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Topic: Punishment

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  Punishment - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Punishment may also be applied on moral, especially religious, grounds, as in penance (which is voluntary) or imposed in a theocracy with a religious police (as in a strict Islamic state like Iran or under the Taliban) or (though not a true theocracy) by Inquisition.
Thus the retributive theory of punishment with its criterion of justice as an end in itself gives place to a theory which regards punishment solely as a means to an end, utilitarian or moral, according as the common advantage or the good of the criminal is sought.
In operant conditioning, punishment is the presentation of a stimulus contingent on a response which results in a decrease in response strength (as evidenced by a decrease in the frequency of response).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Punishment   (4233 words)

 Reinforcement - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Punishment is any change in an animal's surroundings that occurs after a given behavior or reponse which reduces the frequency of that behavior occuring again in the future.
Aversive stimulus, punisher, and punishing stimulus are synonyms.
Punishment may be used for (a) an aversive stimulus or (b) the occurrence of any punishing change or (c) the part of an experiment in which a particular response is punished.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Reinforcement   (1691 words)

 Legal Punishment
Legal punishment presupposes crime as that for which punishment is imposed, and a criminal law as that which defines crimes as crimes; and a system of criminal law presupposes a state, which has the political authority to make and enforce the law and to impose punishments.
Punishment, on this view, should aim not merely to communicate censure to the offender, but to persuade the offender to recognise and repent the wrong he has done, and so to recognise the need to reform himself and his future conduct, and to make apologetic reparation to those whom he wronged.
Another question, concerning the preconditions of punishment, is whether those who appear before the criminal courts have been treated as citizens by the polity that now seeks to call them to account for their wrongdoing, and what the implications are if they have not.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/legal-punishment   (4578 words)

 Punishment [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-20)
Punishment involves the deliberate infliction of suffering on a supposed or actual offender for an offense such as a moral or legal transgression.
Retributivists attempt a justification that links punishment to moral wrongdoing, generally justifying the practice on the grounds that it gives to wrongdoers what they deserve; their focus is thus on the intrinsic wrongness of crime that thereby merits punishment.
When attempting to determine the amount of punishment that ought to be permitted for a given offense, it is necessary to weigh the unhappiness that would be caused by the offense against the unhappiness caused by various punishments.
www.iep.utm.edu /p/punishme.htm   (4549 words)

 EZF - Punishment
Punishment involves the deliberate infliction of physical or emotional pain or injury - on a being - by another person or persons who exercise a "power over" dynamic toward that being.
Punishment, corporal or otherwise, no matter how it may be justified, is unacceptable and inexcusable, because it erodes the ability of people to see things with clarity and poisons the possibility for genuine healing.
Punishment inflicted on people for the purpose of influencing others, the alleged deterrent effect, is in actuality brutality by proxy, socialization in oppression through threat and fear.
www.engaged-zen.org /articles/Kobutsu-Punish.html   (827 words)

 Capital Punishment [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-20)
The retributive notion of punishment in general is that (a) as a foundational matter of justice, criminals deserve punishment, and (b) punishment should be equal to the harm done.
Finally, critics of capital punishment argue that the true basis of retributive justifications of capital punishment is not at all foundational, but instead rooted in psychological feelings of vengeance.
Corporal punishment, such as flogging, and extreme types of capital punishment, such as burning at the stake, are no longer accepted practices because of their indignity.
www.utm.edu /research/iep/c/capitalp.htm   (2148 words)

 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Capital Punishment (Death Penalty)
The punishment of death at Athens was generally by poison in the case of freemen.
The infliction of capital punishment is not contrary to the teaching of the Catholic Church, and the power of the State to visit upon culprits the penalty of death derives much authority from revelation and from the writings of theologians.
The punishment of death is pernicious to society, from the example of barbarity it affords.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/12565a.htm   (4155 words)

 Criminal Punishment at the Old Bailey
The judges had a choice of a wide range of punishments to impose on convicts during this period, though the options were often limited by choices made at earlier stages in the judicial process.
The punishments available in any particular case were thus circumscribed by the legal status of the offence with which the defendant was charged (which in some cases could be influenced by choices made by the victim or the grand jury) and then convicted (offences were often reduced by the petty jury through partial verdicts).
Because the actual punishment a convict received often differed from the original sentence, it is worth searching later sessions by the name of the defendant to see if the sentence was mitigated.
www.oldbaileyonline.org /history/crime/punishment.html   (4017 words)

 Thoughts on Punishment - The Natural Child Project
When the parent punishes the child, all that the child does is to eliminate the overt evidence of his irrational needs, desires, and way of thinking.
Punishment does not change in any manner whatsoever the underlying thought processes that produced the unacceptable behavior originally.
When a parent depends to a great extent on disapproval and punishment as the means of dealing with their child's unacceptable behavior, a long-term process of building anger within the child takes place.
www.naturalchild.com /sidney_craig/punishment.html   (609 words)

 Punishment spanking
If the punishment is for the most serious matters, and you therefore need to overwhelm her with pain and enforce your will on her, then there may be a brief time (I am thinking a minute or less) when she may feel intense fear that you will never stop spanking her.
This punishment, while it may seem over-the-top and even cruel in its most intense moments, is not to be confused with long-term abusive tactics of diminishing you, disempowering you or trying to stop you communicating with friends or leaving.
It involves the punisher being angry at the failings of the recipient, letting her know just how strongly he feels about her failings, how much he wants her to fully recognise what she did wrong and how determined he is to prevent a reoccurrence of any such thing in the future.
fondlyandfirmly.com /new/punishment.html   (7700 words)

 Capital Punishment
In a sense, opponents of capital punishment who argue that it is not a deterrent are willing to give the benefit of the doubt to the criminal rather than to the victim.
Furthermore, opponents of capital punishment candidly admit that they would oppose the death penalty even if it were an effective deterrent.(5) So while these are important social and political issues to consider, they are not sufficient justification for the abolition of the death penalty.
Opponents of capital punishment who accuse the government of committing murder by implementing the death penalty fail to see the irony of using Exodus 20 to define murder but ignoring Exodus 21, which specifically teaches that government is to punish the murderer.
www.leaderu.com /orgs/probe/docs/cap-pun.html   (2593 words)

‘Punishment Park’ was released in the Murray Hill Cinema in an out-of-the-way part of Manhattan, New York City, and already it was clear that the US distributor was not going to properly handle the film.
Yet ‘Punishment Park’ has already been attacked by both the Left and Right, while even those sympathetic to the film have denounced Watkins for his claim that he is not concerned with politics.
When questioned about their objections, those who are hostile to the film generally contend that Watkins' characters are "shallow," his plot "simplistic," and his reading of the American political situation "hysterical" and "paranoid." In part these charges result from the film's obvious failure to conform to what most audiences expect of a film-viewing experience.
www.mnsi.net /~pwatkins/punsihment.htm   (7199 words)

 Punishment, Everlasting - International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
This does not settle the nature or duration of the punishment; but it excludes the idea that physical death is the extinction of being, or that annihilation follows immediately upon death or judgment.
The theory conflicts also with the idea of gradation of punishment, for which room has to be sought in the period of conscious suffering, and rests really on an unduly narrowed conception of the meaning of the Scriptural terms "life" and "death." Life is not bare existence, nor is "death" necessarily extinction of being.
As respects the nature of the punishment of sin, it cannot be doubted that in its essence it is spiritual.
www.studylight.org /enc/isb/view.cgi?number=T7158   (2509 words)

 Courteous Canine, Inc - Articles - Open Call for Creative Training
For purposes of this article, punishment is referring to both positive punishment and negative punishment, and reinforcement is referring to positive reinforcement.
It is sensitive because we have all experienced being punished and we have all punished.
Punishment is frequently referred to as "the only thing that works." The reason punishment is "the only thing that works" is because the trainer has not chosen to put forth the extra effort required to find the proper reinforcement that would be effective for that particular dog.
www.courteouscanine.com /articles/read_article/?id=6   (3688 words)

 What The Bible Says - Capital Punishment - Home Page
In addition to the required punishment for murder and the deterrence standards, both Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas find that executing murderers is also an act of charity and mercy.
The Pentateuchal rationale for capital punishment was not basically in terms of societal order, and thus modern utilitarian values (e.g., does it deter?) have no bearing on the validity of the biblical attitude toward the penalty even though the Bible states it does deter (Deuteronomy 19:20; also see: Eccles.
The motive for capital punishment was not human desire for vengeance (retribution), and thus modern theological abolitionists on that basis cannot criticize it.
www.geocities.com /a_christian_conservative   (4107 words)

 Dr. P's Dog Training: Punishment
Punishment is often misused, probably because it is viewed at retribution for a "crime".
Reinforcement tells the animal "what you did is good", while punishment tells the animal "stop that".
The purpose here is to overcome the problem of punishment not being as good of a source of information as is reinforcement.
www.uwsp.edu /psych/dog/LA/DrP3.htm   (240 words)

 Slave Punishments
The punishments used against slaves judged to be under-performing included the use of the whip.
Lewis Clarke, a house slave in Kentucky, described in his autobiography the different methods used by his mistress: "instruments of torture were ordinarily the raw hide, or a bunch of hickory-sprouts seasoned in the fire and tied together.
And there was scarcely any punishment more dreadful than the blows received on my face and head from her hard heavy fist.
www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk /USASpunishments.htm   (3237 words)

Typically a marooned man would be given the clothes on his back, a bottle of water or rum, an arm (pistol), a bottle of powder and a handful of shot.
Keelhauling was a form of corporal punishment practiced in the Royal Navy.
With such a cruel punishment facing one's possible future it becomes readily understandable why a crew might mutiny under a cruel Captain.
blindkat.hegewisch.net /pirates/punish.html   (2813 words)

 Lamson Library   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-20)
The Urgings Of Conscience : A Theory Of Punishment
Harsh Justice : Criminal Punishment And The Widening Divide Between America And Europe
Punishment And The Death Penalty : The Current Debate
www.plymouth.edu /library/opac/subjkey/punishment   (99 words)

 Capital Punishment in Relation to God's Justice (Execution/death Penalty)
The pope and many Catholic cardinals and bishops are in opposition to capital punishment.
When comparing a simple execution, even of the most heinous type, with the eternal torture of Hell it should be clear that capital punishment is not cruel for it serves good ends.
In this life such people, when exposed, are to receive the same punishment as was unjustly given.
www.trosch.org /for/capital-punishment.html   (1705 words)

The Holy Highway has determined that in extreme cases, corporal punishment may prove to be advantageous to some students. ; The following procedures will be followed at all times in the event of Corporal Punishment.
Corporal Punishment will be used only when all other discipline actions have been taken.
If any student is given extended discipline restrictions for more than a 24-hour period, a description statement of such restrictions will be signed by the staff member issuing the discipline and retained in the child's file.  Parents will be notified by phone and/or letter.
www.holyhighway.com /punishment.html   (280 words)

 Crime and Punishment Links
This show labeled by NBC a "drama-mentary," follows real-life San Diego district attorneys planning and prosecuting their cases.
TVRules 6/3/04 Crime and Punishment: People V George Waller Jr.
TV Rules 6/30/03 Crime and Punishment: People v.
www.sirlinksalot.net /crimeandpunishment.html   (347 words)

 Amazon.com: Punishment: Books: Grant Jarrett   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-20)
Although he doesn't realize it, he is searching for another kind of satisfaction, something more palpable.
He's a man in search of the punishment he knows he deserves.
Punishment might bring absolution, but it might also hurt those he loves.
www.amazon.com /gp/product/B000FVVUBC   (823 words)

Morley's revelations about who provided the guns, Prince's fate, and the repercussions.
Essays on the history of crime, punishment, and reform in Europe from the 18th century.
Punishment and Social Structure by George Rusche, Otto Kirchheimer --The history of crime in 3 primary eras - early Middle Ages with emphasis on penance and fines, Middle Ages corporal and capital punishment, and the 17th century development of the prison system.
www.karisable.com /crpunish.htm   (909 words)

 eBooks.com - Punishment eBook
This book is designed to identify and examine the sources of similarity and differences in types of economic punishments, incapacitation devices and structures, and lethal and non-lethal forms of corporal punishment over time and place.
CHAPTER FIVE The History of Punishment in China
CHAPER SEVEN Issues in the Sociology of Punishments
www.ebooks.com /cj.asp?IID=228162   (453 words)

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