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Topic: Provinces of the Ottoman Empire

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  Ottoman Empire   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Ottoman Empire was a Turkish state in the Middle East that comprised Anatolia, part of Southwest Asia, North Africa and south-eastern Europe in the 14th to 20th centuries, established by a tribe of Oghuz Turks in western Anatolia.
The Empire reached its apex under Suleiman the Magnificent in the 16th century when it stretched from the Persian Gulf in the east to Hungary in the northwest; and from Egypt in the south to the Caucasus in the north.
For centuries, the Ottoman Empire was the refuge of the Jews of Europe.
www.bidprobe.com /en/wikipedia/o/ot/ottoman_empire.html   (830 words)

 Ottoman Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Empire was situated in the middle of East and West, and interacted throughout its six-century history with both the East and the West.
From 1517 onwards, the Ottoman Sultan was also the Caliph of Islam, and the Ottoman Empire was from 1517 until 1922 (or 1924) synonymous with the Caliphate, the Islamic State.
Ottoman system was a three court system composed from one for the Muslims with the kadi (read judges), one for the non-Muslim (appointed Jews and Christians ruled over their religious areas) and another for the trade (originated after the capitulations).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ottoman_Empire   (5818 words)

 Ottoman Empire - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Ottoman Empire (Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu) was an imperial power that existed from 1299 to 1923 (634 years), one of the largest empires to rule the borders of the Mediterranean Sea.
However, the Ottomans were eventually defeated by the Allies in the Balkans, Thrace, Syria, Palestine and Iraq and its territories were colonized by the victors.
For centuries, the Ottoman Empire was the refuge of the Jews of Europe, who did not have the freedom of religion in Europe that the citizens of the Ottoman Empire did.
www.arikah.com /encyclopedia/Ottoman   (1911 words)

 NTU Info Centre: Ottoman Empire   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Empire was situated in the middle of East and West and interacted throughout its 6 century history with both the East and the West.
The Ottoman Empire was defeated by the Allies during the war and its territories were colonized by the victors.
For centuries, the Ottoman Empire was the refuge of the Jews of Europe, who did not enjoy the freedom of religion in Europe that the citizens of the Ottoman Empire did.
www.nowtryus.com /article:Ottoman_Empire   (1137 words)

 Subdivisions of the Ottoman Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
As well as the provinces there were three tributary states (Khanate of Crimea, Wallachia, and Moldavia) and Transylvania, a principality under the suzerainty of the Porte.
The Provinces of Rumili and Anadolu were under the direct rule of the sultan in Istanbul.
The Provinces of Rumili (Rumelia) and Anadolu (Anatolia) were under the direct rule of the sultan in Istanbul.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Subdivisions_of_the_Ottoman_Empire   (263 words)

 illustrated ottoman empire encyclopedia of habibullah (sultan, topkapi, ottoman, palace, harem, eunuch, history, ...
Ottoman Empire to perform the most menial tasks, while they were in training to become members of the elite Janissary Corps.
Ottoman Turkish troops that fought on the Byzantine frontier.
A unit of Ottoman measurement, one arşun was the modern equivalent of 75.8 cm.
www.practicalturkish.com /encyclopedia-a.html   (3858 words)

 SingaporeMoms - Parenting Encyclopedia - Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman Empire was a multi-ethnic state that existed from 1299 to 1923 (624 years), one of the largest empires to rule the borders of the Mediterranean Sea.
In the 17th century, the Ottomans were weakened both internally as well as externally by costly wars especially against Persia, Russia and Austria-Hungary.
Ottoman state organization was based on a hierarchy with the sultan in the top and below him his viziers, other court officials, and military commanders.
www.singaporemoms.com /parenting/Ottoman_Empire   (1253 words)

 Sultan Abdul-Hamid and the Zionist Colonization of Palestine: A Case Study from Jerusalem   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The fact that Jews native to the Ottoman empire had long coexisted and made contributions to Ottoman culture is totally ignored, although it was a reality recorded in many of the archives of the provinces of the Ottoman empire.
Ottoman Jerusalem, for instance, was, and is still famous for the coexistence of many different ethnic, religious and confessional groups often living together cheek by jowl.
At a time when the multinational Ottoman empire was being torn apart by secessionist movements in the Balkans and East Anatolia, the Turkish government feared the creation of yet another nationality problem.
www.jerusalemites.org /jerusalem/ottoman/1.htm   (674 words)

 The Treatment of the Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, Historical Summary
They were scattered from one end to another of the Ottoman Empire; the whole Empire was their heritage, and it was a heritage that they must necessarily share with the Turks, who were in a numerical majority and held the reins of political power.
The Armenian civil population in the Ottoman Empire, it is argued, owes its misfortunes to the Armenian volunteers in the Russian Army.
Ottomanisation has become the Young Turks' obsession.** Their first act after declaring war was to repudiate the Capitulations; their latest stroke has been to declare the Turkish language the exclusive medium of official business in the Empire, with only a year's delay -- a step which has caused consternation among their German allies.
www.hri.org /docs/bryce/bryce2.htm   (18911 words)

If, therefore, the geographical position of the Ottoman provinces, the fertility of the soil, the aptitude and intelligence of the inhabitants are considered, the conviction will remain that by striving to find efficacious means, the result, which by the help of God we hope to attain, can be obtained within a few years.
One or more persons of ottoman nationality have the right of presenting petitions in the proper quarter relating to the breaking of law and regulation, done either to their own or public detriment, and may likewise present in protest signed petitions to the General Ottoman Assembly, complaining of the conduct of state servants and functionaries.
The societies are forbidden which aim at injuring the territorial integrity of the Ottoman Empire, changing the form of the Constitution or of the government, acting contrary to the provisions of the Constitution, or bringing about a separation between the various Ottoman elements, or which are contrary to public morals.
www.bilkent.edu.tr /~genckaya/documents1.html   (7882 words)

 Bulgaria - a brief history outline - Under ottoman domination
Because the Ottoman Empire had imposed control over what were until then considered traditional sea and land merchant routes to the Asian continent, the search for new routes was encouraged in the Western countries.
Every one of the feudal lords in the Empire was entitled to a portion of the incomes of his subordinate households and the fees on the issued certificates (tapis) through which the households acquired plots of land (the fee equalled half of the yearly revenue from the land).
Naturally, the Ottoman system of land ownership sustained substatial transformations, especially at the turn of the 19th century when in the regions suitable for industrial crops new estates called cifliks were formed.
www.digsys.bg /books/history/under-ottoman.html   (2125 words)

 History of the Ottoman Empire - Decline and Fall
But in the 17th c., the Ottomans were confronted by an extended arc of opponents, Venice, Austria, Poland, Russia, and Iran, often obliged to confront several at once.
In the 1850s-60s, intellectuals known as the New Ottomans” engaged in a liberal critique of Tanzimat policies with emphasis on fatherland (vatan), freedom (hurriget), and constitutionalism.
With even the heartlands of the Empire partitioned and Istanbul occupied by the victorious allies, the Turks of Anatolia under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) rejected the terms of the dictated Treaty of Sevres.
www.turizm.net /turkey/history/ottoman3.html   (1362 words)

 Ottoman Empire Russia War 1876-1878
The boundaries of Serbia and Montenegro were extended so as to be contiguous, while Romania was compelled to cede southern Bessarabia to Russia, receiving the Dobrudja from Turkey in exchange.
Parts of Asiatic Turkey were ceded to Russia, and the Ottoman sultan gave guarantees for the security of his Christian subjects.
The treaty was opposed by Austria-Hungary, which disliked encouragement of Slav nationalism, and by the British, who feared the new Bulgarian state would become a Russian satellite and a threat to Istanbul.
www.onwar.com /aced/data/romeo/russoturk1876.htm   (380 words)

 Subdivisions of the Ottoman Empire - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography
This article details the subdivisions of the Ottoman Empire.
The remaining 27 provinces were controlled by governors-general (beylerbeyis or vadi).
A pashaluk consisted of several sanjaks, and a sanjak in turn could be composed of several captaincies.
www.arikah.net /encyclopedia/Pashaluk   (243 words)

In 1492, the Sultan ordered the governors of the provinces of the Ottoman Empire "not to refuse the Jews entry or cause them difficulties, but to receive them cordially";.
Immanual Aboab attributes to Bayazid II the famous remark that "the Catholic monarch Ferdinand was wrongly considered as wise, since he impoverished Spain by the expulsion of the Jews, and enriched Turkey".
The arrival of the Sephardis altered the structure of the community and the original group of Romaniote Jews was totally absorbed.
www.anatolia.com /anatolia/Religion_and_Spirituality/Judaism/history/haven.asp   (215 words)

 Islamic History in Arabia and Middle East   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The Western world had for centuries been gradually penetrating most of the areas that had once been part of the Muslim empire, and in the latter part of the nineteenth century, in the vacuum left by the long decay and decline of the Ottoman Empire, European powers came to dominate the Middle East.
In the sixteenth century, for example, the Ottoman Empire voluntarily granted a series of concessions called the "Capitulations" to European powers - concessions which gave the Europeans decided advantages in foreign trade in the empire.
By defeating Egypt, then still part of the Ottoman Empire, Napoleon exposed the inner weaknesses, both military and administrative, of the sultans, shattered the myth of Ottoman power, and inaugurated more than 150 years of direct political intervention by the West.
www.islamicity.com /mosque/ihame/Sec14.htm   (1317 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Units may enter the formerly prohibited areas of the Ottoman Empire and Russia.
The Ottoman Empire enters play only if 1) Players want to start the game with a fifth player; or 2) Any Ottoman (OT) province is invaded.
The provinces of Bosnia, Ottoman Hungary, and Transylvania are NOT considered part of the Ottoman Empire (while technically satrapies of the Ottomans, they were semi-independent at the time).
grognard.com /variants/30ywvar.txt   (361 words)

 A Myth of Terror   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
In 1639, the ottomans signed the Treaty of Kasr-i Sirin with the Safavids, and in spite of the wars that followed, the Turkish-Iranian border still follows the line determined in 1639.
All the Armenians and Monophysites of the Empire were subject to the patriarchs of Istanbul.
The fate of the Ottoman Empire appeared to be sealed.
www.ataa.org /ataa/ref/myth/g_politics.html   (2693 words)

 [No title]
Ottoman government announces permission for foreign Jews to settle throughout the Ottoman Empire, excluding Palestine.
Ottoman Sultan Abd-al Hamid II rejects Herzl's proposal that Palestine be granted to the Jews.
Palestinian deputies from Jerusalem, Jaffa, Nablus and Acre elected to Ottoman parliament of 1908 in Constantinople.
www.alnakba.org /chronology/first.htm   (820 words)

 ottoman empire and crusades - Books, journals, articles @ The Questia Online Library   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The towns of the Ottoman empire were the loci of administrative...in the towns and cities of the Ottoman empire, not the villages, that the Ottoman...
The Ottoman Empire grasped the importance of the...important ways, the decline of the Ottoman Empire represented the beginning of chaos...anniversary of the founding of the Ottoman Empire.
It was the...decline of the Ottoman Empire and the transformation...decline of the Ottoman Empire and the politics...
www.questia.com /search/ottoman-empire-and-crusades   (1595 words)

 Armenian Genocide   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
By the late 1880's there were approximately 2,500,000 Armenian people living in the Ottoman Empire.
The tension began when Armenians in the eastern provinces of the Ottoman Empire started to impress upon the people the idea of Armenian self-government, under the encouragement of Russia.
During this time, Sultan Abdulhamid II, the leader of the Ottoman Empire, was promoting nationalistic feelings and animosity towards the Armenians among neighboring Kurdish tribe men, in hopes of suppressing the revolutionaries.
birdofprey.bxscience.edu /organizations/holocaust/edguide/armenian.html   (709 words)

 The Kosovo Chronicles, by Dusan Batakovic (Part 2a)
Toward the end of the 18th century, the general position of Christian subjects in the European provinces of the Ottoman Empire was becoming worse with authority deteriorating in the Turkish administration.
Aside to the misfortune common to all Christians of the European parts of the empire (religious intolerance, legal and economic unprotectedness) was an arduous struggle for physical and national survival.
Living memories of the sacred rulers and heroes of Kosovo, of past glory and the unfortunately lost empire were kept alive by priests and monks from the fraternities of medieval endowments.
www.snd-us.com /history/dusan/kc_part2a.htm   (12466 words)

 Amir Taheri on Democracy & Arabs on National Review Online
The word is dimuqratiah (democracy) which was first introduced to the Arabic political lexicon in the mid-19th century as the Nahda (Awakening) movement spread in the Arab provinces of the Ottoman Empire.
It was the magic word that inspired the constitutional movements in the Ottoman Empire and Persia.
The Ottoman Caliph and the Shah of Persia, in the name of resisting the onslaught of "heathen Bolshevism," encouraged the Islamic revivalists.
www.nationalreview.com /comment/comment-taheri030303.asp   (1168 words)

 UCLA | Armenian Studies | Resources
By the end of World War I, the Armenians had been eliminated from virtually all of the Asiatic provinces of the Ottoman Empire, and during the next several years the remnants would be forced to leave the bounds of the new Republic of Turkey.
It was the technological advances of the modern age that placed in the hands of the perpetrators the weapons of mass destruction.
Even in the backward Ottoman Empire, the telegraph, for instance, could provide unprecedented means of coordination, control, and thoroughness.
www.sscnet.ucla.edu /history/centers/armenian/source108.html   (2526 words)

 The Armenian Genocide   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Mistrust had long existed between the Turks and Armenians and this turned to open hostility in the late 19th century when Armenians in the eastern provinces of the Ottoman Empire started to impress upon the people the idea of Armenian self-government, under the encouragement of Russia.
During this time, Sultan Abdul Hamid II, the leader of the Ottoman empire, was promoting animosity towards the Armenians who were already being heavily discriminated against.
In 1894, Armenians in Sasum fought back by refusing to pay the required taxes, but this was not successful as this villages were burned and thousands of people were killed by Kurdish troops.
www.geocities.com /CapitolHill/Parliament/2587/armenia.html   (518 words)

 Macedonia Under the Ottoman Empire
After the Balkan conquests, the Ottoman Empire was divided into large beylerbeylics, or administrative units.
The rulers of these provinces, the beylerbeys, were appointed directly by the sultan and the Beylerbeys were the highest local military commanders in the beylerbeylics or pashalics.
While there is no record of the church formally recognizing her as a saint, her portrait is depicted in a number of Macedonian churches and monasteries, where she is honored as a martyr and saint.
www.unet.com.mk /mian/oto.htm   (2637 words)

 Bithynia and Galatia - All About Turkey
when the Ottoman Empire was stripped of these provinces in the late 19th c.
One of Turkey's most densely settled areas, the Bithnyian plain nowadays carries the main routes from Istanbul to Ankara and also forms part of the industrial sector of the north- west, much of it concentrated around Izmit, Adapazari and Bursa.
Ancient Galatia, at the centre of Asia Minor with its capital Ancyra (Ankara), was part of Phrygia and Cappadocia in early antiquity.
www.allaboutturkey.com /bitinya.htm   (601 words)

 Palestine, Israel and the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Primer-Page 3
The Ottoman Empire was weakening, and European powers were entrenching their grip on areas in the eastern Mediterranean, including Palestine.
McMahon convinced Husayn to lead an Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire, which was aligned with Germany against Britain and France in the war.
The Arab revolt, led by T. Lawrence ("Lawrence of Arabia") and Husayn's son Faysal, was successful in defeating the Ottomans, and Britain took control over much of this area during World War I. Britain made other promises during the war that conflicted with the Husayn-McMahon understandings.
www.merip.org /palestine-israel_primer/brit-mandate-pal-isr-prime.html   (1070 words)

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