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Topic: Public key

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In the News (Tue 16 Jul 19)

  Public-key cryptography - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Public key cryptography is a form of cryptography which generally allows users to communicate securely without having prior access to a shared secret key, by using a pair of cryptographic keys, designated as public key and private key, which are related mathematically.
Another potential weakness in the process of using asymmetric keys is the possibility of a 'Man in the middle' attack, whereby the communication of public keys is intercepted by a third party and modified to provide the third party's own public keys instead.
Whatever the cryptographic assurance of the protocols themselves, the association between a public key and its owner is ultimately a matter of subjective judgement on the part of the trusted third party, since the key is a mathematical entity whilst the owner and the connection between owner and key is not.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Public_key   (2092 words)

 public-key encryption - Ecommerce Guide - Terms You Need to Know to Do Business on the Internet
An important element to the public key system is that the public and private keys are related in such a way that only the public key can be used to encrypt messages and only the corresponding private key can be used to decrypt them.
What's needed, therefore, is a global registry of public keys, which is one of the promises of the new LDAP technology.
Public key cryptography was invented in 1976 by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman.
e-comm.webopedia.com /TERM/p/public_key_cryptography.html   (337 words)

 David Ross -- PGP Public Key Servers
A public key server is a computer program that maintains a collection of public PGP keys.
Just because you obtained a public key from a server does not mean that the key is authentic, that the actual owner is really who he or she claims to be.
When you urgently need to revoke your public key because either your private key or passphrase has been compromised, a server that is slow to synchronize can be as catastrophic as a server that does not synchronize at all.
www.rossde.com /PGP/pgp_keyserv.html   (2512 words)

 Cryptography FAQ (06/10: Public Key Cryptography)
Intrinsic to public key cryptography is a `trapdoor function' D_K with the properties that computation in one direction (encryption, E_K) is easy and in the other is virtually impossible (attack, determining P from encryption E_K(P) and public key X).
The session key approach blurs the distinction between `keys' and `messages' -- in the scheme, the message includes the key, and the key itself is treated as an encryptable `message'.
Keys are quadruples (p,q,e,d), with p a 256-bit prime number, q a 258-bit prime number, and d and e large numbers with (de - 1) divisible by (p-1)(q-1).
www.faqs.org /faqs/cryptography-faq/part06   (1816 words)

 Primer on Public Key Encryption - MyCrypto.net
The obvious way to prevent eavesdropping is to use the old key (the key that Alice wants to replace) to encrypt the message containing the new key (the key that Alice wants Bob to employ in the future).
As the name suggests, public keys are not secret; indeed, the Alices of this world often post them on the Internet or attach them to the bottom of their e-mail.
Alice generates a symmetric key that she will only use for a short time (usually, in the trade, called a session key), encrypts it with Bob's public key, and sends it to Bob, who decrypts it with his private key.
www.mycrypto.net /encryption/encryption_public.html   (1728 words)

 PKI - a Whatis.com definition - see also: public key infrastructure   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
A PKI (public key infrastructure) enables users of a basically unsecure public network such as the Internet to securely and privately exchange data and money through the use of a public and a private cryptographic key pair that is obtained and shared through a trusted authority.
In public key cryptography, a public and private key are created simultaneously using the same algorithm (a popular one is known as RSA) by a certificate authority (CA).
The private key is given only to the requesting party and the public key is made publicly available (as part of a digital certificate) in a directory that all parties can access.
searchsecurity.techtarget.com /sDefinition/0,,sid14_gci214299,00.html   (938 words)

 Roger Clarke's 'PKI as Mis-Fit'
Its key deficiencies are its inherently hierarchical and authoritarian nature, its unreasonable presumptions about the security of private keys, a range of other technical and implementation defects, confusions about what it is that a certificate actually provides assurance about, and its inherent privacy-invasiveness.
Public key cryptography involves two related keys, referred to as a 'key-pair', one of which only the owner needs to know (the 'private key') and the other which anyone can know (the 'public key').
public keys may be stored in one or more centrally managed directories, enabling each party to an exchange to look up the public key of the other party.
www.anu.edu.au /people/Roger.Clarke/II/PKIMisFit.html   (7935 words)

 PUBLIC KEY ENCRYPTION - Definition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Each person's public key is published while the private key is kept secret.
Messages are encrypted using the intended recipient's public key and can only be decrypted using his private key.
The need for sender and receiver to share secret information (keys) via some secure channel is eliminated: all communications involve only public keys, and no private key is ever transmitted or shared.
www.hyperdictionary.com /dictionary/public+key+encryption   (123 words)

 RSA Security - 2.1.1 What is public-key cryptography?
The public key is published, while the private key is kept secret.
The only requirement is that public keys be associated with their users in a trusted (authenticated) manner (for instance, in a trusted directory).
For instance, some public-key cryptosystems are designed such that deriving the private key from the public key requires the attacker to factor a large number, it this case it is computationally infeasible to perform the derivation.
www.rsasecurity.com /rsalabs/node.asp?id=2165   (663 words)

 Definition: public-key encryption   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Note 1: At the recipient's discretion, the public key is made available to those who may have occasion to send an encrypted message to that recipient.
The sender uses the recipient's public key to encrypt a message.
The encrypted message, which cannot be decrypted by means of the public key, is then delivered by conventional means to the recipient, who uses the matching private key to decrypt the message.
www.atis.org /tg2k/_public-key_encryption.html   (254 words)

 Public Key Ciphers
Even though the encryption key is public knowledge, it can't be used to decrypt the messages it encodes.
Instead, the usual approach is to encrypt data with a conventional cipher using a randomly generated key; that key is first communicated using the public key cipher, effectively increasing the amount of data the public key can encrypt.
Another advantage of this approach is that it exposes only a single, fairly small, public key operation to an attacker; see the Key Management page for more discussion on this topic.
www.freesoft.org /CIE/Topics/144.htm   (1315 words)

 VeriSign Inc. - www.verisign.com
Since the public key of the sender was used to verify the signature, the text must have been signed with the private key known only by the sender.
What is a Digital ID Users of RSA technology typically attach their unique Public Key to an outgoing document, so the recipient need not look up that Public Key in a public key repository.
This way, only one Public Key, that of the certifying authority, has to be centrally stored or widely publicized, since then everyone else can simply transmit their Public Key and valid Digital ID with their messages.
www.verisign.com /repository/crptintr.html   (1096 words)

 Public Key Encryption
In their concept, each person gets a pair of keys, one called the public key and the other called the private key.
The principal idea behind PKE is anyone can send a confidential message by utilizing public information, the public key, but the message can only be decrypted with a private key, which is in the sole possession of the intended recipient.
An individual's public key is than placed on a remote system to be used for authentication (i.e.
www.scd.ucar.edu /docs/ssh/guide/node4.html   (330 words)

 Public-key encryption for dummies
Two keys are involved - a private key, which only you have access to, and a public key, which can be accessed by anyone.
The two keys work together, so a message scrambled with the private key can only be unscrambled with the public key and vice versa.
The private key is securely generated by Bob, and after verifying Bob's identity, the certificate authority signs Bob's public key with its own private root key.
www.nwfusion.com /news/64452_05-17-1999.html   (1049 words)

 ONLamp.com: SSH Public-Key Authentication   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Public-key authentication uses two keys, a private key that only you have--it should be kept in a secure place and protected with a password.
And the public key, which is placed on the server you wish to gain access to, usually by the system administrator when your account is set up.
With this information, we should be able to generate an SSH key pair and place the public key on the machine we wish to use.
www.onlamp.com /pub/a/onlamp/excerpt/ssh_8   (979 words)

 SSH : Support : Cryptography A-Z : Algorithms : Public Key Cryptosystems
It was observed that based on a problem so difficult that it would need thousands of years to solve, and with some luck, a cryptosystem could be developed which would have two keys, a private key and a public key.
Thus the owner of the private key would be the only one who could decrypt the messages, but anyone knowing the public key could send them in privacy.
In a two-party communication it would be useful to generate a common secret key for bulk encryption using a secret-key cryptosystem (for example, some block cipher).
www.ssh.com /support/cryptography/algorithms/asymmetric.html   (3974 words)

 OpenSSH Public Key Authentication   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The public portion of this key pair will reside on the servers being connected to, while the private portion needs to remain on a secure local area of the client system, by default in
Each public key entry must be on a different line.
Many different things can prevent public key authentication from working, so be sure to confirm that public key connections to the server work properly.
cfm.gs.washington.edu /security/ssh/client-pkauth   (945 words)

 FreeS/WAN glossary   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
public key methods in which the sender uses one of a matched pair of keys and the receiver uses the other.
public key cryptographic technology a standard part of their operating procedures.
This contrasts with symmetric or secret key cryptography in which a single key known to both parties is used for both encryption and decryption.
www.freeswan.org /freeswan_snaps/CURRENT-SNAP/doc/glossary.html   (10741 words)

 Prehistory of Public Key Cryptography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The most fascinating thread, though, concerns the relationship of public key cryptograpy to the command and control of nuclear weapons.
In other words, non-repudiation -- a classic use for public key cryptography -- was important; if a bomb is used, they (or their heirs, or civilization's heirs...) want to know who ordered it.
Pending declassification of the rest of the memo, I suspect that this is the crucial seed that led to the invention of public key cryptography at NSA.
www.research.att.com /~smb/nsam-160   (816 words)

 Citations: Public-Key Infrastructure Study (ResearchIndex)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The main contributions of this study were that it proposed a certification structure which the authors of the report considered to be suitable for U. government use, and it....
....key so that principals can encrypt and authenticate messages that are sent to and received from the authentication server.
Therefore, this paper identifies these problems and outlines the requirements for a Mobile Public Key Infrastructure (MPKI) A full development of the MPKI is beyond the scope of this paper and....
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /context/1021222/0   (337 words)

 Public Key Infrastructure
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and the components needed to create a PKI are the subject of intense debate.
Architecture for Public Key Infrastructure (APKI), and PKI issues regularly appear on the Security Program Group's agenda.
The Committee explores current information security issues including those related to public key infrastructure, cryptology, risk analysis, standards, "commercial reasonableness" and the legal efficacy of secure digital commerce.
www.opengroup.org /security/pki/index.htm   (427 words)

 public key - a Whatis.com definition
In cryptography, a public key is a value provided by some designated authority as an encryption key that, combined with a private key derived from the public key, can be used to effectively encrypt messages and digital signatures.
The use of combined public and private keys is known as asymmetric cryptography.
A system for using public keys is called a public key infrastructure (PKI).
searchsecurity.techtarget.com /sDefinition/0,,sid14_gci212845,00.html   (141 words)

 Cryptology ePrint Archive   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The piece in hand concept is based on a new paradigm for public key cryptosystem in general.
On the other hand, in our scheme, the piece in hand, which is a part of the secret key, is not contained in the public key but is taken from outside of the public key to plug in during the decryption.
In this paper, we illustrate how to apply the piece in hand concept to enhance the security of multivariate type public key cryptosystems, by presenting the general theory for the use of the concept.
eprint.iacr.org /2004/366   (221 words)

 .Net Security Blog : Public Key Tokens
Notice that it does not work over a key pair, which is why sn -t does not work on a.snk file.
If you want to use the -t parameter to sn, you'll need to first use -p to extract the public key out of the key pair, and then run -t on only the public key.
CreateTokenFromAssembly is very similar to ExtractPublicKeyFromAssembly, except that instead of returning the public key blob and throwing away the token, we do the opposite.
blogs.msdn.com /shawnfa/archive/2005/02/23/379196.aspx   (526 words)

 Public Key Infrastructure   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
For sensitive applications, one can also set the conference server to use the company’s public key infrastructure.
CPU and a Java Operating System, performs multimedia applications and cryptographic tasks such as supporting public key infrastructure, conditional access or...
A public key infrastructure (PKI) provides means for linking people to their public keys, by using:
www.wikiverse.org /public-key-infrastructure   (198 words)

 Public Key Server Commands   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The server will return a (verbose) list of keys on the server matching the given ID. (The ID can be any valid argument to a pgp -kv(v) command.)
After your key has been processed the server will send a message to your e-mail address.
This forged mail message then gets processed just like an incoming ADD request to the mail server, which is why there's up to a 10 minute delay.
www.cl.cam.ac.uk /PGP/pks-commands.html   (260 words)

 PKI (public-key infrastructure)
PKI differs from private key technology, like Kerberos, in which a single key that is shared by the sender and receiver is used to encrypt and decrypt a message or document.
It should read that a sender uses the recipient's public key to encrypt the message and the recipient uses their own private key to decrypt the message.
The public keys are freely circulated but not the private key.
www.networkworld.com /details/522.html   (945 words)

 Managed PKI Services - Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) from VeriSign, Inc.
PKI and authentication services are delivered through VeriSign's military-grade public key infrastructure and Security Operations Centers ensuring 24x7x365 monitoring, management, and escalation across the globe.
VeriSign Core Managed Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) allows you to cost effectively establish a robust, customized PKI and Certificate Authority system for issuing digital credentials throughout your enterprise, allowing your users to securely access email, networks, VPN, ERP, extranets, portals, and other applications.
VeriSign's Managed Public Key Infrastructure and authentication services enable enterprises to retain full control for access to information while leveraging VeriSign's service infrastructure for provisioning and validation of authentication credentials.
www.verisign.com /products-services/security-services/pki   (575 words)

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