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Topic: Public sphere

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  Public sphere - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The public sphere is a concept in continental philosophy and critical theory that contrasts with the private sphere, and is the part of life in which one is interacting with others and with society at large.
As Habermas argues, in due course, this sphere of rational and universalistic politics, free from both the economy and the State, was destroyed by the same forces that initially established it.
This resulted in limiting access to the public sphere and the political control of the public sphere was inevitable for the modern capitalistic forces to operate and thrive in the competitive economy.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Public_sphere   (1621 words)

 Excerpts from Habermas
The "publicness (or publicity) of representation was not constituted as a social realm, that is, as a public sphere; rather, it was something like a status attribute.
Public authority was consolidated into a palpable object confronting those who were merely subject to it and who at first were only negatively defined by it.
Elements of the private sphere ("the privatization of the process of economic reproduction") become "publicly relevant" because "The economic activity that had become private had to be oriented toward a commodity market that had expanded under public direction and supervision" (19).
www.users.muohio.edu /mandellc/myhab.htm   (1265 words)

 SparkNotes: Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: General Summary
The most important feature of the public sphere as it existed in the eighteenth century was the public use of reason in rational-critical debate.
Habermas sees the public sphere as developing out of the private institution of the family, and from what he calls the "literary public sphere", where discussion of art and literature became possible for the first time.
The public sphere became institutionalized within the European bourgeois constitutional states of the nineteenth century, where public consensus was enshrined as a way of checking domination.
www.sparknotes.com /philosophy/public/summary.html   (632 words)

 Evolution of Public Sphere in India by Amir Ali   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
The differences in the nature of the public sphere as it is to be found in India and the public sphere in England and France have been traced by Freitag to the different ways in which the community was linked to the individual and the state.
Public participation in collective activities like ceremonies and public protests created an important corollary to the nation state ñ the ëpublic sphereí in which individuals participated in the shaping of their states through the exercise of public opinion.
The problem of reshaping the public arena to function as the equivalent of the western public sphere revolved around issues of authority and legitimacy, which also lay at the heart of collective ritual as it came to be shaped in the modern nation state of the west [Freitag 1990: 284].
sacw.insaf.net /i_aii/Pub_SphereAMIRALIJun01.html   (6485 words)

For Felski the concept of the public sphere must build on the "experience" of political protest (in the sense of Negt and Kluge), must acknowledge and amplify the mutliplicity of the subject (in the sense of poststructuralism) and must account for gender differences (in the sense of feminism).
In Fraser's argument, for example, the "public" sphere is the opposite of the "private" sphere in the sense that it is a locus of "talk," "...a space in which citizens deliberate about their common affairs..." and is essential to democracy.
For Habermas, the public sphere is a homogeneous space of embodied subjects in symmetrical relations, pursuing consensus through the critique of arguments and the presentation of validity claims.
www.hnet.uci.edu /mposter/writings/democ.html   (6280 words)

 Mechanisms of an Online Public Sphere: The Website Slashdot
Last, ideas presented in the public sphere were considered on the basis of their merits, and not on the social standing of the speaker.
The "public" of the public sphere represents the idea that the people taking part in such discussions are acting not as private citizens, but in a public role by speaking in public and discussing issues of relevance to the wider public, issues of governance.
The "sphere" of the public sphere denotes that it is a space, often a mix of formal and informal institutions and organizations.
jcmc.indiana.edu /vol10/issue2/poor.html   (7437 words)

 nancy fraser | transnationalizing the public sphere
In that theory, a public sphere is conceived as a space for the communicative generation of public opinion, in ways that are supposed to assure (at least some degree of) moral-political validity.
If public sphere communication is by definition addressed primarily to states, it cannot today serve the function of rationalizing sovereign domination, as the latter is often exercised elsewhere, by non-state actors and trans-state institutions.
If public sphere communication is largely concerned with Westphalian-state management of a Westphalian-national economy, it cannot today serve the function of generating general interest, rationalizing domination, democratizing economic steering, and using "politics to tame markets," as the processes that govern economic relations escape the Westphalian-national frame.
www.republicart.net /disc/publicum/fraser01_en.htm   (3381 words)

 Public Sphere - Summary   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
Changing Perceptions of the Public Sphere is a two-year research collaboration between Rice University, represented by the School of Humanities and the Center for European Studies, and the University of Cambridge (England), represented by the Center for Research in the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities (CRASSH) and the Department of German.
Although Habermas undoubtedly emphasized that the emergence of the public sphere was a relatively short-lived cultural phenomenon that immediately came under criticism from the conservative and anti-republican movements at the beginning of the nineteenth century, the concept itself has been widened substantially since its initial formulation.
The inflationary use of the “public sphere” among historians and social scientists alike has loosened its epistemological content to such an extent that it has become questionable whether this concept itself is able to describe the complex interactions at the heart of modernity.
lang.rice.edu /pubsphere/summary.htm   (656 words)

 Slashdot as a Public Sphere
The public sphere is part of that space which is beyond the influence of systems such as economy, church and state.
The public sphere, therefore, concerns itself with the "domain of ‘common concern’ which is the object of public critical attention".
In the context of Habermas’s view of the restriction of the public sphere, it is interesting to note the growth of the Internet, and to consider the extent to which this provides a twenty-first century forum for the lifeworld corresponding to the eighteenth century coffee houses.
funferal.org /essay/pubsphere.htm   (4612 words)

 Is Jon Stewart Right?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
Citizens behave as a public body when they confer in a unrestricted fashion- that is, when the guarantee of freedom of assembly and association and the freedom express and publish their opinions- about matters of general interest.
The bourgeois public sphere could be understood as the sphere of private individuals assembled into a public body, which almost immediately laid claim to the officially regulated ³intellectual newspapers¹ for use against the public authority itself.
Between these two spheres, the constitutions further insured the existence of a realm of private individuals, assembled into a public body who as citizens transmit the needs of bourgeois society to the state, in order, ideally, to transform political into ³rational² authority within the medium of this public sphere.
www.public.iastate.edu /~goodwin/stewart/habermas.html   (523 words)

 Public sphere - Does Internet Create Democracy - habermas, media, communication, political will
Habermas develops the normative notion of the public sphere as a part of social life where citizens can exchange views on matters of importance to the common good, so that public opinion can be formed.
Habermas emphasises the critical role of the media in the public sphere, distinguishing between the early press who highlighted political controversy and the more recent development of media that commodify the news.
Speeches were made in parliament, as they are today, with the public in mind, and gradually their role in political life became more and more influential (Habermas, 1989:66).
www.zip.com.au /~athornto/thesis2.htm   (1655 words)

 Jurgen Habermas and the Public Sphere:Marshall Soules, Ph.D.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
A public sphere began to emerge in the 18th C. through the growth of coffee houses, literary and other societies, voluntary associations, and the growth of the press.
As ethnic, gender, and class exclusions were removed through the 19th and 20th centuries, and the public sphere approached its ideal more closely, Habermas identifies a concurrent deformation of the public sphere through the advance of social welfare, the growth of culture industries, and the evolution of large private interests.
For Habermas, the misuse of publicity undermines the public sphere.
www.mala.bc.ca /~soules/media301/habermas.htm   (1086 words)

 mass media: fourth estate
In fact perhaps the most evocative description of that kind of public sphere is to be found in Neil Postman's description of eighteenth century America, a society in which literacy was vastly more widespread and democratized than in the Britain of the time.
The media, from having been part of the public sphere of reasoned discussion, became part of the process of 're-feudalization' of the public sphere as state, industrial conglomerates and the media undergo a process of fusion.
It would seem fairly clear that Habermas's portrayal of the re-feudalization of the public sphere is influenced by Adorno's and Horkheimer's portrayal of the operation and effects of the 'culture industries' (see the separate section) and equally clear that he would not take quite the same view today.
www.cultsock.ndirect.co.uk /MUHome/cshtml/media/4estate.html   (3614 words)

 SparkNotes: Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: Important Terms
Literary public sphere - The literary public sphere develops in the eighteenth century; its key institutions are literary journals, periodicals, and the coffee houses and salons where these publications were discussed.
It developed out of the literary public sphere, and depended on private people's status as both property owners and human beings; its roots were in the family and in the world of property ownership.
In the past, the political public sphere represented a critical voice that analysed and often opposed government action, and prevented domination by the powerful state.
www.sparknotes.com /philosophy/public/terms.html   (901 words)

 Habermas and the Public Sphere
Modern conception of publicity - that which attracts attention for the purposes of journalism, advertising and politics.
High epoch of the public sphere - all public decisions available for public discussion: Thus exercise of the power of the state was legitimate
"It is commonplace to assert that public communication lies at the heart of the democratic process; that citizens require, if their equal access to the vote is to have any substantive meaning, equal access also to sources of information and equal opportunities to participate in the debates from which political decisions rightly flow....
www.comms.dcu.ie /flynnr/habermas_and_the_public_sphere.htm   (607 words)

 Sawyer Seminar on Mass Media & the Public Sphere
So in principle, discursively generated public opinion is meant to influence debates within political and legal publics proper, legislatures and courts (I'll return to that), and to bring under in a form of control the acts and decisions of the rulers and lawmakers.
Just as a sort of an idea, a non-specialized generalized public sphere and counterpose this to the various expert and specialized publics including movement publics and the discrete and selective networks of communication that operate in the various institutions and associations of civil society.
The idea that state intervention destroys the space for the public sphere for civil publics, and the culture industry thesis, i.e., that the new medium of communication, (there are always new ones) turns social communication into privatized responses by privatized manipulating individuals.
www.newschool.edu /centers/tcds/sawyer1.htm   (12869 words)

 Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and Culture of Weblogs: Weblogs and the Public Sphere
In this essay I assess the potential impact of weblogs on the public sphere, using a model based on the work of Jürgen Habermas to provide an ideal against which we can measure the efficacy of weblogs as a public space.
The public sphere and concepts of public space in general have, as Seyla Benhabib has noted, an "intimate rootedness in the domain of political life" (Benhabib, 1992, p.
Together these three factors provide us with a minimal model of how we would wish debate to be conducted in a public sphere, and I will address each factor in turn to identify some of the strengths and weaknesses of the structure of public debate in the social space created by weblogs, the blogosphere.
blog.lib.umn.edu /blogosphere/weblogs_and_the_public_sphere.html   (4472 words)

 The Public Sphere Problem
Typically today politics is viewed as a subject of study in social contexts from the family to the office to the nation-state.
Laments for the low state of public discourse are a part of editorial pages and talk shows.
Dewey: Multiple publics and permeable borders in John Dewey's theory of the public sphere".
www.wam.umd.edu /~jklumpp/comm652/unit3.html   (1579 words)

 The Internet & The Public Sphere
By “the public sphere” we mean first of all a realm of our social life in which something approaching public opinion can be formed.  Access is guaranteed to all citizens.  A portion of the public sphere comes into being in every conversation in which private individuals assemble to form a public body.
Internet communities function as places of difference from and resistance to modern society.  In a sense, they serve the function of the Habermasian public sphere without intentionally being one.  They are places not of the presence of validity claims or the actuality of critical reason, but of the inscription of new assemblages of self constitution.
This version of the public sphere serves one of the functions of Nancy Fraser’s “subaltern counterpublics,” but on an individual—instead of group—scale.  She says these areas of interchange with what amounts to an identity group, i.e.
mason.gmu.edu /~sandrew3/works/internet_public_sphere.htm   (2680 words)

 The Public Sphere   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
The principle of control the bourgeois public opposed to domination was publicity - meeting of opinions in a rational-critical public debate.
The public sphere (rational-critical debate) first emerged in the world of letters (literary and art discussions) was superseded by a public sphere in the political domain.
The early institutions of this bourgeois public sphere were the coffee and tea houses (England), the salons and cafes (France), the Tischengesellshaften (Germany).
www.ucalgary.ca /~bakardji/Print/publicsphere.html   (160 words)

 Wired 3.11: The Net as a Public Sphere?
Out of thousands of such encounters, "public opinion" slowly formed and became the context in which politics was framed.
Although the public sphere never included everyone, and by itself did not determine the outcome of all parliamentary actions, it contributed to the spirit of dissent found in a healthy representative democracy.
In Western civilization, the public sphere was a place people could talk as equals.
www.wired.com /wired/archive/3.11/poster.if.html   (752 words)

 Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community, and Culture of Weblogs: Personal Publication and Public Attention
It was accepted that women participated in the literary public sphere through her writing, particularly when her "official" reader and target for her writing was her brother, the astronomer Christopher Hansteen.
Within the Habermasian theory of the public the main task of the political sphere is to make the ruling body appear to be legitimate and give it credibility.
This study of reproduction appears to trap a scholar in an unbreakable trap, where the authority the scholar wields in her own study of the meaning of society is supplied through the doxa of the society within which study ensues.
blog.lib.umn.edu /blogosphere/personal_publication.html   (4350 words)

 Public Sphere   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-03)
But Habermas' public sphere model attempts to thwart postmodern, chaotic dissipation by reinstalling Enlightenment values of reason and freedom into a modern discourse which aims at pragmatic consensus.
Habermas posits that the participants in his political sphere shall share shared assumptions about communicative practice.
These assumptions are produced by an Enlightenment notion of reason which is characteristic of democracy- it is this rationality which makes decisions formulated in discourse binding.(Ess 240) In addition, Habermas lists certain criterion of freedom and equality which are necessary for an "ideal speech situation" to occur in a democratic polity.
www.georgetown.edu /faculty/bassr/gaynor/publics.htm   (197 words)

 Habermas and Coffee
Habermas calls this the public sphere, where ideas are examined, talked about, reasoned over The realm of this public sphere has been steadily decreasing under the encroachment of large corporations and vacuous media.
The greatest contribution to the development of the public sphere was the emergence of its institutional base, the organisational structures that allowed these 'webs of social development' to exist.
And the emerging public web was established as inclusive by principle: anyone with access to cultural technology like novels, journals, plays, had the potential to claim the attention of the 'culture-debating public'.
home.fnal.gov /~annis/digirati/habermas.html   (570 words)

 Critical Themes: Panel: Public Sphere
It will also show how this process impacts public policy and changes the nature of politics, in both the grassroots movement within the township itself and on a national scale.
Taking a look at some of the ways in which both the city and the public sphere are being reinvented, this analysis reflects how Manenberg has been conceptualized through mass media, paying particular attention to coverage of the windstorm as a case study of this process.
This paper suggests that the relationship between media and space, and its effects on individuals' perceptions of the public may be one useful way of exploring the changing nature of public participation.
www.newschool.edu /mediastudies/conf/html/public.html   (556 words)

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