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Topic: Ptolemaic

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In the News (Sat 15 Jun 19)

 Ptolemaic Dynasty - Ptolemy I - XV
Ptolemaic Dynasty - Ptolemy I - XV Ptolemaic Dynasty - Ptolemy I - XV - Cleopatra
Ptolemy VI Philometor was the sixth ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty.
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator was the seventh ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty.
www.crystalinks.com /ptolemaic.html   (1794 words)

The Ptolemaic period sometimes also includes what is known as the Macedonian Period, which includes the reigns of Alexander the Great, his half brother Philip Arrhidaeus, and his son Alexander IV.
Ptolemaic rule did not remain popular, and there were revolts in the area of Thebes in 208-186 BC and 88-86 BC.
During the Ptolemaic period and the subsequent Roman period, Alexandria was a thriving and cosmopolitan city, and by the mid-first century BC had a population of around half a million, including substantial numbers of Greeks and Jews.
www.egyptologyonline.com /ptolemies.htm   (645 words)

 Encyclopedia: Ptolemaic dynasty   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The dynastic history of Ptolemaic Egypt is very confusing, because all the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy, and because many of them married their sisters, who were often called Cleopatra, Arsinoe or Berenice.
Ptolemy I Soter (367 BC–283 BC) was the ruler of Egypt (323 BC - 283 BC) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty.
Under the reign of Ptolemy IV Philopator (reigned 221-204 BC), son of Ptolemy III and Berenice II of Egypt, the decline of the Ptolemaic kingdom began.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Ptolemaic-dynasty   (4416 words)

 The Ptolemaic Model
The Ptolemaic model accounted for the apparent motions of the planets in a very direct way, by assuming that each planet moved on a small sphere or circle, called an epicycle, that moved on a larger sphere or circle, called a deferent.
As an indication of exactly how good the Ptolemaic model is, modern planetariums are built using gears and motors that essentially reproduce the Ptolemaic model for the appearance of the sky as viewed from a stationary Earth.
While the fact that we base planetarium projectors on the Ptolemaic model of the universe that was developed almost 2,000 years ago may seem impressive, a better test of the model is how long the model was accepted by society.
www.polaris.iastate.edu /EveningStar/Unit2/unit2_sub1.htm   (458 words)

 Ptolemaic Universe
The Ptolemaic universe was based on a geocentric model: the belief that the earth was at the center of the universe.
This description of the universe was difficult to reconcile with scientific observation; for instance, the movement of the planets cannot be charted in a simple circular motion, and as a result Ptolemaic astronomers had to come up with theories of epicycles within the spheres to account for observations.
For instance, one of the theories associated with the Ptolemaic universe is that everything beneath the sphere of the moon has been corrupted by the fall of man. Thus, this sublunary world is transitory and imperfect, while the heavens are immutable and incorruptible.
spider.georgetowncollege.edu /english/allen/ptolemaic.htm   (505 words)

 Ptolemaic Astronomy
Ptolemaic astronomers thus avoided controversial speculation on the nature and mechanisms of the heavens.
It is particularly evident, then, that given a practice of this kind, the knowledge that Ptolemaic astronomers prized as their achievement was of a peculiar sort by the lights of modern science.
Finding out about Ptolemaic practice thus not only reveals important information about astronomy - showing what a different enterprise it was in the Renaissance from the science that now goes by the same name.
microcosmos.uchicago.edu /ptolemy/astronomy.html   (1709 words)

 Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2004.06.41
The Egyptian texts in Ptolemaic studies can prove difficult, however, give the abundance of Ptolemaic hieroglyphs with far more signs than were in use during Pharaonic times and the numerous sources in demotic.
These sources are crucial for the reconstruction of landholding patterns and the analysis of local economies as well as the study of Egyptian families and their relationship to the land.
But the historical development of the Ptolemaic state during its last two centuries is completely different when judged by the documentary papyri on the local level, since these sources do not indicate a steady economic decline.
ccat.sas.upenn.edu /bmcr/2004/2004-06-41.html   (1653 words)

 Ptolemaic System   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
With such combinations of constructions, Ptolemy was able to account for the motions of heavenly bodies within the standards of observational accuracy of his day.
Aristotelian cosmology and Ptolemaic astronomy entered the West, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, as distinct textual traditions.
In the world of learning in the Christian West (settled in the universities founded around 1200 CE), Aristotle's cosmology figured in all questions concerned with the nature of the universe and impinged on many philosophical and theological questions.
cnx.rice.edu /content/m11943/latest   (1614 words)

 Though the evidence is abundant, there has yet to be a thorough study of the Ptolemaic prison system
In this paper I argue for three modifications to prevailing views on Ptolemaic imprisonment: that incarceration followed a variety of offenses; that a number of specialized prisons served specific classes of offenders; and that very lengthy detention was not uncommon.
This startling split in the evidence and the oft-repeated fear of prolonged suffering in jail, even death, that we find expressed in letters from inmates suggests that very lengthy stays in the lock-up may have been a regular occurrence: a striking contrast to the common belief that detention in the ancient world was generally short-term.
The evidence for imprisonment in Ptolemaic times demonstrates that the Greek rulers of Egypt provided their police officials with a variety of options for the incarceration of offenders in a number of specialized prisons: a surprising discovery, given the prevailing view of the Ptolemaic state as a rigid, autocratic entity.
www.apaclassics.org /AnnualMeeting/05mtg/abstracts/BAUSCHATZ.html   (551 words)

 Alexandra O'Brien, PHD proposal, Egyptian women in Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt, papyrology, Egypt, Demotic, Greek, Roman, ...
The evidence suggests that the latter was not the case, at least not in the Ptolemaic period.
Some continuity in Egyptian practices from Pharaonic into Ptolemaic and Roman times is demonstrated in the Demotic documents where women continued to act for themselves without the need of a male guardian and undertook the same activities, with the same freedoms, in dealing with movable and immovable property, as men.
Pomeroy's work is focused on the Ptolemaic period, and the term "Hellenistic" is used by her in reference to persons who operated within a Greek speaking milieu who regarded themselves as Greek (as opposed to Egyptian) and is so used here.
oi.uchicago.edu /OI/DEPT/RA/OBRIEN_DISSPROP_TEXT.HTML   (4712 words)

 Ptolemy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
It was preserved, like most of Classical Greek science, in Arabic manuscripts (hence its familiar name) and only made available in Latin translation (by Gerard of Cremona) in the 12th century.
Ptolemy formulated a geocentric model (see Ptolemaic system) of the solar system which remained the generally accepted model in the Western and Arab worlds until it was superseded by the heliocentric solar system of Copernicus.
Likewise his computational methods (supplemented in the 12th century with the Arabic computational Tables of Toledo) were of sufficient accuracy to satisfy the needs of astronomers, astrologers and navigators, until the time of the great explorations.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ptolemy   (1231 words)

 English 233: Complication in the Ptolemaic Theory (Concise Version)
Below, in (a), is the kind of epicycle/deferent system that astronomers working in the Ptolemaic framework postulated as the real relative motion of an "superior" planet in space, with respect to the Earth and the sphere of fixed stars.
Ptolemaic astronomy had to postulate epicycle/deferent systems for all the inferior and superior planets (i.e., for all the theoretical planets except the Sun and the Moon).
The resulting complicated system (necessary to account for the observed data within the Ptolemaic geocentric framework) struck Copernicus as too senselessly complicated to be imagined as the work of a perfect Creator.
www.k-state.edu /english/baker/english233/Astronomy1.htm   (641 words)

 World Almanac for Kids
The Ptolemaic theory held that Earth is stationary and at the center of the universe; closest to Earth is the Moon, and beyond it, extending outward, are Mercury, Venus, and the Sun in a straight line, followed successively by Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the so-called fixed stars.
To explain the various observed motions of the planets, the Ptolemaic system described them as having small circular orbits called epicycles; the centers of the epicycles, on circular orbits around Earth, were called deferents.
These efforts failed, however, to resolve the many inconsistencies in the Ptolemaic system, which was finally superseded in the 16th century by the Copernican system.
www.worldalmanacforkids.com /explore/space/ptolemicsystem.html   (202 words)

 MSN Encarta - Search Results - Ptolemaic System   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Ptolemaic System, in astronomy, theory of the order and action of the heavenly bodies.
The Babylonians, Egyptians, and early Mesoamericans observed the motions of the planets and succeeded in predicting eclipses, but they failed to find...
The ideas of Ptolemy were accepted in an age when standards of scientific accuracy and proof had not yet been developed.
ca.encarta.msn.com /Ptolemaic_System.html   (173 words)

 Ptolemaic figures
Egypt was a area of constant revolt under the Persians, and the Ptolemaic army feared arming the native population as this would threaten their minority rule.
At the the famous elephant battle at Raphia, the Ptolemaic army was able to defeat the Seleucid phalanx with their massive phalanx of levies, and turned back the Seleucid offensives temporarily.
The Ptolemies and their wealth, and mercenaries were able to eventually crush these revolts, but the Ptolemaic empire was on the decline, from within, as all the other dynasties crumbled to Rome.
www.ancientbattles.com /WAB_Ptolemaic/1stCorps_Ptolemaic.htm   (959 words)

 History of Alexandria: The Ptolemaic Legacy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
He proposed the "Ptolemaic" Theory which states that Universe revolves around the Earth.
The Ptolemaic Palace system covered the promontory of Silsila, and stretched south and west.
A dyke, the Heptastadion (seven stades long) was completed during the Ptolemaic period, and provided not only easy access to Pharos, but a double harbor to the city.
ce.eng.usf.edu /pharos/Alexandria/History/legacy.html   (852 words)

 Guided Tour: Ptolemaic Egypt
The most famous Ptolemaic woman is Cleopatra VII; she ruled Egypt from 51-30 BC.
At the beginning of the Ptolemaic Period the culture of Egyptians and Greeks were very much divided.
Egyptian style objects of the early Ptolemaic Period are often hard to distinguish from objects of the 30th Dynasty.
www.digitalegypt.ucl.ac.uk /main/guideptolemaic.html   (439 words)

 Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt: 332 BC-395 AD
Like the Egyptians, the Ptolemaic kings married their sisters, who were all named Cleopatra ("kleos"="famous", "patris"="parents").
Because of this translation, the Hebrew scriptures became one of the most important documents in the history of Western culture; had they ignored the book, it would probably have faded into the dust of history within a few hundred years.
   The final queen of the Ptolemaic line, Cleopatra VII, fell into a dispute with her half-brother over the succession and invited Julius Caesar and the Romans to intervene.
www.wsu.edu /~dee/EGYPT/PTOLEMY.HTM   (531 words)

 Ptolemaic dynasty
The Ptolemaic dynasty was marked by little territorial expansion, even if the neighbour regions of Cyrenaica and Palestine, as well as Cyprus were at times under their control.
All male rulers of this dynasty, were named Ptolemy, but the most famous of the rulers was Cleopatra.
The end of the Ptolemaic dynasty came after a period of weak rulers, but Cleopatra's close relations with Rome would also prove critical.
lexicorient.com /e.o/ptolemaic_dynasty.htm   (215 words)

 Moffat: Cleopatra I and Her Impact on the Institutionalization of Power for Royal Ptolemaic Women
Evidence demonstrates that a critical shift occurred in the roles of royal women in the Ptolemaic monarchy during her lifetime.
In addition, earlier developments, the demilitarization of Ptolemaic kingship and the growth of royal sibling marriage, help to explain how royal women gradually increased their power and influence at court.
She shared her husband's epithets and she was the first Ptolemaic queen to achieve official recognition in the governing of Egypt.
www.camws.org /meeting/2005/abstracts2005/moffat.html   (483 words)

 Abstract   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
With respect to transaction-cost economics, land holding patterns in the Ptolemaic period illustrate Ellickson’s “efficiency thesis.” This holds that problems of transaction costs, information, and enforcement of rights were reduced by landholding patterns within families and social status groups.
The path dependence of land tenure institutions established millennia before the Ptolemies, and the adaptations made by a new state and new populations to ancient land tenure patterns, shows the constraints that limited economic development.
The Ptolemaic state’s failure to create a single property rights regime in Egypt produced incentives for the local elite to siphon revenue from the state, and also acted as a constraint against real economic growth.
www.apaclassics.org /AnnualMeeting/04mtg/abstracts/manning.html   (210 words)

 Egypt: History - Ptolemaic Dynasty
In 320 BC it replaced Memphis as the seat of rulership for the Ptolemaic dynasty and it remained so throughout the Byzantine period.
For the next two-and-a-half centuries, the Ptolemaic dynasty of the Greeks would successfully rule Egypt, mingling Hellenic traditions with the mighty legacy of the Pharaohs.
It was under the Ptolemaic Dynasty that Alexandria truly became the cultural and economic center of the ancient world.
touregypt.net /alexhis1.htm   (1779 words)

 DBM - Ptolemaic Successor   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The size of the army in 306 BC (which isn't reported) is likely to have been conisiderably bigger than the 22000 men reported at Gaza in 312 BC, since it represented essentially the entire, Cyprus having been temporarily abandoned in 307 BC.
Naval: The Ptolemaic fleet was very powerful, and Ptolemaic fleets transporting armies were several times intercepted only just before they could disembark their forces, such as at Salamis-in-Cyprus or at Athens (120 ships in this case).
After Demetrios ousted the Ptolemaic army in 307 BC he reorgainsed the (remaining) Cypriot military forces into regular units, so that when the Ptolemies regained control, they would not qualify as separate allied contingents, hence the narrow date range allowed.
iworg.com /strongbow/LUS/PtolemaicSuccessorDBM.htm   (1626 words)

 Early and Later Ptolemaic 320BC-30BC: (DBA 42a & b)
A later variant of the Later Ptolemaic army includes the army at the time of Cleopatra and her brother/husband Ptolemy XIII, covering the period 54BC to 30BC.
Caesar reports that the Ptolemaic army in his day largely comprised brigands and ex-pirates from Cilicia and Syria, exiles and runaway slaves.
As a Ptolemaic army has six pike elements a double-ranked phalanx in the center will usually over-power any historical enemies with four pikes.
www.fanaticus.org /DBA/armies/dba42ab.html   (1360 words)

 The Ptolemic Period   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The Ptolemaic Period After the death of Alexander the Great, his commanders split his massive empire among them.
He founded the Ptolemaic State in Egypt which lasted for three cenuries, with Alexandria as its capital.
During the Ptolemaic rule, Egypt was a centre of the Hellenistic civilization.
www.sis.gov.eg /public/yearbook96/YEARBOOK/CH02SC13.HTM   (513 words)

 Ptolemaic system
Ptolemaic system, historically the most influential of the geocentric cosmological theories, i.e., theories that placed the earth motionless at the center of the universe with all celestial bodies revolving around it (see
Ptolemaic system: The Roots of the Ptolemaic System - The Roots of the Ptolemaic System The ancient philosophers imagined the universe to resemble a...
Ptolemaic system: The Fundamentals of the Ptolemaic System - The Fundamentals of the Ptolemaic System Partly on aesthetic grounds and partly because no other...
www.infoplease.com /ce6/sci/A0840408.html   (258 words)

 Bible Study - Ptolemaic Dynasty
The Ptolemaic kings, all fifteen of whom were named Ptolemy, often married their sisters, who were commonly named Cleopatra (from the Greek kleos patris meaning famous parents).
Eventually the Ptolemaic kingdom was weakened by both internal struggles for control and the growing power of the Romans.
Cleopatra VII was the last and generally most well-known of the Ptolemaic rulers.
www.keyway.ca /htm2001/20011113.htm   (487 words)

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