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Topic: Puddling furnace


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In the News (Sat 16 Dec 17)

  
  Iron and Steel Manufacture - Printer-friendly - MSN Encarta
The limestone in the furnace charge is used as an additional source of carbon monoxide and as a “flux” to combine with the infusible silica present in the ore to form fusible calcium silicate.
The puddling furnace used in the older process has a low, arched roof and a depressed hearth on which the crude metal lies, separated by a wall from the combustion chamber in which bituminous coal is burned.
The balls are withdrawn from the furnace with tongs and are placed directly in a squeezer, a machine in which the greater part of the intermingled siliceous slag is expelled from the ball and the grains of pure iron are thoroughly welded together.
encarta.msn.com /text_761559225___0/Iron_and_Steel_Manufacture.html   (5046 words)

  
 Furnace - Free net encyclopedia
In American English, the term furnace on its own is generally used to describe household heating systems based on a central furnace (known either as a boiler or a heater in British English), and sometimes as a synonym for kiln, a device used to fire clay to produce ceramics.
The heat energy to fuel a furnace may be supplied directly by combustion of some fuel, or electric furnaces such as the electric arc furnace or induction furnace use remotely generated electric power.
Such furnaces must be designed to avoid the corrosion that this highly acidic condensate might cause and may need to include a condensate pump to remove the accumulated water.
www.netipedia.com /index.php/Furnace   (1938 words)

  
 Definition of Puddling from dictionary.net
Puddling furnace, a reverberatory furnace in which cast iron is converted into wrought iron or into steel by puddling.
To subject to the process of puddling, as iron, so as to convert it from the condition of cast iron to that of wrought iron.
Puddled steel, steel made directly from cast iron by a modification of the puddling process.
www.dictionary.net /puddling   (206 words)

  
 Puddling furnace - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For comparison, an average size charge for a puddling furnace was 600 lb (270 kg), for a Bessemer converter it is 15 short tons (13 600 kg).
This problem was resolved probably at Merthyr Tydfil by combining puddling with one element of a slightly earlier process.
This was the ideal material to charge to the puddling furnace.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Puddling_furnace   (1175 words)

  
 Lackawanna Iron and Coal Company Furnace -- National Register of Historic Places Delaware and Lehigh National Heritage ...
As early as 1838, William Henry was investigating the feasibility of establishing an anthracite fueled blast furnace along Roaring Brook in the Lackawanna Valley.
The furnaces are set into the south side of a hillside with a10 foot wide bridge, supported by masonry arches connecting them to the rock cliff.
Furnace No. 3 is 46 feet wide at the base, and furnace No. 4 is 48 feet wide at the base.
www.cr.nps.gov /nr/travel/delaware/iro.htm   (530 words)

  
 Iron manufacture
In a blast furnace, a blast of air is passed through a charge of iron ore, limestone and some form of carbon.
In the early days of ironmaking, before blast furnaces came into use, the smelting of iron ore in "bloomeries" produced wrought iron: fining was not necessary.
The puddling furnace is an adaptation of a type already used for casting iron, known as a reverberatory or air furnace.
henrycort.net /02iron.htm   (792 words)

  
 Open hearth furnace - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Open hearth furnaces are one of a number of kinds of furnace where excess carbon and other impurities are burnt out of pig iron to produce steel.
Technically perhaps, the first primitive open hearth furnace was the Catalan forge, invented in Catalonia in the 8th century, but it is usual to confine the term to certain 19th century and later steelmaking processes, thus excluding bloomeries (including the Catalan forge), finery forges, and puddling furnaces from its application.
This furnace operates at a high temperature by using regenerative preheating of fuel and air for combustion.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Open_hearth_furnace   (472 words)

  
 Wall Furnaces
In British English the term is used exclusively to mean industrial furnaces which are used for many things, such as the extraction of metal from ore (smelting) or in oil refineries and other chemical plants, for example as the heat source for fractional distillation columns.
A blast furnace is a type of furnace for smelting whereby the combustion material and ore are supplied with air from the bottom of the chamber such that the chemical reaction does not take place only at the surface.
Or is it that the 1865 invention is the ''steel blast furnace'', as opposed to the ''iron blast furnace''?
www.breadlike.com /pages7/94/wall-furnaces.html   (2064 words)

  
 Wrought Iron Encyclopedia Article @ Occupying.org   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
This produced a brittle white metal ("finers metal"), which was charged to the puddling furnace, where it was melted and stirred.
In this type of furnace, the metal does not come into contact with the fuel, and flame from the fire is reverted or sent back on the metal in the hearth.
A reverberatory furnace, which is of rectangular shape, is built with refractory materials such as firebricks.
www.occupying.org /encyclopedia/Wrought_iron   (1879 words)

  
 Glossary of ferrous metallurgy terms   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Blast furnace: A high shaft furnace developed in Europe after 1350 to smelt iron ore in a reducing atmosphere of the partial oxidation of charcoal (and after 1750, of coke.) The liquid iron produced was cast into cannons, utensils, etc. or “pigs” for refinement (decarburization) into wrought iron.
Cupola furnace: A simple, fuel efficient, shaft furnace usually using coke as a fuel and, along with the air furnace, one of the principal means for melting cast iron for foundries.
Puddling: To decarburize and to oxidize slag constituents in cast iron in a reverbatory furnace.
www.davistownmuseum.org /TDMtoolGlossary.htm   (13852 words)

  
 The traditional Chinese iron industry and its modern fate
The furnace was about 30 feet [9 m] in height, [with inside diameter] 5 feet [1.5 m] at the tuyères, and 10 feet [3 m] at the boshes [the widest part], and was fed through a very small opening at the top.
The puddling bed was many times larger, tons of iron per day were converted to wrought iron, and puddling was `probably the severest kind of labour in the world.'[111] It is unlikely that the work of the Sichuan puddlers was equally severe, but it cannot have been as effortless as the above description might suggest.
Some elliptical blast furnaces are known from Han China, and this form was also tried in 19th-century America, Britain, and Russia,[173] but the purpose in these cases was to distribute evenly the blast from four or more tuyères, which were placed on the long walls of the furnace.
www.staff.hum.ku.dk /dbwagner/Fate/Fate.html   (20032 words)

  
 Meningar.com om puddling. iron, furnace, that mm.
Puddling refers to an amount of extra drapery length that is spilled or “puddled” onto the floor...
Origins:It is said that puddling originated as a means for the rich to show off their wealth...
Two types of puddling furnaces in use in Sichuan which did use mineral coal are described briefly by Yang Kuan...
www.meningar.com /puddling.html   (1127 words)

  
 DHUB - Search results for "Furnaces"
8565 Roasting Furnace for iron ores with cylindro-conical shaft according to Scheerer; 1603 (SB).
8568 Puddling furnace according to Scheerer; 1638 (SB).
8586 Blazing furnace for foundries according to Dieltuette 1868.
www.dhub.org /search_all.php?d_search=Furnaces   (718 words)

  
 wrought
The vital demarcation between the puddling and steelmaking furnace was the limited temperature of the former.
A distinguishing characteristic of wrought iron is a fragmented or irregualr fracture, as contrasted with a fibrous or crystalline type in steel...
Puddling required hard manual labor, with low output both in unit mass and total tonnage, and accompanying high cost.
oook.info /technol/wrought.html   (260 words)

  
 Mining- Clipart ETC
Ferrie's Furnace "A peculiar furnace, known as Ferrie's self-coking furnace after the name of its inventor, in which raw coal is employed, has been used at the Monkland Iron Works and elsewhere during the last few years.
In the square base were four arched recesses or tuyere houses, one on each side, F, F, for the introduction of G also serving for the removal of cinder and the tapping of the furnace for the running of the pig.
The pernot furnace as applied to the steel making differs in no material respect from the Pernot puddling furnace; it is substantially a Siemens-Martin furnace with a rotating bed.
etc.usf.edu /clipart/galleries/Business/mining.htm   (1222 words)

  
 8590 Heating furnace for Plates, Direct heating of plates on coals according to Karsten; 1686 (SB). Furnace for heating ...
+ 8565 Roasting Furnace for iron ores with...
+ 8582 Furnace for copper ores; 1663 (SB)....
Heating furnace for Plates, Direct heating of plates on coals according to Karsten; 1686 (SB).
www.powerhousemuseum.com /collection/database/?irn=54032   (425 words)

  
 Iron Puddling Furnace | Resources   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
[1913 Webster] Puddling furnace, a reverberatory furnace in which cast iron is converted into wrought iron or into steel by puddling.
A reverberatory furnace in which cast iron is converted into wrought iron or into steel by puddling.
Advertisement a reverberatory furnace in which cast iron is converted into wrought iron or into steel by puddling.
www.heatingsystemsource.com /ironpuddlingfurnace   (456 words)

  
 Puddled Iron   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The design of his puddling furnace allowed various types of fuel to be used.
Doors set in the side on the furnace through which the charge could be accessed were crucial to hands-on control right through critical part of the operation.
Even more important than the furnace itself were the trained puddlers who must have been both highly skilled and totally fearless in their task.
homepage.ntlworld.com /paul.hawkins.tyd/Tyd/PuddledIron.htm   (432 words)

  
 Chapter 20 Retirement from business   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
These are successively removed from the pool of the puddling furnace, and subjected to the energetic blows of the steam hammer, which drives out all the scoriae lurking within the spongy puddle-balls, and thus welds them into compact masses of malleable iron.
Thus the steam would be decomposed and supply oxygen to the carbon of the cast-iron, while the mechanical action of the rush of steam upwards would cause so violent a commotion throughout the pool of melted iron as to exceed the utmost efforts of the labour of the puddler.
I then found your patent for puddling with the steam rabble, and also Martin's patent for the use of steam in gutters while molten iron was being conveyed from the blast furnace to a finery, there to be refined in the ordinary way prior to puddling.
www.naesmyth.com /bio/jn20.htm   (4008 words)

  
 Hand tools in history
In the case of the larger open hearth furnaces, the many impurities in the wrought iron they produced also required further refining before quality forged iron or natural steel tools could be produced.
The first and only blast furnace in Maine was established near Katahdin in the mid-19th century.
The uniform quality of the cast steel produced in the crucibles after the invention of the puddling process in England was much superior to blister steel produced from pig iron refined into wrought iron and then made into steel by the tedious cementation process.
www.davistownmuseum.org /TDMtoolHistory.htm   (5769 words)

  
 Chapter Retirement from Business of Autobiography by James Nasmyth
All the gases would pass up the chimney of the puddling furnace, and the puddler would not be subject to their influence.
There was a great saving of labour and time compared with the old puddling process ; and the malleable iron produced was found to be of the highest order as regarded strength, toughness, and purity.
Here is a new process that promises to put an end to all puddling; and I may mention that at this moment there are puddling furnaces in successful operation where my patent hollow steam Rabbler is at work, producing iron of superior quality by the introduction of jets of steam in the puddling process.
www.bibliomania.com /2/9/70/117/24610/2.html   (650 words)

  
 HSPA - The Iron Works
In 1841 Reeves Whitaker (or Phoenix Iron) became the first firm in the area capable of extensive puddling operations, having added six puddling furnaces.
The following year a survey of the operation concluded that the blast furnace had a "capacity for making 1,500 tons of pig iron per year." The refining furnace had "equal capacity" and the rolling mill could convert "3,000 tons of pig iron into bars per year."....
Other additions in 1846 included a puddling furnace, a reheating mill, flsmiths shops, a foundry, a pattern shop, and a machine shop.
www.phxsg.org /hspa/iron_works.html   (1131 words)

  
 Chapter 18 Manganese in Steel Making
This was a costly process, and as the demand increased he suggested to his licensees that it would be cheaper to put a given quantity of oxide of manganese and charcoal powder into their crucibles, along with the cold pieces of bar iron or steel to be melted.
Thus we are distinctly told that the crude metal, after treatment in the gutter, is made into malleable iron or steel, by puddling in the ordinary manner, and not by the action of the steam, air, or vapour of water blown through it.
This firm was about to go extensively into the manufacture of puddled steel, and indeed had already got a puddling furnace erected and in active operation, when their attention was directed to the Bessemer process.
www.history.rochester.edu /ehp-book/shb/hb18.htm   (11000 words)

  
 Chapter Publican <i>to</i> Puerperal of P by Webster's Dictionary (1913 Edition)
The lump of pasty wrought iron as taken from the puddling furnace to be hammered or rolled.
One who converts cast iron into wrought iron by the process of puddling.
The art or process of converting cast iron into wrought iron or steel by subjecting it to intense heat and frequent stirring in a reverberatory furnace in the presence of oxidizing substances, by which it is freed from a portion of its carbon and other impurities.
www.bibliomania.com /2/3/257/1207/23701/5.html   (287 words)

  
 The Innovations of the coke blast furnace, of puddling and rolling
The Innovations of the coke blast furnace, of puddling and rolling
Home : University : History : Growth in Britain and France 1780 — 1914 : The Innovations of the coke blast furnace, of puddling and rolling
Puddling in combination with rolling prevailed in the production of wrought or bar uron from coke pig iron (The British Model) — import duties rose and mineral fuel iron substituted for imported iron               BEGINNING 19
www.revision-notes.co.uk /revision/568.html   (433 words)

  
 150 years of the Shelton Works - page 7   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The Puddling Furnace was introduced as a process for making malleable iron by using coal or coke for firing.
Efficiency increased further in 1784 when Henry Cort used coke as a fuel for ironmaking in a puddling furnace, and was able to increase output more than tenfold.
The effect on the industry was dramatic, the iron produced was of a superior quality, and the siting of ironworks no longer needed to be near woodland or water.
www.thepotteries.org /shelton/150/7.htm   (136 words)

  
 Furnace Home
Coke, limestone and iron ore are poured in the top, which would normally burn only on the surface.
The blast furnace creates pig iron by mixing iron oxide with coke and burning it, resulting in slag and high-carbon iron.
I have never heard "blast furnace" used to describe anything but an iron smelter hot enough to produce molten iron.
www.artistbooking.com /trips/66/furnace-home.html   (1502 words)

  
 Antebellum Ironworks, Part Three
The furnace is said to have burned 200 bushels of charcoal per ton of iron.
Harpers Ferry Armory purchased barrel skelps from Pennsylvania furnaces in the Juniata district and from Connecticut furnaces in the Salisbury district.
“A furnace known as the Fanny Furnace was built four miles from the village of Greenland on Hasard’s Creek in Grant County in the early part of the Nineteenth Century which, of all things, made stoves.
www.appaltree.net /aba/education/historical/ironworks/ironworks3.htm   (1666 words)

  
 Iron
An ingot of iron or steel, or a pile of puddled bars, which has been brought, by passing through one set of `rolls', into the f orm of a thick bar, and left for further rolling when required for use.
Sometimes improperly applied to the `ball' or mass of iron from the puddling furnace which is to be hammered or shingled into a bloom.
410 After pig-iron has been puddled, the `blooms', as the masses of iron are termed, while still white-hot from the puddling furnace, are dragged to the helve.
oook.info /technol/iron.html   (1665 words)

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