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Topic: Punycode


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DNS

In the News (Wed 26 Jun 19)

  
  RFC 3492 (rfc3492) - Punycode: A Bootstring encoding of Unicode for Intern
RFC 3492 (rfc3492) - Punycode: A Bootstring encoding of Unicode for Intern
Punycode is an instance of Bootstring that uses particular parameter values specified by this document, appropriate for IDNA.
Punycode is an instance of a more general algorithm called Bootstring, which allows strings composed from a small set of "basic" code points to uniquely represent any string of code points drawn from a larger set.
www.faqs.org /rfcs/rfc3492.html   (5189 words)

  
  Punycode - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Punycode, defined in RFC 3492, is the self-proclaimed "bootstring encoding" of Unicode strings into the limited character set supported by the Domain Name System.
Punycode is designed to work across all script systems, and to be self-optimizing by attempting to adapt to the character set ranges within the string as it operates.
Note that for DNS use, the domain name string is assumed to have been normalized using Nameprep and (for top-level domains) filtered against an officially registered language table before being Punycoded, and that the DNS protocol sets limits on the acceptable lengths of the output Punycode string.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Punycode   (1098 words)

  
 IDN Registrant FAQ
Punycode is required because the restriction that only a subset of ASCII characters be used in URL/URI at the network protocol level is still enforced, even with the introduction of IDNs.
Punycode ("xn--"), was accepted as the IDNA standard by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) on 14 February 2003.
Registrars are responsible for converting an IDN to its Punycode equivalent before submitting it for registration to the registry.
www.afilias.info /faqs/idn_registrant_faq   (1789 words)

  
 WebNIC Premier Partner Program   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Punycode is the standard for conversion of IDNs from their native character sets into an ASCII string.
The advantage is that Punycode is a standard put in place by the IEFT whereas RACE was only a generally accepted process.
Registry intends to migrate all IDNs in the Testbed to punycode after the punycode RFC is published, and will also update the i-Nav plug-in to use punycode.
www.webnic.cc /domainwholesale_domainfaq_idn.htm   (2519 words)

  
 .INFO IDN backgrounder
It provides a mechanism for words with non-ASCII characters to be represented at a domain registry in ASCII format, but used by the general public in their expected native form.
'Punycode' is used to translate the word containing international characters into an ASCII string that can be registered by a domain name registry and resolved through the DNS.
When a user types an IDN into a browser, the application must know how to convert the name into 'punycode' for it to be handled properly by the registry.
www.afilias.info /register/idn/idn_background   (669 words)

  
 IDNS for .BIZ
Punycode is the official IETF standard that has been approved for converting IDN domains into machine-readable and resolvable ASCII domains.
Punycode is required for IDN conversion because a restriction (that only a subset of ASCII characters be used in URL/URI at the network protocol level) is still enforced, even though IDNs have been introduced.
The name(s) to be registered in the IDN database must be converted into the alphanumeric representation based on the Punycode IDN standard.
www.neulevel.biz /idns/idns_faqs.html   (1471 words)

  
 Punycode Functions - GNU Libidn
Punycode is a simple and efficient transfer encoding syntax designed for use with Internationalized Domain Names in Applications.
ASCII code points (0..7F) are output already in the proper case, but their flags will be set appropriately so that applying the flags would be harmless.
Converts Punycode to a sequence of code points (presumed to be Unicode code points).
www.gnu.org /software/libidn/manual/html_node/Punycode-Functions.html   (732 words)

  
 GNU Libidn: Punycode Functions
Punycode is an instance of Bootstring that uses particular parameter values, appropriate for IDNA.
This value is guaranteed to always be zero, the remaining ones are only guaranteed to hold non-zero values, for logical comparison purposes.
The punycode function uses a special type to denote Unicode code points.
jamesthornton.com /gnu/libidn/libidn_5.html   (214 words)

  
 Keith Devens - Weblog: Internationalized Domain Names - March 09, 2004
One of the most obvious questions I can think of is "How does Punycode compare to UTF-16 and UTF-8?", yet they don't answer that in any of their FAQs.
Punycode is an instance of Bootstring that uses particular parameter
So, Punycode seems to be sort of a BASE64 encoding meant for Unicode strings that decomposes them into ASCII characters.
keithdevens.com /weblog/archive/2004/Mar/09/IDN   (701 words)

  
 Public Interest Registry - Punycode Converter
Punycode is a simple and efficient ASCII-Compatible Encoding (ACE).
Use this tool to make conversions to and from Punycode.
Remember to include the IDN domain prefix "xn" if you are translating from Punycode.
www.pir.org /GetAOrg/Punycode.aspx   (159 words)

  
 Internationalized Domain Names (IDN)
Punycode is specified by Network Working Group RFC 3492
For example, the Punycode encoding of "südlich" is "xn--sdlich-3ya", and Punycode strings that are not identical to their inputs are prefixed with "xn--", so the IDNA domain name "südlich.example.com" would be represented as "xn--sdlich-3ya.example.com" in Punycode.
The mitigation functions allow applications to verify that the characters in a given IDN are drawn entirely from the scripts associated with a particular locale.
msdn.microsoft.com /library/en-us/intl/nls_IDN.asp   (1130 words)

  
 RFC 3492
Punycode is a simple and efficient transfer encoding syntax designed for use with Internationalized Domain Names in Applications (IDNA).
Readability: Basic code points appearing in the extended string are represented as themselves in the basic string (although the main purpose is to improve efficiency, not readability).
Punycode is used by the IDNA protocol [IDNA] for converting domain labels into ASCII; it is not designed for any other purpose.
www.apps.ietf.org /rfc/rfc3492.html   (6379 words)

  
 Watt-32 tcp/ip: SRC/PUNYCODE.H Source File   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
00001 /* 00002 * punycode from RFC 3492 00003 * http://www.nicemice.net/idn/ 00004 * Adam M. Costello 00005 * http://www.nicemice.net/amc/ 00006 */ 00007 00008 #ifndef _w32_PUNYCODE_H 00009 #define _w32_PUNYCODE_H 00010 00011 enum punycode_status { 00012 punycode_success, 00013 punycode_bad_input, /* Input is invalid.
The input 00020 * is represented as an array of Unicode code points (not code 00021 * units; surrogate pairs are not allowed), and the output 00022 * will be represented as an array of ASCII code points.
The input is 00053 * represented as an array of ASCII code points, and the output 00054 * will be represented as an array of Unicode code points.
www.bgnett.no /~giva/watt-doc/a01731.html   (634 words)

  
 [No title]
The Punycode API consists of one encoding function and one decoding function.
Normally punycode is used via the idna.h interface, but some application may want to perform raw punycode operations.
It allows preparation of strings, encoding and decoding of punycode data, and IDNA ToASCII/ToUnicode operations to be performed on the command line, without the need to write a program that uses libidn.
www.dbnet.ece.ntua.gr /~adamo/howto/libidn.txt   (8894 words)

  
 LWN: New IDN Homograph Spoofing Response: IDN Will Not Be Disabled (MozillaZine)
Punycode is certainly ugly, but by definition it's in ASCII---see bk's example for pàypal.com, above.
Punycode is a bad solution at a real problem.
punycode may not be the panacea, but that does not mean that there is no long-term solution.
lwn.net /Articles/124300   (2701 words)

  
 Internationalized Domain Names (IDN) Support in Netscape 7.1/Mozilla 1.4
This is defined in RFC 3492 (Punycode: A Bootstring encoding of Unicode for Internationalized Domain Names in Applications (IDNA)).
Since the Punycode contains only ASCII characters, it is possible that an output may, though unlikely, coincide with existing domain names.
Almost all IDN registration data are expected to change to Punycode by the end of 2003.
devedge-temp.mozilla.org /viewsource/2003/idn/index_en.html   (1529 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
On the other hand, Internet Explorer 7's default behavior will be to support Punycode, leaving IDN support to be toggled on and off by the user.
Since Punycode allows for thousands of possible characters, Internet Explorer 7 implements security settings based on the browser's language configuration, which can be manually adjusted.
Swiftwing: That's the correct site; "xn--74h" is the Punycode representation of ☺, which someone registered and pointed to their existing side.
arstechnica.com /journals/microsoft.ars/2005/12/20/2158   (568 words)

  
 What is Punycode? - A Word Definition From the Webopedia Computer Dictionary
As defined by RFC 3492, Punycode is a simple and efficient transfer encoding syntax designed for use with Internationalized Domain Names in Applications (IDNA).
The RFC 3492 document defines a general algorithm called Bootstring that allows a string of basic code points to uniquely represent any string of code points drawn from a larger set.
Punycode: A Bootstring encoding of Unicode for Internationalized Domain Names in Applications (IDNA).
www.webopedia.com /TERM/P/Punycode.html   (151 words)

  
 Welcome to CAcert.org
Punycode domains could wreak havoc in security world.
Finally someone has shown what everyone feared, that punycode can cause big problems with security where you can think you are going to the real site (in this case paypal.com) but in reality you are going to a fake site that has created it's domain to look like another.
In short punycode is a way of encoding mutliple language characters in domain names without causing major changes in the way that domains work to accommodate this directly...
www.cacert.org /news.php?from=rss&id=13   (253 words)

  
 Still At Large: Update on Response to Homograph Concerns   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
However, a number of situations where it is, in fact, beneficial for a user to see Punycode have become apparent in the interim.
One of them is that two names that may be graphically confused in their Unicode forms (the reason we're having this discussion in the first place) can readily be differentiated in Punycode.
Although an elegant mode for the parallel presentation of Unicode and Punycode remains to be developed, encouraging action toward that end is clearly in the interests of any agency striving to globalize the Internet.
at-large.blogspot.com /2005/02/update-on-response-to-homograph.html   (388 words)

  
 PCWorld.com - Next IE Beta Will See Global Domains   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Internet Explorer 7 will use application programming interfaces (APIs) to convert domain names to punycode, wrote Vishu Gupta, an IE developer, in a blog posting earlier this week.
Punycode is an ASCII translation of Unicode domain names, the format allowed by the domain name system.
In IE 7, the Unicode domain names will be converted to punycode just before the domain name is resolved and sent to the proxy.
www.pcworld.com /resource/article/0,aid,124056,pg,1,RSS,RSS,00.asp   (561 words)

  
 [No title]
Costello Standards Track [Page 3] RFC 3492 IDNA Punycode March 2003 An overflow is an attempt to compute a value that exceeds the maximum value of an integer variable.
Costello Standards Track [Page 4] RFC 3492 IDNA Punycode March 2003 At the heart of this process is a state machine with two state variables: an index i and a counter n.
Costello Standards Track [Page 13] RFC 3492 IDNA Punycode March 2003 Yet another approach for the decoder is to allow overflow to occur, but to check the final output string by re-encoding it and comparing to the decoder input.
www.ietf.org /rfc/rfc3492.txt   (2983 words)

  
 IdnToUnicode
Converts the Punycode form of an Internationalized Domain Name (IDN) or other internationalized label to the normal Unicode UTF-16 encoding syntax.
Any Punycode values will be decoded to their UTF-16 values by this function.
Alternatively, this may be passed as a null pointer, with cchUnicodeChar set to zero, as a means to determine the size required for this buffer.
msdn.microsoft.com /library/en-us/intl/nls_IdnToUnicode.asp?frame=true   (877 words)

  
 IDN Converter / Punycode / Kodiert zu einer Punycode-Domain und dekodiert
IDN Converter / Punycode / Kodiert zu einer Punycode-Domain und dekodiert
Der IDN-Converter ermöglicht es Domainnamen oder E-Mail-Adressen mit Umlauten in Punycode oder zurück zu wandeln.
Tragen Sie hierzu einfach den Domainnamen in das entsprechende Ausgangsfeld ein und klicken Sie den darunter befindlichen Button.
www.ranking-links.de /webmaster-tools/idn-converter-punny.html   (68 words)

  
 New IDN Homograph Spoofing Response: IDN Will Not Be Disabled - MozillaZine Talkback
In Mozilla Firefox 1.0.1, Mozilla 1.7.6 and Mozilla 1.8 Beta 1, IDN will now be enabled but all international domain names will be displayed as Punycode.
As I remember it, it is still possible to enter unicode in the location bar but it will subsequently be redisplayed as punycode.
You must be a MozillaZine member to post (note that this is not the same as forum membership).
www.mozillazine.org /talkback.html?article=6096&message=10&state=reply   (230 words)

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