 km downrange from the pad.
www.space.com /missionlaunches/sfn_061108_arabsat_cntdwn.html   (1418 words)

 Untitled Document   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Russia suffered the lost of its second Proton K rocket in four months Wednesday, Oct. 27, when a failure occurred in one of the second stage engines, followed by failure of all the engines in that stage.
The Proton K rocket is a three-stage rocket made by Russian maker Khrunichev.
Since that incident, two successful launches of the Proton rocket have occurred without incident and NASA expressed confidence that the ISS section, Zvezda - the crew quarters - will fly safely early next year, stating that it is too early to tell what effect, if any, the failure will have on Zvezda's launch schedule.
avion.db.erau.edu /Issue/Fall_99/Issue_7/space4.html   (406 words)

 Proton 8K82K / 11S824
It combined the Proton 8K82K booster for the LK-1 with the N1 lunar Block D stage to boost a stripped-down Soyuz 7K-L1 spacecraft around the moon.
One alternate was a two-part spaceship, using the Proton with the upper stage Block D from Korolev’s N1-L3 lunar project.
However the Block D translunar injection stage failed to fire (ullage rockets, which had to fire to settle propellants in tanks before main engine fired, were jettisoned prematurely).
www.astronautix.com /lvs/pro1s824.htm   (8574 words)

 International Space Station Overview
The three-stage Russian Proton rocket that will be used to launch the first International Space Station component, the U.S.-owned, Russian-built Zarya control module, is a veteran design that has successfully flown more than 200 times.
The Proton was originally introduced in 1965 as a booster for heavy military payloads and for space stations.
The Proton is among the most reliable heavy-lift launch vehicles in operation, with a reliability rating of about 98 percent.
www.shuttlepresskit.com /ISS_OVR/proton_overview.htm   (475 words)

 Frontier Status Report #174
PROTON / EKSPRESS-A1 A Proton K rocket carrying the Russian Ekspress -A1 communications satellite failed during the second stage burn.
The crash is similar to a July Proton failure when a weld seam attaching a turbine cover in place failed -- producing a fire in the turbine.
The first launch was to be of the Garuda 1 satellite which was originally scheduled for a late October launch, but was moved to November 16 when a fuel leak on the Blok DM upper stage caused the stage to be replaced.
www.asi.org /adb/06/09/07/1999/fs-19991029.html   (2274 words)

 Spaceflight Now | Breaking News | Russian Proton M rocket successfully debuts
The flight version of the Proton M rocket arrived to Baikonur in July 2000 and at the time its first test launch was expected as early as August 2000.
The Proton M features several modifications designed to increase payload and reliability of the vehicle, comparing to the present version of the rocket, known as Proton K. For the first time, digital flight control system will replace traditional analog hardware onboard Proton.
The Proton M test flight will also be an end of an era for a generation of the Russian communications satellites.
www.spaceflightnow.com /news/n0104/07protonm   (1175 words)

 BBC News | Sci/Tech | Proton worry for space station
Part of the Proton launcher, weighing some 200 kilograms (440 lbs), fell into the backyard of a villager on the steppe of the northern Kazakh region of Karkaralinsk.
There were no victims, although a woman and her son were at home when the rocket part fell from the sky, the TV said.
This Proton failure is of concern to the nations involved in the ISS because the next phase of the project is due to be launched on board a Proton vehicle in November.
news.bbc.co.uk /1/hi/sci/tech/387008.stm   (444 words)

 APOD: 2000 July 18 - A Russian Proton Rocket Launches Zvezda   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Explanation: The Russian Proton rocket is the tallest rocket in routine use.
rocket stands typically 40 meters tall, can carry unusually heavy payloads into space, and maintains a high record of reliability.
Proton can be configured to launch satellites into orbit, to carry modules to a space station, and to carry people.
antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov /apod/ap000718.html   (110 words)

 CNN - Technology - Kazakhstan bans rocket launches after Russian crash - October 28, 1999
The unmanned Proton carrier rocket exploded six minutes after liftoff Wednesday, completely destroying the rocket and its payload, an Express-A communications satellite belonging to the Russian state-run Space Telecommunications company.
On July 5, another Russian communications satellite was destroyed when the second stage on that Proton rocket failed after pieces of metal were sucked into the engine's thruster.
Proton rockets were successfully launched September 6 and September 26.
www.cnn.com /TECH/space/9910/28/launch.ban/index.html   (445 words)

 Russian Proton Rocket Lost Control After Launch
A Russian Proton-K booster rocket, Launched Wednesday, October 27 from Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, was lost a few seconds after launch.
It was later reported that parts of the rocket and satellite crashed either somewhere in Russia's Altai mountains or in the adjacent regions of Kazakhstan.
Rocket trajectories from Baikonur are chosen to avoid heavily populated areas, tracking mainly across barren Kazakh steppe and remote mountains of southern Siberia.
members.tripod.com /astro1000/news/n0000012.htm   (238 words)

 Mission 2004: Team One Propulsion Systems
One rocket costs around $20-$50M, but the cost is offset slightly by the high reliability of this model of rocket.
The SL-12 and SL-13 are Proton rockets with payload capacities of 20,000kg.
It is a modified ion rocket that uses magnetic fields to increase the exit velocity of the ions.
web.mit.edu /12.000/www/finalpresentation/DARTS/glossary.html   (894 words)

 Proton Launch Failure Opens Old Wounds   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Wednesday's explosion of a Proton rocket puts a second blemish on the industry record for launches of the Russian launch vehicle, coming less than four months after a similar failure at the Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazahkstan.
The July 5 failure, attributed to dust that clogged an engine in the rocket’s second stage, resulted in Kazakhstan initially banning all Russian launches from Baikonur.
The ban prevented International Launch Services, the American/Russian joint venture that launches the American-built Atlas II and the Russian-built Proton rockets, from launching its payload from Baikonur until September 27 (local time).
www.starport.com /missionlaunches/launches/proton_history_991028.html   (235 words)

 ILS 2006
This was the third Proton mission of the year for ILS, and the fifth Proton flight overall for 2002.
Proton has had 100 percent success in all 24 of its launches over the last 30 months, for both Russian government missions and for commercial flights managed by ILS, based in McLean, Va.
ILS' Atlas rockets and their Centaur upper stages are built by Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company-Astronautics Operations at facilities in Denver; Harlingen, Texas; and San Diego, Calif. The three-stage Proton and the Breeze M upper stage are assembled by Khrunichev at its plant near Moscow.
www.ilslaunch.com /newsarchives/newsreleases/rec198   (526 words)

 Weekend Spotlight: Rocketry
The largest rocket is the Russian Proton rocket.
The speed of the gases exiting the nozzle is more than 6,000 miles (9,656 kilometers) per hour, about five times the speed of sound or three times the speed of a high-powered rifle bullet.
The insulation of the fuel tanks on a Saturn V rocket is so good that an ice cube placed inside one would take eight years to melt.
www.chabotspace.org /vsc/exhibits/ws/rockets   (231 words)

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