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Topic: Public key cryptography


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In the News (Thu 18 Jul 19)

  
 Public-key cryptography - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Whatever the cryptographic assurance of the protocols themselves, the association between a public key and its owner is ultimately a matter of subjective judgement on the part of the trusted third party, since the key is a mathematical entity whilst the owner and the connection between owner and key is not.
Public key cryptography is a form of cryptography which generally allows users to communicate securely without having prior access to a shared secret key.
The introduction of elliptic curve cryptography by Neal Koblitz in the mid '80s has yielded a new family of analogous public key algorithms.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Public-key_cryptography   (3059 words)

  
 Cryptography - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In a public-key cryptosystem, the encryption key may be freely distributed, as long as the decryption key remains secret, hence, the encryption key is the public key and the decryption key is the private or secret key.
The study of modern symmetric-key cryptography relates mainly to the study of block ciphers and stream ciphers and their applications.
Cryptography is also considered a branch of engineering, but it is considered to be an unusual one as it deals with active, intelligent and malevolent opposition (see cryptographic engineering and security engineering).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Cryptography   (3729 words)

  
 Public Key Cryptography
Further, public key cryptography is used in situations where the recipient of a message must have confidence that the message received was received as intended by the sender and has not been altered or forged in any manner.
Public key cryptography is especially useful in situations where there is a need for confidentiality, integrity, and non-repudiation.
An extensive discussion of public/private key cryptography, including much of the mathematical detail, can be found in the book, Public Key Cryptography [Salomaa 96].
www.sei.cmu.edu /str/descriptions/publickey_body.html   (2079 words)

  
 What is public-key encryption? - A Word Definition From the Webopedia Computer Dictionary
Public key cryptography was invented in 1976 by Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman.
An important element to the public key system is that the public and private keys are related in such a way that only the public key can be used to encrypt messages and only the corresponding private key can be used to decrypt them.
What's needed, therefore, is a global registry of public keys, which is one of the promises of the new LDAP technology.
www.webopedia.com /TERM/P/public_key_cryptography.html   (328 words)

  
 public-key cryptography - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about public-key cryptography
Several algorithms in common use apply public-key cryptography, including the RSA algorithm (published in 1977 in Scientific American and named after its inventors, Ronald Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman) and the Skipjack algorithm used in the Clipper chip.
Public-key cryptography can also be used to create and verify a digital signature.
The private key is kept secret, while the public key is distributed widely – to friends, business partners, and even to public key servers – computers which store many users' public keys so that anyone can obtain a copy.
encyclopedia.farlex.com /Public-key+cryptography   (327 words)

  
 Public-key cryptography
The idea of public-key cryptography was invented by Diffie and Hellman in 1976 in the paper [
In other words, given only the public key and possibly an unlimited amount of encoded messages, it should be computationally infeasible to find the hidden key and thereby decipher the messages.
They described a system for encoding and decoding messages where the ``key'' for encoding could be made publicly known without fear that the ``hidden key'' for decoding messages could be discovered.
www.math.okstate.edu /~wrightd/crypt/crypt-intro/node16.html   (181 words)

  
 Public Key Cryptography
Quite similarly, many of the risks of applications of public key cryptosystems that were outlined in your paper have already been answered in the scientific literature with carefully designed protocols and application scenarios.
A Public Key may be discarded for any of a number of reasons: The most critical is that the corresponding Private Key is known to be compromised so that further use will bring serious risks for the owner of that Private Key.
Even if the 768-bit public server key that was transmitted at the beginning of this session were broken by an effort orders of magnitude more expensive than the Manhattan and Apollo project together, this would still allow only access to the sessions that I started within a period of one hour.
cryptome.sabotage.org /pkc-gf.htm   (3517 words)

  
 Public Key Cryptography (PKC), RSA, PKI
Public Key Cryptography (PKC) uses two keys, a "public key" and a "private key", to implement an encryption algorithm that doesn't require two parties to first exchange a secret key in order to conduct secure communications.
This paper revolutionized the world of cryptography research, which had been somewhat restrained up to that point by real and perceived Government restrictions, and galvanized dozens of researchers around the world to work on practical implementations of a public key cryptography algorithm.
The task of military encryption key management had greatly expanded with the growth in electronic communications networks, and the number of parties that needed to communicate to organize a large-scale military operation such as World War II had numbered in the thousands.
www.livinginternet.com /i/is_crypt_pkc_inv.htm   (1505 words)

  
 Introduction to Public-Key Cryptography
This document introduces the basic concepts of public-key cryptography.
With most modern cryptography, the ability to keep encrypted information secret is based not on the cryptographic algorithm, which is widely known, but on a number called a key that must be used with the algorithm to produce an encrypted result or to decrypt previously encrypted information.
For example, the difficulty of discovering the key for the RSA cipher most commonly used for public-key encryption depends on the difficulty of factoring large numbers, a well-known mathematical problem.
docs.sun.com /source/816-6154-10   (8268 words)

  
 RSA Public-Key Cryptography
Public key cryptography is undoubtedly one of the major achievements of applied mathematics in the twentieth century.
The public key is (e, pq) and private key is (d, pq), or vice-versa.
The modulus pq is published with the public key, but the separate values of p and q must be kept secret.
efgh.com /software/rsa.htm   (1780 words)

  
 Public Key Cryptography Demystified: Campus Technology
The technology is called Public Key because unlike earlier forms of cryptography, it works with a pair of keys.
Public key technology has an important role to play in helping us protect our information and to be able to rely on the network to handle transactions of increasing value.
Public key certificates are then published, often in an institutional LDAP directory, so that users of the PKI can locate the certificate for an individual with whom they wish to communicate securely.
www.campus-technology.com /article.asp?id=7626   (395 words)

  
 SSH : Support : Cryptography A-Z : Algorithms : Public Key Cryptosystems
In public-key cryptography, the attacker is interested in solving particular instances of a problem (factoring some given number), rather than providing a general solution (an algorithm to factor any possible number efficiently).
Thus the owner of the private key would be the only one who could decrypt the messages, but anyone knowing the public key could send them in privacy.
The security of the cryptosystem is based on the fact that the private key can be computed from the public key only by solving this difficult problem.
www.ssh.com /support/cryptography/algorithms/asymmetric.html   (3974 words)

  
 AspEncrypt.com - Crypto 101: Public-Key Cryptography
In real-world implementations, public keys are rarely used to encrypt actual messages as public-key cryptography is very slow, about 1000 times slower that conventional cryptography [1].
RSA is by far the most popular public-key cryptography algorithm.
Alice and Bob agree on a public key algorithm.
www.aspencrypt.com /crypto101_public.html   (912 words)

  
 Cryptography FAQ (06/10: Public Key Cryptography)
Intrinsic to public key cryptography is a `trapdoor function' D_K with the properties that computation in one direction (encryption, E_K) is easy and in the other is virtually impossible (attack, determining P from encryption E_K(P) and public key X).
This has been just a brief introduction; if you really want to learn about the many facets of public-key cryptography, consult the books and journal articles listed in part 10.
At the receiver side, the session key is decrypted using the public-key algorithms and the recovered `plaintext' key is used to decrypt the message.
www.faqs.org /faqs/cryptography-faq/part06   (1816 words)

  
 RSA Security - 2.1.1 What is public-key cryptography?
In order to solve the key management problem, Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman [DH76] introduced the concept of public-key cryptography in 1976.
For instance, some public-key cryptosystems are designed such that deriving the private key from the public key requires the attacker to factor a large number, it this case it is computationally infeasible to perform the derivation.
In traditional cryptography, the sender and receiver of a message know and use the same secret key; the sender uses the secret key to encrypt the message, and the receiver uses the same secret key to decrypt the message.
www.rsasecurity.com /rsalabs/node.asp?id=2165   (663 words)

  
 Understanding Public Key Cryptography
Public key cryptography uses asymmetric keys, with one that is private and another one that is public.
Public key cryptography works effectively for encrypting data because the public key can be made freely available to anyone wanting to send encrypted data to a particular station.
Some security protocols distribute a new WEP key periodically to a station by encrypting it first with the receiving station's public key.
www.wi-fiplanet.com /tutorials/article.php/1572421   (835 words)

  
 Prehistory of Public Key Cryptography
Pending declassification of the rest of the memo, I suspect that this is the crucial seed that led to the invention of public key cryptography at NSA.
In other words, non-repudiation -- a classic use for public key cryptography -- was important; if a bomb is used, they (or their heirs, or civilization's heirs...) want to know who ordered it.
An interesting question is just what the requirement is that is best satisfied by public key cryptography.
www.cs.columbia.edu /~smb/nsam-160   (816 words)

  
 Public Key Cryptography 101 Using Java
With symmetric key cryptography, a single secret key is used both to encrypt and to decrypt the data.
This method implements the algorithm published by the original authors of the RSA method for computing the public and private keys, e and d, as well as the common divisor, n, as described in Figure 2.
Cryptography and cryptanalysis are sometimes grouped together under the umbrella term cryptology, encompassing the entire subject.
www.developer.com /java/ent/article.php/3447491   (10983 words)

  
 Public-Key Cryptography (Linktionary term)
Public-key cryptography provides a way for users to securely exchange information.
In 1976, Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman developed the concept of asymmetric public-key cryptography.
One key is kept private and the other is put in a public place, much like phone numbers are listed in a phone book.
www.linktionary.com /p/public_key.html   (468 words)

  
 PKC 2006: Main Page
The International Conference on Practice and Theory in Public-Key Cryptography (PKC) has been the main IACR annual workshop focusing on all aspects of public-key cryptography.
PKC has attracted papers from world-renowned scientists in the area.
PKC'06 will take place at and is sponsored by Columbia University, in New York City, during the spring of 2006.
pkc06.cs.columbia.edu   (73 words)

  
 JEP: A Primer on Public-Key Cryptography
Cryptography, the stuff of spy movies and dramatic World War II victories, is also important to electronic publishing.
The L and R keys have to be built at the same time, when the lock is first made.
Locking something using the R key is effectively Acme's signature: Bob can read the thing that was signed and can be confident that he knows who sent it.
www.press.umich.edu /jep/04-04/polito.html   (2408 words)

  
 NP-Completeness, Cryptology, and Knapsacks
The idea behind public key cryptography is fairly simple: Anyone can put something in a box and close the lock, but only the person who knows the lock combination can open the box again.
A number of attacks on this system have been published using knowledge of some part of the secret key, but there has not yet been any attack shown to break this system efficiently knowing only the public key.
If this system is secure, then to the outside observer Eve (the evil eavesdropper), finding x from S and the public key f should amount to solving a generic instance of Knapsack, which is NP-complete.
www.derf.net /knapsack   (3647 words)

  
 Cryptography
Symmetric cryptosystems use the same key (the secret key) to encrypt and decrypt a message, and asymmetric cryptosystems use one key (the public key) to encrypt a message and a different key (the private key) to decrypt it.
Another, more efficient and reliable solution is a public key cryptosystem, such as RSA, which is used in the popular security tool PGP.
Applied Cryptography (2nd Ed.) is the crypto Bible for the professional engineer and interested layman.
world.std.com /~franl/crypto.html   (506 words)

  
 MPKC 2003: Mathematics of Public-Key Cryptography
MPKC 2003 will cover the latest developments in the mathematics of public-key cryptography.
MPKC 2003 is sponsored by the National Science Foundation; the Illinois Center for Cryptography and Information Protection at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; and the Coordinated Science Lab at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Abstract: "We demonstrate that some finite fields, including GF(2^210), are weak for elliptic-curve cryptography in the sense that any instance of the elliptic-curve discrete-logarithm problem for any elliptic curve over these fields can be solved in significantly less time than it takes Pollard's rho method to solve the hardest instances.
mpkc2003.mwisc.org   (2229 words)

  
 Public Key Cryptography
Kwangjo Kim (Ed.): Public Key Cryptography, 4th International Workshop on Practice and Theory in Public Key Cryptography, PKC 2001, Cheju Island, Korea, February 13-15, 2001, Proceedings.
David Naccache, Pascal Paillier (Eds.): Public Key Cryptography, 5th International Workshop on Practice and Theory in Public Key Cryptosystems, PKC 2002, Paris, France, February 12-14, 2002, Proceedings.
Hideki Imai, Yuliang Zheng (Eds.): Public Key Cryptography, Third International Workshop on Practice and Theory in Public Key Cryptography, PKC 2000, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, January 18-20, 2000, Proceedings.
www.informatik.uni-trier.de /~ley/db/conf/pkc   (310 words)

  
 Conference: Public Key Cryptography
PKC&CNT 2000 is the first in Poland scientific conference on Public-Key Cryptography and Computational Number Theory.
Priviledge delegation in the Public Key Infrastructure (to be confirmed)
A combinatorial algorithm for sharing a secret key
www.impan.gov.pl /BC/00PKC.html   (492 words)

  
 www.ipkc.org
but also to guide the current and coming PKC workshops.
all activities of the past PKC workshops from 1988
www.ipkc.org   (30 words)

  
 Public Key Cryptography (Spring 2003) course
J. Hoffstein, J. Pipher, J. Silverman, NTRU: A Ring-Based Public Key Cryptosystem, proceedings of ANTS III, 267--288, 1998
Arjen K. Lenstra, Integer Factoring, Designs, Codes and Cryptography, vol.
W.Diffie and M.E.Hellman, New directions in cryptography, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, IT-22, 6, pp.644-654, 1976,
www.wisdom.weizmann.ac.il /~tromer/PKC2003   (880 words)

  
 IEEE P1363: Standard Specifications For Public Key Cryptography
IEEE P1363: Standard Specifications For Public Key Cryptography
This page was last modified on March 2, 2006.
grouper.ieee.org /groups/1363   (107 words)

  
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www.rsasecurity.com /rsalabs/pkcs   (43 words)

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