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Topic: Public good

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In the News (Wed 26 Sep 18)

  Public good - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The economic concept of public goods should not be confused with the expression "the public good", which is usually an application of a collective ethical notion of "the good" in political decision-making.
Common goods should not be confused with another subtype of public goods: the collective goods (also known as social goods), which are defined as goods that could be delivered as private goods, but are delivered instead by the government for various reasons (usually social policy).
Most believers in public goods theory hold that provision of public goods should be a task for the state and that the state should therefore have the powers to tax and regulate, since such powers are necessary for the provision of public goods.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Public_good   (3264 words)

 Encyclopedia: Public good
A nonrival good in economics is one where one partys use of the good does not diminish anothers access to it or benefit from it.
Shows how the "publicness" of a good is not an inherent characteristic of the good itself, but of the manner in which it is produced.
If coercion is needed to produce public goods, and the existence of a provider of public goods (i.e., the state) is itself a public good, then the establishment of the state would require coercion.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Public-good   (967 words)

 Good (economics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Some things are goods at low consumption levels and bads at higher consumption levels: for instance one slice of pizza is anjoyed in a meal but the 25th slice would be unpleasant.
Labour represents a good to an employer, and a 'bad' to the worker, because the worker would prefer to spend the time at leisure (labor is a pure substitute for leisure time).
A public good is a good which, when consumed by one person, is also consumed by one or more others, producing an externality.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Good_(economics)   (447 words)

 Public Goods and Externalities, by Tyler Cowen: The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics: Library of Economics and Liberty
Public health and welfare programs, education, roads, research and development, national and domestic security, and a clean environment all have been labeled public goods.
Public goods have two distinct aspects—"nonexcludability" and "nonrivalrous consumption." Nonexcludability means that nonpayers cannot be excluded from the benefits of the good or service.
Furthermore, politicians may supply public "goods" in a manner to serve their own interests, rather than the interests of the public; examples of wasteful government spending and pork-barrel projects are legion.
www.econlib.org /library/Enc/PublicGoodsandExternalities.html   (1393 words)

 Public goods: A Glossary of Political Economy Terms - Dr. Paul M. Johnson
The classic example of a nearly pure public good is national defense: you cannot defend the vulnerable border regions of a country from the ravages of foreign invaders without also simultaneously defending everyone else who lives within the borders.
The non-profit “third sector” of the economy devotes considerable effort to the provision of public goods financed by voluntary contributions that are motivated by appeals to people's “civic conscience” (or to their desire for the honors and respect that the community spontaneously accords to “public benefactors”).
In addition to these non-profit approaches, the provision of public goods may often be handled through ordinary market forces if some way can be found to link the consumption of the public good to the consumption of some other good that does not suffer from the “non-excludability”; problem and hence can generate a profit.
www.auburn.edu /~johnspm/gloss/public_goods.html   (506 words)

 Providing Global Public Goods: Managing Globalization
Final public goods are those desired for consumption, such as clean air, efficient markets, and peace and security.
Public goods that contribute to the production of a final public good are called intermediate public goods.
The first is the political process, which involves making decisions about which public goods to produce, how much of them to produce, how to shape them, and at what net cost and benefit to whom.
www.undp.org /globalpublicgoods/globalization/glossary.html   (760 words)

 All Schools Are Public Schools Private Schools, Public Good
The positive benefits of alternatives to public education are most evident in Washington, D.C., whose public schools have the highest cost-per-pupil in the nation and one of the lowest graduation rates and student achievement levels, according to the National Center for Education Statistics.
Public funding for private schools would make all alternative schools more viable and empower parents to be involved in the education of their children.
Public education may not be run as a monopoly, but it has an obligation to provide for school choice and "see to it, out of concern for distributive justice, that public subsidies are allocated, in such a way that, when selecting schools for their children, parents are genuinely free to follow their consciences."
www.catholiceducation.org /articles/education/ed0115.html   (8784 words)

 What is a public good?, by Inge Kaul
Global public goods are public goods whose benefits reach across borders, generations and population groups.
Therefore, it is essential to recognise that the publicness of a good does not automatically imply that all people value it in the same way.
In establishing a global public goods agenda, it is, therefore, important to ensure that the top priorities of different population groups are being considered equitably.
mondediplo.com /2000/06/15publicgood   (988 words)

 Buchanan: Collected Works, The Demand and Supply of Public Goods, Chapter 4: Library of Economics and Liberty
If we can show that the theory of public goods properly interpreted can be made applicable even for this sort of good, then it should become clear that we can utilize the same tools for a good or service that falls anywhere along the whole indivisibility spectrum.
At this point, it is useful to recall the earlier apparent digression where the theory of public goods was extended to apply to the purely private good, "your bread." We said that the commodity, "your bread," was equally available to all members of the community.
For any publicly supplied good or service, the availability of which is open to all members of a group, the proportions in the mix are set by the locational-technological characteristics of the supplied units.
www.econlib.org /library/Buchanan/buchCv5c4.html   (8531 words)

 Psychology education for the public good
Of particular concern is the shift in public attitudes toward postsecondary education from that of a "public good" to that of a "private good."
Public social benefits include increased volunteerism, voting participation, community service and charitable giving, as well as appreciation of diversity, improved ability to adapt to technology and reduced crime rates.
However, there is one "public good" that is less recognized in public policy or by the public, and for which we perhaps have not demonstrated sufficient support.
www.apa.org /monitor/may05/soe.html   (809 words)

 Is Education a Public Good?
Public goods are sometimes supplied by the private sector and private goods - by the public sector.
Public goods, in contrast, are accessible to growing numbers of people without any additional marginal cost.
The usual examples for public goods are lighthouses - famously questioned by one Nobel Prize winner, Ronald Coase, and defended by another, Paul Samuelson - national defense, the GPS navigation system, vaccination programs, dams, and public art (such as park concerts).
samvak.tripod.com /publicgoods.html   (1458 words)

 Guide to Classical Liberal Scholarship, Public Goods   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Any good can be either a public good or a private good, depending on the choice of production methods.
An important study of how what was until recently commonly cited as a public good incapable of production on the market (because consumers could not be excluded) was indeed produced through methods of exclusion (fees charged at ports).
Shows how "public" goods are produced by being "bundled" with "private" goods; gives numerous examples.
osf1.gmu.edu /~ihs/pubgood.html   (550 words)

 frontline: public schools inc.: private profit, public good? | PBS
A professor emeritus at Brown University and former dean of Harvard's Graduate School of Education, he is the founder of the Coalition of Essential Schools, founding director of the Annenberg Institute for School Reform, and former headmaster of the Phillips Academy in Andover, Mass.
Good schools are very much a reflection of who's in them and the community in which they rest.
But folks who have spent their lives in public education are people who, by nature, believe that the best possible outcomes are going to come through a political and a bureaucratic process, not through a market-driven process, where people are given choices and where choices are exercised to force excellence.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/edison/etc/private.html   (4071 words)

 NEA: Good News About America's Public Schools -- Utah
Public School Students Outperform Private School Students on AP Exams: Utah public high school students are more likely than private and religious school students to receive grades on Advanced Placement (AP) exams that qualify for college credit.
Public School Revenue Raised Is the Worst In Nation: Utah ranks near the bottom of all states--50th out of 50--in the per pupil revenue raised for public education.
Public School Spending Is Worst in Nation: Utah is the worst state--50th out of 50--in per pupil spending on public education.
www.nea.org /goodnews/ut01.html   (930 words)

 TAP: Vol 12, Iss. 10. Where the Public Good Prevailed. Stephen L. Isaacs and Steven A. Schroeder.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The surgeon general concluded that there were no good grounds for prohibiting the use of leaded gasoline as a motor fuel.
Drunk driving is no longer tolerated in a way it once was; even the liquor and beer industry recommends that drinkers give their car keys to a "designated driver" (a term that would not have been understood two decades ago).
Although some media organizations were slow to publicize the dangers of smoking (tobacco ads are a significant source of advertising revenues), others played an important early role.
www.prospect.org /print/V12/10/isaacs-s.html   (3819 words)

 COE > Reports > 2003 > Public Education as an Inescapably Public Good
Labaree notes that the core of the conflict over American education is the question of whether public education should be seen primarily as a public good or a private good.
It would result in a society with fellow citizens who would be unable to make intelligent decisions as voters or jurors, and would be unable to follow the law, etc. Labaree concludes that by making people aware of their stake in a public good, such as public education, there is reason for optimism.
"Loyalty to public education is a rational response for citizens to adopt, even if they have chosen to send their children to private school across the city line.
ed-web3.educ.msu.edu /reports/ed-researchrep/03/feb_03_2.htm   (460 words)

 NEA: Good News About America's Public Schools -- New Jersey
New Jersey is one of the top 2 states in the proportion of public high school AP exam takers earning such high scores.
Public School Students Outperform Private Schools on AP Exams: In New Jersey, public school students score higher than private school students on their AP exams.
Public School Students Outperform Private School Students on AP Exams: New Jersey public high school students are more likely than private and religious school students to receive grades on Advanced Placement (AP) exams that qualify for college credit.
www.nea.org /goodnews/nj01.html   (1699 words)

 Public Goods, Good Government
We describe recent advances in both the theory of public goods and applications of the process as a "solution" to the problem of "public goods".
While there is a long step from a "solution" to the public goods problem to ways of using the demand revealing process to promote fundamentally good, or better, government, here is some food for thought on possible shortcuts that might be realized in your or even my lifetime.
Public Goods Applications Applications of the process in such areas as the management of global institutions, information technology management, and government budgeting.
www142.pair.com /flower1   (247 words)

 Conservation Ecology: Biological invasion risks and the public good: an economic perspective
However, because it is a public good, if control is left to the uncoordinated efforts of individual countries, there will be insufficient control to protect the public interest.
But because public goods are nonexclusive, any one person or any one country has a strong incentive to take a free ride on the efforts of others.
Given that the control of diseases is only as good as the information on infection rates, we argue that the monitoring of diseases is as much a weakest-link problem as the control of diseases.
www.ecologyandsociety.org /vol6/iss1/art1   (4266 words)

 EconPort - Handbook - Public Goods - Classification Table
A good is excludable if people (ordinarily, people who have not paid for it) can be prevented from using it.
For example: Most goods that are commonly traded, from hamburgers to furniture to 747 airplanes.
Therefore a congested toll road is a private good, since it is both excludable and subtractable, or rival, in consumption -- every additional car on the road reduces the space available to others (and increases their level of aggravation).
www.econport.org:8080 /econport/request?page=man_pg_table   (298 words)

 Environment Probe, The Public Good: Which Public? Whose Good?
There was no single public good that could be identified and enforced by the government.
Let me read you its first lines: "Whereas in the public interest, and in order to conserve the public revenue of the Province, it is expedient to prevent the stoppage of sawmills situated on or near the Ottawa River...
The sum of all these private goods will be as close to the public good as we can get.
www.environmentprobe.org /enviroprobe/pubs/ev635.htm   (3767 words)

 Scott Rosenberg's Links & Comment
This is all such a Good Thing for the public itself that we may be inclined to overlook some of the more troubling aspects of the Google project.
Google is making clear that, as it digitizes the holdings of university libraries, it's handing the universities their own copies of the data, to do with as they please.
But public investment has a pretty enviable track record: Think of the public goods that Americans enjoy today because the government chose to seed them and insure their universality -- from the still-essential Social Security program to the interstate highway system to the Internet itself.
blogs.salon.com /0000014/2004/12/14.html   (888 words)

 It's all good: The Public Good
In the Scan, we wrote about the decline of support for the public good, as is evidenced by declining tax-based support to publically funded programs and institutions.
Dismantling the Public Sphere: Situating and Sustaining Librarianship in the Age of the New Public Philosophy is by John E. Buschman, and (from the back cover) "presents a thorough examination of librarianship and the social and economic contexts in which the profession and its institutions operate.
And in related posts, first David Weinberger and then Mark Federman discuss ubiquitous connectivity as a public good, here and here which fits right in with Habermas' ideas about the development of the public sphere--which, interestingly introduces (IMO) the concept of "the third place" without calling it that.
scanblog.blogspot.com /2005/08/public-good.html   (519 words)

 The Common Good Public License 1.0 BETA
Because of any confusion that might be caused due to the similarity between the acronym GGPL and the acronym of other well known licenses, The Greater Good Public License has now been renamed to The Common Good Public License or CGPL (and also it is just a plain better name).
Many people have made generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed through that system in reliance on consistent application of that system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot impose that choice.
Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.
www.cgpl.org   (3877 words)

 Editor's Cut
A new report by the Drum Major Institute for Public Policy attempts to turn the conversation on its head with a well-documented report arguing that protecting immigrants' rights in the workplace benefits all middle-class and aspiring middle-class Americans.
For a man reported to have such a sharp legal mind, Judge Samuel Alito was certainly comfortable with his own ignorance, saying, "I don't know" 29 times during the hearings.
This weblog will be more of a running journal recording thoughts on politics, reporting on events, and offering riffs and reflections on what's in the news and what's not (but should be).
www.thenation.com /edcut/index.mhtml?bid=7&pid=2118   (1407 words)

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