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Topic: Qualified Majority Voting

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In the News (Sat 20 Apr 19)

  Apache Voting Process - The Apache Software Foundation
Votes should generally be permitted to run for at least 72 hours to provide an opportunity for all concerned persons to participate regardless of their geographic locations.
For code-modification votes, +1 votes are in favour of the proposal, but -1 votes are vetos and kill the proposal dead until all vetoers withdraw their -1 votes.
Votes on whether a package is ready to be released follow a format similar to majority approval -- except that the decision is officially determined solely by whether at least three +1 votes were registered.
www.apache.org /foundation/voting.html   (992 words)

  Qualified Majority Voting
Qualified Majority Voting (QMV) is a voting procedure employed in the Council of the European Union for some decisions, under which each member state has a fixed number of votes.
When the new Treaty establishing a constitution for Europe comes into force, blocking decisions will be much harder: Under this new rule, a QMV decision will require a 'double majority' of only 55% of member states representing 65% of citizens.
At present, QMV is used to pass many decisions, while others require unanimity among all Council members.
www.xasa.com /wiki/en/wikipedia/q/qu/qualified_majority_voting.html   (271 words)

 BBC NEWS | In Depth | Euro-glossary | Qualified majority voting
QMV is the most common method of decision-making, used in all but the most sensitive issues.
The qualified majority means that 62 votes are needed to pass a proposal, rather than the normal majority of 44.
The reason for the qualified majority, rather than a simple 50%, means that at least half the population of the EU and half the member states must be in favour of a motion to pass it.
news.bbc.co.uk /1/hi/in_depth/europe/euro-glossary/1054052.stm   (0 words)

 EUABC A dictionary on words related to the EU
An absolute majority requires more than 50% of all members, irrespective of the number of those voting.
Decision by qualified majority in the Council of Ministers currently requires 255 out of 345 votes.
Qualified majority voting is the most common form of voting in the EU Council of Ministers.
en.euabc.com /word/783   (0 words)

 EUROPA - Taxation and Customs Union / Taxation and Qualified Majority Voting
The European Commission proposed that there should be a move from unanimity to qualified majority voting for proposals in a limited number of tax fields, essentially proposals necessary for the proper operation of the Internal Market, proposals to combat tax fraud and evasion and proposals related to the protection of the environment.
Qualified majority voting implies that a European law is adopted as soon as a certain threshold of votes in the Council of Ministers is reached.
Voting is weighted on the basis of a Member State's population and corrected in favour of less-populated countries.
ec.europa.eu /taxation_customs/taxation/gen_info/conference/index_en.htm   (1023 words)

 31. Oktober 1996
Voting strengths of member states in the European Council now have a long tradition of being determined in the treaties by “weighted votes”, which deliberately underplay the “demographic weight”, in terms of population, of the largest states and progressively overweight smaller states.
Weighted votes thus serve as a neat compromise between two competing principles: the voting strength being equal for all states at one extreme, and votes being determined exactly by population, at the other.
The idea of double majority voting is also that the norms of democratic legitimacy are plain for all to see: this is indeed the case, but it is obtained at the expense of obscuring the real power which states acquire through their voting rights.
www.ihs.ac.at /sections/press/press_releases/articles/y1999s2/00_06eurengl.htm   (1041 words)

 Module 4: The Institutional Terrain
Voting in the Council of Ministers proceeds according to three mechanisms: simple majority, unanimity, or qualified majority voting.
Qualified majority voting (QMV) has become the normal voting procedure for matters falling under the EC pillar (pillar I), and it increasingly applies to certain types of decision taken within the CFSP pillar (pillar II) and the JHA pillar (pillar III).
Under QMV, votes are weighted roughly on the basis of population and member states vote in blocks (i.e., they cannot split their votes).
www.unc.edu /depts/tam/poli115/module4/mod4text4.htm   (1010 words)

 What is meant by ‘qualified majority’?
Qualified majority’ is based on the idea that, for votes in the Council which require a qualified majority, the EU Member States do not have one vote but are allocated a different number of votes, also known as a ‘weighting’.
The qualified majority system means that it is not sufficient for over half of the votes cast to be in favour of a proposal; there must be at least 232 votes in favour of a proposal in order for it to be adopted.
The weightings system is to be abolished and replaced with a requirement for a so-called ‘double majority’, which means that the qualified majority condition specifies requirements both in terms of the number of countries and the proportion of the EU’s population these countries represent.
www.eu-oplysningen.dk /euo_en/spsv/all/43/?print=1   (946 words)

 [No title]
Yet she concedes that qualified majority decision making by the EU in a reformist negotiation context has the effect of making the start of negotiations more likely, since only a majority of member states are needed to challenge the status quo.
Yet qualified majority voting was the established rule for environmental policy, making the consent of a majority of EU member states sufficient to approve a negotiation mandate.
Qualified majority voting mitigates the extremes within the EU member bloc, increasing the likelihood of an international agreement while still preserving most of the EU’s bargaining strength.
aei.pitt.edu /3157/01/Rhinard__Kaeding_-_Cartagena_Protocol_-_EUSA_2005.txt   (10240 words)

A qualified majority is the number of votes required in the Council for a decision to be adopted when issues are being debated on the basis of Article 205(2) of the EC Treaty (former Article 148(2)).
Following the 2000 IGC and the Nice Treaty, the number of votes allocated to each Member State has been reweighted, in particular for those States with larger populations, so that the legitimacy of the Council's decisions can be safeguarded in terms of their demographic representativeness.
A qualified majority is deemed to have been reached when two conditions are fulfilled: the decision receives a set number of votes (which will change as new countries join) and is agreed by a majority of Member States.
www.math.toronto.edu /~mpugh/Teaching/Sci199_03/EuropeanUnion/SCADPlusGLOSSARY.htm   (274 words)

 SCADPlus: The Union's decision-making procedures
In its draft, the Convention proposed a completely new system of qualified majority voting known as "double majority": the majority of Member States and the majority of the population of the Union.
A qualified majority is now achieved only if a decision is supported by 55% of Member States, including at least fifteen of them, representing at the same time at least 65% of the Union's population.
Firstly, where the European Council or the Council of Ministers is not acting on a proposal of the Commission or on an initiative of the Union Minister for Foreign Affairs, the qualified majority is obtained with 72% of the Member States representing 65% of the population of the Union.
www.europa.eu /scadplus/constitution/doublemajority_en.htm   (1350 words)

 Auburn Alumni Association Bylaws   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Special meetings of members may be held upon call of the President of the Association or a majority of the voting Board of Directors at such place as may be stated in the notice thereof and at such time and for such purpose as may be stated in the notice.
A vacancy prior to the expiration of the term of the Vice President shall be filled by vote of a majority of the elected Board of Directors.
Appointments to the Nominating Committee by the President must be ratified by a majority vote of the elected members of the Board.
www.alumni.auburn.edu /about/bylaws.html   (3668 words)

 Algorithms for Computing Voting Power Indices
The programs calculate voting power indices for weighted voting bodies in which the members or parties possess different numbers of votes and decisions are taken by qualified majority voting.
In such a system of qualified majority voting a decision is taken when the total number of votes cast in favour of a particular action equals or exceeds the quota.
In fact a member's power is a property of the whole voting body and depends on all other members' weights and the decision rule, and hence in order to analyse a member's power it is necessary to investigate all the possible outcomes of votes that could occur.
www.warwick.ac.uk /~ecaae   (927 words)

 Luxembourg Presidency - Q
A qualified majority is the number of votes required in the Council for a decision to be adopted, where the treaties allow this type of voting.
With regard to social policy and taxation, the switch to qualified majority voting was not accepted.
Moreover, the majority of measures of a legislative nature which, after the Nice Treaty, require a qualified majority are decided by the co-decision procedure.
www.eu2005.lu /en/savoir_ue/glossaire/glossaire_q/index.html   (247 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: )
In two other cases, the new Treaty replaces unanimity by the ²extra-qualified² majority already known from those cases where the Council hitherto acts without a proposal from the Commission (at least ten member states have to be in favour of a measure).
The transfer from unanimous to majority voting has to be analysed not only in terms of enhanced efficiency of decision-making but also in terms of democracy.
Two types of formula were developed during the Conference, one simply involving a relative increase in the votes allocated to the large states, the other providing for a system of dual majority by adding a second, demographic criterion to the current system.
www.valt.helsinki.fi /agathon/2351_11.htm   (1370 words)

 Buchanan: Collected Works, Buchanan and Tullock, The Calculus of Consent: Logical Foundations of Constitutional ...
If less than a simple majority should be required for carrying a decision, the expected external costs would be greater, but the costs of reaching the necessary agreement among members of the effective coalition would be lower than under the operation of simple majority rules.
We shall assume that a simple majority of constituents is required to elect a representative who can normally be expected to act in a manner that will please a majority of his constituents.
Consequently, a majority of the legislature represents a majority of the voters, not just ¼+ as may be the case in a logrolling or party coalition when the members are elected from single-member constituencies.
www.econlib.org /library/Buchanan/buchCv3c15.html   (6595 words)

 Cons040518En - FFII
Belgium (5), Italy (10) and Austria (4) abstained from the vote.
That left ES voting against the proposal, and BE, IT, and AT refusing to approve it.
On Tuesday 18th May, the Competitiveness Council voted with a (thin) qualified majority in favour of the proposal of the Irish presidency which is in general in line with the original Commission draft and reflecting the current EPO practice, with three amendments from Germany and watered down (in our favour) by the Commission.
wiki.ffii.org /Cons040518En   (0 words)

 Simple majority voting - Definition, explanation
Manipulability by voters is as such unobservable, but doesn’t constitute a problem with simple majority voting, since in a two option case, it is impossible to manipulate the result by voting strategically.
Secondly, simple majority voting satisfies anonymity: it assigns the same value to two lists that are permutations of one another.
Simple majority voting also satisfies neutrality: if everyone reverses their vote, the result is reversed, a tie remains a tie.
www.calsky.com /lexikon/en/txt/s/si/simple_majority_voting.php   (1138 words)

 A Concise Encyclopedia of the European Union --Q--
Designed by the Treaty of Rome to be the principal method of reaching decisions in the Council of Ministers, qualified majority voting (QMV) allocates votes to member states in part according to their population, but heavily weighted in favour of the smaller states.
In 1965, in protest against majority voting, France mounted a boycott on all Community business, lifting it only when the national right of veto was restored by the 'Luxembourg Compromise'.
Common to all is that a majority both of states and of the populations represented by those states would be required for most types of decision, with unanimity being reserved for matters of the most fundamental national importance.
www.euro-know.org /dictionary/q.html   (877 words)

 European industrial relations dictionary - Qualified majority voting
In a decision under QMV, votes in the Council are weighted in accordance with the size of population, though adjusted, so that small countries are relatively over-represented in voting.
It is the voting procedures in the Council of Ministers which will determine the evolution of EU policy in the fields of employment and industrial relations.
The EU Constitution proposes introducing a new voting system in 2009: a double majority will normally consist of 55% of the Member States, representing at least 65% of the EU's population, or 72% of the states and still 65% of the population if an initiative from the Commission is not required.
www.eurofound.eu.int /areas/industrialrelations/dictionary/definitions/QUALIFIEDMAJORITYVOTING.htm   (540 words)

To preserve the existing balance it will be necessary, come enlargement, to either adapt the weighting of votes or introduce a new system which makes reference both to a majority of the Member States and a majority of the Union's population.
The normal threshold for a qualified majority, set at around 71% since the early days of the Community, should therefore not be raised in any circumstances.
Presented in the form of a derogation, qualified-majority voting is used for joint actions and common positions within the scope of a common strategy.
www.jeanmonnetprogram.org /papers/98/98-2--ASSESSIN.html   (3668 words)

 Voting Procedures at Justice and Home Affairs Coun
We recommended the qualified majority voting on the approximation of procedures, in relation to specific "procedures with transnational implications" where this is "needed to ensure the full application of mutual recognition of Judicial decisions or to guarantee the effectiveness of common tools of police and judicial co-operation created by the Union".
We are only proposing that qualified majority voting take place in respect of areas where there are "transnational implications" and where it is "needed to ensure the full application of mutual recognition".
Chairman: Yes, and it is the procedure on a qualified majority voting basis or on a unanimity basis.
www.gov.ie /committees-29/c-justice/20030114-J/Page1.htm   (13111 words)

 IDEA :: International Debate Education Association
The history of majority voting in the European Union is characterised by a long period of little activity (at a time when the EC only had a few, relatively like-minded member states) followed by intense activity over the last twenty years.
The Treaty of Maastricht (1992) expanded majority voting much further, and most recently the Constitutional Treaty (accepted by the European Council in June 2004) foresees a doubling of the areas in which such procedures are adopted.
On a technical note, majority voting in the Council of Ministers requires more than just support from half the member states if a measure is to be passed.
www.idebate.org /topic_details.php?topicID=286   (1569 words)

 The Treaty of Nice: The Sharing of Power and the Institutional Balance in the European Union - A Continental Perspective
On the subject of reinforced cooperation, the large majority of delegations were willing to agree to the abolition of the veto and a reduction in the minimum number of participating states to one-third of the Member States for the first pillar and the application of this arrangement to the third pillar.
Although majority voting was in fact introduced in several areas in line with the provisions of the Treaty, the working assumption remained that if objections were raised, the veto would apply.
Qualified-majority voting was seen as a necessary corollary to successive enlargements of the EU and, coupled with the co-decision procedure, was considered the main way of reducing the democratic deficit of the European Institutions.
www.jeanmonnetprogram.org /papers/01/010101-03.html   (12266 words)

 Welcome to the European Movement in the UK - Qualified Majority Voting (QMV)
Because of the sensitivity of taking decisions by a majority, the introduction of majority voting was postponed until a late stage in the transitional period.
The principal provisions subjected to majority voting in the original treaties were agricultural policy, all budgetary issues other than the allocation of its own resources to the Community, trade policy and certain aspects of the coal and steel regimes.
Each acceding country was simply allocated a number of votes on a calculation similar to that used for the original member states and the majority required for taking a decision was adjusted as nearly as possible to preserve an acceptable balance.
www.euromove.org.uk /publications/expert/qmv   (1158 words)

 theparliament.com - EU voting deal too 'complex'
"A qualified majority shall be defined as 55 per cent of the members of the Council, representing Member States comprising at least 65 per cent of the population of the [EU]," states the new paper.
"When the council is not acting on a proposal from the commission or from the [EU] minister for foreign affairs, the qualified majority shall be defined as 72 per cent of the members of the council, representing member states comprising at least 65 per cent of the population of the EU," the new draft says.
Ahern is sticking to the principle of ‘double majority’ – a majority of ministers and a majority of the EU’s population.
www.eupolitix.com /EN/News/200406/5b88be1a-f3fe-43e2-9836-975dbd2b6834.htm   (645 words)

 Summary of Conclusions
Over qualified majority voting (QMV), the consensus reached by the Group was limited to the position that, as a minimum, the compromise achieved in Nice with respect to authorizing the Council to unanimously seek a changeover into codecision and QMV for Article 137(d), (f) and (g) should be upheld in the Constitution.
Beyond that, a strongly expressed minority opinion remained opposed to any automatic extension of QMV to social security and employment relations while for most other members of the Group it was possible, as of now, to envisage progress towards a majority decision system.
A "superqualified majority vote" was mentioned by some as a possible compromise.
gandalf.aksis.uib.no /~brit/EXPORT-EU-Constitution/Export-Document-CONV/CONV-516-03-02-04-R1-EN/SummaryofConclusions.html   (489 words)

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