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Topic: Proximal

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In the News (Mon 24 Jun 19)

  Proximal Humerus Fractures   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Proximal humerus fractures have been reported to account for about 5% of all fractures.
Hence, a proximal humerus fractures may be called 2-part, 3-part, or 4-part according to the Neer classification system, depending upon the amount of displacement and angulation seen on x-ray.
The incidence of neurologic injuries associated with proximal humerus fractures is high (59% for nondisplaced fractures, but as high as 82% if the fracture was displaced, according to Visser et al.).
www.shoulderphysician.net /fractures_proximal_humerus.htm   (815 words)

 Fractures of the Proximal Femur (hip)
In younger patients, proximal femoral fractures are usually the result of high-energy physical trauma (e.g., high-speed motor vehicle accidents) and usually occur in the absence of disease.
Proximal femoral fractures in elderly patients are often pathologic, usually resulting from minimal-to-moderate physical trauma to areas of bone significantly affected by osteoporosis.
Optimally, the end of the lag screw should be placed in close proximity to the apex of the femoral head so that the sum of the distances between the end of the screw and the apex of the femoral head in the AP and lateral views is less than 20 to 25 mm.
www.orthoassociates.com /hipfx.htm   (4432 words)

 Proximal tubule - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Agonal resorption of the contents of the proximal tubular contents after interruption of circulation in the capillaries surrounding the tubule often leads to disturbance of the cellular morphology of the proximal tubule cells, including the ejection of cell nuclei into the tubule lumen.
In relation to the morphology of the kidney as a whole, the convoluted segments of the proximal tubules are confined entirely to the cortex.
Physiology at MCG 7/7ch03/7ch03p14 - "The Nephron: Proximal Tubule, Pars Convoluta and Pars Recta"
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Proximal_tubule   (720 words)

 Proximal Renal Tubular Acidosis - Health Centers
Proximal renal tubular acidosis (Type II RTA) is a result of?poor bicarbonate reabsorption by the proximal tubules.
Vitamin D and calcium supplements may be needed to aid in the reduction of skeletal deformities resulting from osteomalacia or rickets.
Although the underlying cause of proximal renal tubular acidosis may go away by itself,?the effects and complications can be permanent or life-threatening.
www.wftv.com /encyclopedia/6865443/detail.html   (757 words)

 Distal Hyperplastic Polyps and Proximal Hyperplasia - September 15, 2003 - American Family Physician
The association between distal and proximal colorectal adenomas is undefined, and no preventive guidelines explicitly recommend colonoscopic examination for proximal lesions when a distal adenoma is found on sigmoidoscopic examination.
In the screening studies, proximal neoplasia was present in 16 percent of persons with no distal polyps, in 25 percent of those with distal hyperplastic polyps, and in 36 percent of those with distal adenomatous polyps.
The risk of proximal neoplasia associated with distal hyperplastic polyps was lower in asymptomatic persons who underwent colonoscopy after screening sigmoidoscopy compared with those who underwent diagnostic colonoscopy for symptoms or risk factors for colorectal neoplasia.
www.aafp.org /afp/20030915/tips/12.html   (484 words)

 The renal nerve is required for regulation of proximal tubule transport by intraluminally produced ANG II -- Quan and ...
Proximal tubule segments on the surface of the kidney were initially mapped with injection of a small droplet of oil.
in the rabbit proximal convoluted tubule perfused in vitro (2).
The role of angiotensin II in the antidiuresis and antinatriuresis induced by stimulation of the sympathetic nerves to the rat kidney.
ajprenal.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/280/3/F524   (3648 words)

 IM Nailing of Proximal Tibial Fractures - Wheeless' Textbook of Orthopaedics
central axis of the proximal tibia (not the central axis of the fracture);
- Fractures of the proximal third of the tibial shaft treated with intramedullary nails and blocking screws.
- in the case of a comminuted proximal tibial frx w/ a butterfly fragment, consider lag screws fixation of the butterfly fragment to the proximal tibia;
www.wheelessonline.com /ortho/im_nailing_of_proximal_tibial_fractures   (1786 words)

 Proximal Row Carpectomy - Wheeless' Textbook of Orthopaedics
Proximal row carpectomy for posttraumatic disorders of the carpus.
Proximal-row carpectomy for diseases of the proximal row.
Proximal row caprectomy: An end result study of 22 cases.
www.wheelessonline.com /ortho/proximal_row_carpectomy   (618 words)

 XQL and Proximal Nodes
The Proximal Nodes model suggests an implementation where an index is built on the structure of the text separated from the normal index for the text content.
Note that this violates the condition of Proximal Nodes model: the fact that a book qualifies or not cannot be determined considering the text areas of the titles of the books, but one needs to compare the content of the titles with those found in the bibliography of the other book.
Despite that this cannot be solved by a text index, the Proximal Nodes model can coexist with many independent context indexes, and therefore a different index able to answer such questions could be built on the numerical values found in the text and it could gracefully coexist with the rest of the system.
www.haifa.il.ibm.com /sigir00-xml/final-papers/RBaetza/att1.htm   (4155 words)

 Indomethacin Blocks Enhanced Paracellular Backflux in Proximal Tubules -- Ramsey et al. 13 (6): 1449 -- Journal of the ...
The intercellular tight junctions of the proximal tubule are
Kinoshita Y, Knox FG: Response of superficial proximal convoluted tubule to decreased and increased renal purfusion pressure.
Tisher TT, Yarger WE: Lanthanum permeability of the tight junction (zonula occludens) in the renal tubule of the rat.
jasn.asnjournals.org /cgi/content/full/13/6/1449   (3680 words)

 Maturation of rabbit proximal straight tubule chloride/base exchange -- Shah et al. 274 (5): 883 -- AJP - Renal ...
Isolated segments of superficial proximal straight tubules were perfused as previously described (6, 7, 9).
Proximal straight tubules were perfused with a high-chloride solution simulating late proximal tubular fluid and bathed in a serumlike albumin solution.
Sodium, bicarbonate, and chloride absorption by the proximal tubule.
ajprenal.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/274/5/F883   (2681 words)

 Fractures of the Proximal Fifth Metatarsal - May 1, 1999 - American Academy of Family Physicians
Fractures of the proximal portion of the fifth metatarsal may be classified as avulsions of the tuberosity or fractures of the shaft within 1.5 cm of the tuberosity.
Although most fractures of the proximal portion of the fifth metatarsal respond well to appropriate management, delayed union, muscle atrophy and chronic pain may be long-term complications.
Uncomplicated avulsion fractures of the tuberosity are the most common fractures of the proximal portion of the fifth metatarsal and generally heal well with conservative treatment.
www.aafp.org /afp/990501ap/2516.html   (2722 words)

 The Proximal User Interface
The distal tool demands and absorbs the user's attention as s/he handles it; the proximal tool does not, but allows the user to concentrate on the real task for which the tool is being used.
The proximal user interface is one that has so much become part of you that you are not aware of using a user interface, but you just get on with the task you are engaged in.
Drag and drop for such purposes is proximal in that there is a direct mapping between the lexical actions and the semantic.
www.basden.u-net.com /R/proximal.html   (3214 words)

 The Proximal Shift in the Distribution of Colon Cancer Is Independent of Age and Gender, Frank Friedenberg, Angel ...
A study involving an indigent population in Florida demonstrated that the percentage of proximal neoplasms in African Americans was 53% vs 40% for whites over a 27-year period beginning in the 1960s.
Although there was a substantial proximal migration of benign polyps when comparing the time periods of 1979 to 1983 with 1995 to 1996, there was no identified shift in the subsite distribution of adenocarcinomas.
Although understanding of the molecular changes that take place and the ability to screen this population improve, individuals with proximal neoplasms represent a small segment of the population of patients with colon cancer and improved diagnosis is unlikely to impact overall trends substantially.
www.jrnlappliedresearch.com /articles/Vol1Iss1/Friedenberg.htm   (3281 words)

 The Surgical Treatment of Superficial Peroneal Neuromas: Proximal Resection With Transposition Into Muscle vs. Proximal ...
Although the use of nerve transection with transposition of the proximal stump into adjacent muscle has been described with limited results, to our knowledge there have been no studies examining transection with transposition of the proximal stump into bone.
Conclusions/Significance: For symptomatic superficial peroneal neuromas, the results of neurotomy with transposition of the proximal nerve stump into bone are significantly superior to those of neurotomy with transposition of the proximal stump into muscle.
Of those 27 patients, the first 16 (group A) were treated with transection and burial of the proximal stump into the peroneal musculature.
www.aofas.org /i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=4193   (571 words)

 Anatomical terms of location - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
These terms can also be used relatively to organs, for example the proximal end of the urethra is attached to the bladder.
For example, whilst the pleura is a single structure, for convenience the term "visceral pleura" is used to refer to that part attached to the outer surface of the lung, and "parietal pleura" to refer to that part attached to the inside of the chest wall.
In the limbs of most animals, the terms cranial and caudal are used in the regions proximal to the carpus (the wrist, in the forelimb) and the tarsus (the ankle in the hindlimb).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Proximal   (1952 words)

 Proximal Renal Tubular Acidosis - Health Centers
When it is not reabsorbed properly, your body is left an acidic state (called acidosis).
Renal tubular acidosis - proximal; Type II RTA; RTA - proximal; Renal tubular acidosis type II Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Call your health care provider if new symptoms develop, including pain in the bones, back, flank, or abdomen; skeletal deformities, increased heart rate or irregular heartbeat, muscle cramps, decreased urine output, bloody urine, or other symptoms.
www.wpxi.com /encyclopedia/6865443/detail.html   (757 words)

 Proximal Follicle Fully Developed
Note how the proximate follicle is not egg shaped and how clear areas are present within the follicle.
Determining whether the most proximal follicle is fully developed is useful for separating the nulliparous stages as well as determining if the ovaries are nonfunctioning or degenerate.
To determine if the most proximal follicle is fully developed, first locate the ovariole and trace its length until it meets with the lateral oviducts (see section on Reproductive System Morphology).
el.erdc.usace.army.mil /aqua/apis/biocontrol/html/proximal.html   (259 words)

 An Exploration of the Zone of Proximal Development
In examining Lev Vigotsky's Zone of Proximal Development, this website will take a cognitive psychology approach to investigating why the students are behaving as they are and how this teacher can modify their teaching methods to ensure a more rewarding and successful learning experience for his or her students.
She sits in the general proximity of a few different conversations, but quietly and dutifully works for the remainder of the period without interacting with any of the groups surrounding her.
This is an in-depth analysis of the zone of proximal development and its use in the classroom.
www.wcer.wisc.edu /step/ep301/Spr2000/Constance-B   (1147 words)

Course description:  Proximal probe techniques are revolutionizing physical and biological sciences, owing to their ability to explore and manipulate matter at the nanoscale, and to operate in various environments (including liquids).
Students will become acquainted with state-of-the-art proximal probe techniques and their applications in physical and life sciences, with particular emphasis on nanoscale properties of soft condensed matter.
Our interest in proximal probe techniques is motivated by the unique opportunities following from their use in the nanoscale studies and manipulation of soft condensed matter.
www.andrew.cmu.edu /course/09-723/09-723_Syllabus.htm   (1062 words)

 Proximal location of mouse prostate epithelial stem cells: a model of prostatic homeostasis -- Tsujimura et al. 157 ...
Proximal location of mouse prostate epithelial stem cells: a model of prostatic homeostasis -- Tsujimura et al.
Distal (Dist), intermediate (Int), and proximal (Prox) regions of the ducts of 5-, 17-, and 34-wk-old mice.
Absence of proximal duct apoptosis in the ventral prostate of transgenic mice carrying the C3(1)-TGF-beta type II dominant negative receptor.
www.jcb.org /cgi/content/full/157/7/1257   (7383 words)

 PROXIMAL FEMORAL FOCAL DIFICIENCY   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Proximal femoral focal deficiency, PFFD, is a congenital anomaly of the pelvis and proximal femur which causes hip deformity and shortening and altered function of the involved lower extremity.
The developing human embryo first shows evidence of limb buds at the 5 millimeter crown-rump stage.As the apical mesoderm proliferates the limb is laid down in a proximo-distal fashion to be complete at the 12 millimeter stage.
Elements of the ileum and proximal femur develop from a common cartilaginous anlage, with subsequent cleft formation to create a joint cavity.
gait.aidi.udel.edu /res695/homepage/pd_ortho/educate/clincase/pffd.htm   (1302 words)

 Production and functional roles of nitric oxide in the proximal tubule -- Liang and Knox 278 (5): 1117 -- AJP - ...
the proximal tubule, with emphasis on the physiology and pathophysiology
as an inhibitor for the proximal tubular fluid and sodium reabsorption.
Inhibition of proximal tubular fluid absorption by nitric oxide and atrial natriuretic peptide in rat kidney.
ajpregu.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/278/5/R1117   (5907 words)

 eMedicine - Proximal Humerus Fractures : Article Excerpt by: Mark Frankle, MD
Also in the 1950s, humeral head replacement for severely displaced fractures of the proximal humerus was being introduced.
Therefore, fractures that involve the proximal humerus (that portion involved with the glenohumeral articulation) can be devastating to quality of life.
Pathophysiology: The bone quality of the proximal humerus also must be taken into account while attempting to anatomically reduce the tuberosity fragments.
www.emedicine.com /orthoped/byname/proximal-humerus-fractures.htm   (599 words)

 Molecular Dissection of Ca2+ Efflux in Immortalized Proximal Tubule Cells -- White et al. 109 (2): 217 -- The Journal ...
Culture dishes (100-mm diameter) of proximal tubule cells were washed twice with 5 ml 1× Ca /Mg -free Hank's balanced salt solution.
Northern analysis was performed to determine the sizes of the PMCA mRNAs in proximal tubule cells.
Characterization of ATP-dependent Ca transport in the basolateral membrane vesicles from proximal and distal tubules of the rabbit kidney.
www.jgp.org /cgi/content/full/109/2/217   (6405 words)

 Proximal muscle weakness - WrongDiagnosis.com
The cause of Proximal muscle weakness may be more easily identified if other symptoms exist.
When you follow a link to our interactive multiple symptoms page, you will be able to modify your list by adding and removing symptoms thus helping to better research your condition.
This information refers to the general prevalence and incidence of these diseases, not to how likely they are to be the actual cause of Proximal muscle weakness.
www.wrongdiagnosis.com /sym/proximal_muscle_weakness.htm   (604 words)

 Proximal Renal Tubular Acidosis - WrongDiagnosis.com
Constellation of clinical and laboratory manifestations produced by generalized proximal tubular insufficiency in the presence of normal, or nearly normal, glomerular filtration.
Detailed information about the causes of Proximal Renal Tubular Acidosis including medication causes and drug interaction causes can be found in our causes pages.
With a diagnosis of Proximal Renal Tubular Acidosis, it is also important to consider whether there is an underlying condition causing Proximal Renal Tubular Acidosis.
www.wrongdiagnosis.com /p/proximal_renal_tubular_acidosis/intro.htm   (548 words)

Proximal means nearer to the center (trunk of the body) or to the point of attachment to the body.
If another reference point is given, such as the heart, the proximal point of another organ or extremity is the point closest to the heart -- central rather than peripheral.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.
www.healthscout.com /ency/1/002287.html   (155 words)

A: Fifth toe proximal phalanx shaft, with lateral angulation and displacement of the distal segment relative to the proximal segment.
Lateral view: Note that the proximal phalanx head is actually sitting along the superior surface of the remainder of the proximal phalanx (white arrowhead).
Identify the stress fracture in the proximal one-third diaphysis of the second metatarsal shaft and the ill-defined periosteal new bone formation at its margins.
astro.ocis.temple.edu /~rchristm/TeachFiles/Fractures/Fractures.htm   (1496 words)

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