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Topic: Protoplasm

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  PROTOPLASM - LoveToKnow Article on PROTOPLASM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Protoplasm from whatever source, whether studied in a cell of the human body, in an Amoeba or Foraminifer, or in a vegetable organism, is essentially uniform and similar in appearance and properties.
Empirical theories of protoplasm differ according as their authors seek to find one universal type of structure or constitution common to all conditions or differentiations of the living substance, or, on the contrary,, are of opinion that it may vary fundamentally in different places or at different times.
Protoplasm consists, to the extent of about 60% of its total mass, of a mixture of various nucleo-proteidsthat is to say, of those substances which, in molecular structure and chemical composition, are the most complex bodies known.
41.1911encyclopedia.org /P/PR/PROTOPLASM.htm   (4010 words)

 Protoplasm - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The idea that protoplasm is divisible into a ground substance called "cytoplasm" and a structural body called the Cell nucleus, reflects the more primitive knowledge of cell structure that preceded the development of powerful microscope of organic and inorganic substances, mysteriously directed by the nucleus and controlled by the cell membrane.
Today, it is known that the cytoplasm is structurally very complex, and that protoplasm is living because of the complexity of the "cytoplasmic organelles" and their careful separation and orchestration of multiple chemical processes.
Whether the protoplasm is in either of the three forms depends upon the physiological state of the cell.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Protoplasm   (341 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
He showed that in the Mycetozoa the spore hatches out as a mass of naked protoplasm which almost immediately assumes a free-swimming flagellate form (zoospore), that after multiplying by division this passes into an amoeboid phase, and that from such amoebae the plasmodia arise, though the mode of their origin was not ascertained by him.
The phenomena of the rhythmic movement of the protoplasm are not inconsistent with the view that they result from alternating contraction and relaxation of the outer layer in different regions of the plasmodium, but any dogmatic statement as to their causation appears at present inadvisable.
In this manner the whole of the protoplasmic substance of the plasmodium is converted into spores, borne on supporting structures (stalks and sporophores), which are formed by secretion of the protoplasm.
encyclopedia.jrank.org /correction/edit?locale=en&content_id=47136   (5326 words)

 PROTOPLASM - Online Information article about PROTOPLASM   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
bare the structure of protoplasm by means of the refinements of modern microscopical technique, or to solve the question of its constitution by means of chemical and physiological investigation.
Strassburger also regards protoplasm as composed of two portions: a motile kinoplasm which is fibrillar, and a nutritive trophoplasm which is alveolar, in structure.
Kolliker, Verworn and others, ascribe the activities of protoplasm to the mutual interaction of many substances, no single one of which can be considered as living in itself, but only in so far as it forms an indispensable constituent of a living body.
encyclopedia.jrank.org /PRE_PYR/PROTOPLASM.html   (4022 words)

 protoplasm articles on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
protoplasm PROTOPLASM [protoplasm] term once used for the fundamental material of which all living things were thought to be composed.
He is noted for his research on the nature of protoplasm and chlorophyll and on the physiology of higher plant forms.
He established that the cells of all organisms are composed of protoplasm and contain a nucleus.
www.encyclopedia.com /articles/10569.html   (420 words)

 Protoplasm   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The term protoplasm includes both the substance within and the cell membrane and is the " living substance" of the cell.
It is a transparent and jelly-like material, the consistency varying from the more liquid, slightly gelatinous white of a fresh egg to that of semi-solidified gelatin of jelly.
Cells divide to form identical daughter cells; function of the nucleus of the protoplasm, e.g.
www.botany.uwc.ac.za /SCI_ED/grade10/cells/protoplasm.htm   (197 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Small spheres of protoplasm, apparently quite free, are often driven by the current round the cells; and filaments attached to the central masses are swayed to and fro, as if struggling to escape.
The little masses of purple protoplasm were generally oval or beaded, and not nearly so often spherical as in the case of leaves subjected to carbonate of ammonia.
The protoplasm within the cells was not killed, for it was seen to be in distinct movement; and the leaves, having been left in cold water for 20 hrs., re-expanded.
www2.cddc.vt.edu /gutenberg/etext04/insec10.txt   (19512 words)

 Early American Manual Therapy
The protoplasm of these cells may be so thin as to be invisible; possibly it may be absent.
The protoplasm contains hemoglobin in varying amount; the less the amount of hemoglobin the greater is the basophilia of the protoplasm: with increasing hemoglobin concentration the cells show increasing avidity for eosin.
The basophilic, intergranular, hyaline protoplasm gradually diminishes with increasing maturity and is barely visible in the eosinophiles of normal adult human blood.
www.meridianinstitute.com /eamt/files/burns4/bur4ch06.html   (8248 words)

 [No title]
Shortly after the tentacles have re\_ expanded, the little masses of protoplasm are all redissolved, and the purple fluid within the cells becomes as homogeneous and transparent as it was at first.
After a longer or shorter time t he granules in the colourless layer of protoplasm, which flows round the walls, are drawn to and unite with the larger spheres, or form small independent spheres; these latter being of a much paler colour, and more brittle than the first aggregated masses.
The little masses of purple protoplasm were generally oval or beaded, and not nearly so often spherical as in the case of leaves subjecte d to carbonate of ammonia.
www.gutenberg.org /dirs/etext04/insec10r.rtf   (17196 words)

 L.L. Bernard: An Introduction to Social Psychology: Chapter 5: The Organic Bases of Behavior   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
These protoplasms are in general similar for all of the organs and tissues of the body, but they differ sufficiently in chemical composition and structure as to be distinguished functionally, at least in some measure.
The nervous system is a special protoplasmic mechanism developed in connection with the other protoplasms of the organism for the purpose of securing a more rapid and economical and accurate adjustment of the organism to its environment than would be possible without such an adjusting mechanism.
Protoplasm is also highly metabolic, and the nerve cells are said to explode their protein under certain conditions.
spartan.ac.brocku.ca /~lward/Bernard/1926/1926_05.html   (5711 words)

 Popular Science 1942 Arthur C. Pillsbury Foundation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Thus making the protoplasm visible, he is able to watch the dyed jellylike substance move.
If each unit or cell was filled with living protoplasm, it would act in the same way even though no openings were visible.
In the second picture, the brown fruit dye was injected in the left corner of the middle cell and was allowed to mix with the protoplasm for the next five minutes.
www.acpillsburyfoundation.com /PopularScience1942.html   (370 words)

 Adventures in Philosophy: Classical Essay
Notwithstanding all the fundamental resemblances which exist between the power of the protoplasm in plants and animals, they present one striking difference, in the fact that plants can manufacture fresh protoplasm out of mineral compounds, whereas animals are obliged to procure it ready-made; and hence, in the long run, depend upon plants.
The substance which is thus active is a mass of protoplasm, and its activity differs in detail rather than in principle from that of the protoplasm of the nettle.
It is a fair question whether the protoplasms of those simplest forms of life which people an immense extent of the bottom of the sea would not outweigh that of all the higher living beings which inhabit the land put together.
radicalacademy.com /adiphiloessay171.htm   (1041 words)

 Early American Manual Therapy
Fragmentation, vacuolization and cloudy swelling of the protoplasm, with a loss of the distinctive granules, lead to great difficulty in estimating Arneth’s index in many cases, and especially in those cases in which the diagnostic value of the method is of most importance.
The protoplasm is pushed or grows toward the endothelium of the blood vessels of the marrow, and finally it enters the blood vessel through the endothelial wall.
The protoplasm is often vacuolated in the vicinity of the nucleus.
www.meridianinstitute.com /eamt/files/burns4/bur4ch04.html   (11815 words)

A similar circulation of molecules is well known as occurring in the protoplasm of many vegetable cells, and the movements, though their precise origin and cause are unknown, are probably really of a similar nature in all cases in which they have been noticed.
Moreover, it is well known that the protoplasm in the interior of many vegetable cells, though confined by an unyielding envelope, is capable of "rotation" as a whole, or of exhibiting a circulation of granules similar to that seen in the pseudopodia of the Foraminifera.
This is due to the fact that every mass of living protoplasm has the power of taking in from the exterior certain foreign materials, and of "assimilating"these or of converting these into new protoplasm capable of re-placing the loss and destruction of this substance due to the act of living.
www.creationism.org /victoria/VictoriaInst1880_pg267.htm   (8997 words)

 Protoplasm - Simple English Wikipedia
Protoplasm is the living substance that make up a cell.
In animal cell, the whole cell is made of protoplasm.
Every protoplasm in each living being contains about 75-80/83 percent of water.
simple.wikipedia.org /wiki/Protoplasm   (105 words)

When I went to school years ago, I learned the human cell contained a nucleus and protoplasm.
Protoplasm was the stuff in the living cell.
Today, biologists refer to everything in the cell except the nucleus as "cytoplasm." While most cells are small, a muscle cell can stretch an inch and a half, while a nerve cell can extend from the spinal cord to the tips of the fingers or toes.
www.chiroweb.com /archives/23/23/10.html   (851 words)

 Protoplasm at the Antipodes : Nature
THE Protoplasm excitement seems to have died away in a great measure in this country; and it is probably no loss to science that the matter has ceased to be a prevailing topic of conversation at dinner tables.
There are not wanting signs that a national character is beginning to form among the inhabitants of that country; and we trust that scientific zeal will be one of its chief features.
William Barton so admirably cooks will reappear in the nerve cells of Australian brains, and give rise to that love of truth, apart from gold or gain, which is the "moral" basis of "national" life.
www.nature.com /nature/about/first/protoplasm.html   (719 words)

 A Radio-Electric Interpretation By Dr. George Crile
The mechanism by which oxidation within the protoplasm of the cell generates the electric charges that operate the cell and the organism we postulate is due to the short wave radiation generated and emitted by oxidation within protoplasm.
The possession by protoplasm of a mechanism that can generate and emit ionizing radiation interprets most simply that hitherto unexplained phenomenon, the ionization of oxygen, since it explains by what means oxygen is ionized, hence made chemically active.
It would be evident that there is in the protoplasm the constant re-radiation of the energy put into the nitrogen and carbon compounds; but the temperature of the protoplasm is at almost a cold level, though higher than the environment.
www.nuenergy.org /alt/crile.htm   (2099 words)

 On the Physical Basis of Life (1868)
This semi-fluid lining is protoplasm, which thus constitutes a kind of bag, full of a limpid liquid, and roughly corresponding in form with the interior of the hair which it fills.
The protoplasm of Algæ and Fungi becomes, under many circumstances, partially, or completely, freed from its woody case, and exhibits movements of its whole mass, or is propelled by the contractility of one, or more, hair-like prolongations of its body, which are called vibratile cilia.
It is a fair question whether the protoplasm of those simplest forms of life, which people an immense extent of the bottom of the sea, would not outweigh that of all the higher living beings which inhabit the land put together.
aleph0.clarku.edu /huxley/CE1/PhysB.html   (6427 words)

 Protoplasm - Search Results - ninemsn Encarta
Protoplasm, term once used to describe the ground substance—the living material—of cells.
Most fungi reproduce by spores, which are tiny particles of protoplasm enclosed in walls.
The common mushroom may form 12 billion or more spores on...
au.encarta.msn.com /Protoplasm.html   (85 words)

 The Astral Body: Historical Studies (Part 5 of 8)
The various chemical and physical powers of protoplasm which so strikingly differentiate it from the lifeless are due to this increase in the energy content of its molecules.
Ross G. Harrison of Yale, "Living protoplasm is a complex mixture of substances deriving its properties not merely from their chemical nature, but also from their arrangement in space."(10) The essence of life, as Dr. Coker says, is the organization of the substance.
Sinnott, is "that protoplasm, itself liquid, formless and flowing, inevitably builds those formed and coordinated structures of cell, organ and body in which it is housed."(14) He speaks of the "frustration" that has attended the geneticists' attempt "to solve the elusive problem of what an organism really is."
www.wisdomworld.org /additional/TheAstralBody-HistoricalStudies/SeriesNumber5-of-8.html   (2931 words)

 Urantia Book, Paper 65: Section 6 -- Evolutionary Techniques Of Life
It is impossible accurately to determine, simultaneously, the exact location and the velocity of a moving object; any attempt at measurement of either inevitably involves change in the other.
The chemist can elucidate the chemistry of dead protoplasm, but he cannot discern either the physical organization or the dynamic performance of living protoplasm.
Dead protoplasm weighs the same as living protoplasm, but it is not the same.
www.theoquest.com /ubcenter/ubook/65-6.cfm   (693 words)

 American Journal of Botany, 19, 7, July, 1932   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Small concentrations of narcotics (ether 0.5 to 1.5 percent, chloroform 0.02 to 0.1 percent) decrease the permeability of protoplasm for water-soluble substances if these substances are insoluble or less soluble in the narcotics used than in water.
The determination of the permeability was made by the method of the absorption of aniline dyes by the leaves of Elodea canadensis, using dyes of different solubility in water and in the narcotics.
At this stage the protoplasm surrounding the female gamete nucleus is homogeneous and dense, while in the peripheral region the protoplasm is more vacuolated and contains the supernumerary nuclei in various stages of disintegration.
www.botany.org /ajb/00029122_di001304.php   (2346 words)

 Natural Law in the Spiritual World (xiv)
Besides the fact, so luminously brought out here, that the artist is distinct from the “semi-fluid globule” of protoplasm in which he works, there is this other essential point to notice, that in all his “skilful manipulation” the artist is not working at random, but according to law.
But we are not in the same darkness with regard to the moral protoplasm, When we look at this complex combination which we have predicated as the basis of spiritual life, we do find something which gives it a peculiar qualification for being the protoplasm of the Christ-Life.
This is not peculiar to the protoplasm of the Christian’s soul.
www.ccel.org /ccel/drummond/natural_law.xiv.html?bcb=0   (5766 words)

 American Journal of Botany, 16, 4, April, 1929   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The protective action of narcotics on the protoplasm of yeast which was affected by poisonous substances was investigated.
They may remove water from protoplasm like other substances producing plasmolysis, and they may dissolve in protoplasm and separate the molecules of the principal compounds of living matter from each other as do the narcotics.
The solution of iodine in the living protoplasm of yeast has a brownish color, as compared with the yellow color of a solution of iodine in water.
www.botany.org /ajb/00029122_di001271.php   (960 words)

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