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# Topic: Quantification

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 Quantification - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In language and logic, quantification is a construct that specifies the extent of validity of a predicate, that is the extent to which a predicate holds over a range of things. Quantification is used in both natural languages and formal languages. Quantification is an example of a variable-binding operation. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Quantification   (2287 words)

 Existential quantification - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In predicate logic, an existential quantification is the predication of a property or relation to at least one member of the domain. Quantification in general is covered in the article Quantification, while this article discusses existential quantification specifically. Several variations in the notation for quantification (which apply to all forms) can be found in the quantification article. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Existential_quantification   (560 words)

 Universal quantification - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In predicate logic, universal quantification is an attempt to formalise the notion that something (a logical predicate) is true for everything, or every relevant thing. Quantification in general is covered in the article quantification, while this article discusses universal quantification specifically. It may seem obvious that the phrase "etc" is meant to include all natural numbers, and nothing more, but this wasn't explicitly stated, which is essentially the reason that the phrase couldn't be interpreted formally. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Universal_quantification   (870 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) In predicate logic and technical fields that depend on it, uniqueness quantification, or unique existential quantification, is an attempt to formalise the notion of something being true for exactly one thing, or exactly one thing of a certain type. Uniqueness quantification is a kind of quantification; more information about quantification in general is in the Quantification article. Uniqueness quantification is usually thought of as a combination of universal quantification ("for all", "∀"), existential quantification ("for some", "∃"), and equality ("equals", "="). wikiwhat.com /encyclopedia/u/un/uniqueness_quantification.html   (325 words)

 XPS Quantification and Related Subjects A quantification report is generated from only those quantification regions for which the VAMAS blocks are selected in the right-hand-side and a separate row will appear in the quantification table for each quantification item in the row of selected VAMAS blocks in the right-hand-side. Quantification using TAGS is designed to allow for the situations where elemental concentrations determined from the survey operating mode are combined with high resolution data to reveal chemical state information unavailable in the lower resolution survey spectrum. Peak models determined from the high resolution spectra are associated with quantification regions defined on the survey spectrum and the relative intensity of the synthetic peaks from the high resolution spectrum are used to proportion the elemental concentration from the survey data. home.btconnect.com /casasoftwareltd/version23_manual/quantification.htm   (9589 words)

 Quantification in Proteomics through Stable Isotope Coding: A Review   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) The bulk of the quantification literature in proteomics focuses on expression analysis, where a wide variety of methods targeting different features of proteins are described. Methods for the analysis of post-translational modification (PTM) focus primarily on phosphorylation and glycosylation, where quantification is achieved in two ways, either by substitution or tagging of the PTM with an isotopically coded derivatizing agent in a single process or by coding and selecting PTM modified peptides in separate operations. Absolute quantification has been achieved by age-old internal standard methods, in which an isotopically labeled isoform of an analyte is synthesized and added to a mixture at a known concentration. pubs.acs.org /cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/jprobs/2004/3/i3/abs/pr0340734.html   (299 words)

 BioMed Central | Full text | Performance of high-throughput DNA quantification methods Quantification of genomic DNA using intercalating fluorochromes [10,11] and oligonucleotide hybridization methods [12] has decreased DNA consumption due to the increased sensitivity of these methods and has increased laboratory efficiency due to the high-throughput format of fluorometers. Thus, quantification workflows that consist of only one OD measurement of one aliquot after DNA extraction and then aliquoting or normalization to the nominal concentration used in a genotyping or sequencing assay are likely to be significantly more inaccurate than the protocol followed in this study. The choice of DNA quantification methods to be used by a particular laboratory should be guided by an understanding of the accuracy, precision and potential sources of error of those methods, and the practical aspects of implementing a particular DNA quantification method for a particular DNA sample processing or genotyping application. www.biomedcentral.com /1472-6750/3/20   (4946 words)

 Application Note 10a- Quantification of Naphthalene In a Contaminated The samples were injected into the GC injection port and thermally desorbed in the GC injection port at desorption block temperature of 220 degrees C for 5 minutes at a purge flow of 10 ml/min and a GC injection split ratio of 10:1. Quantification of Naphthalene in the contaminated pharmaceutical sample and cotton plugs were accomplished using D-8 naphthalene as a matrix-spiked surrogate internal standard with GC-MS detection. To quantify the naphthalene levels in the pharmaceutical samples and the cotton samples, all the samples were spiked with 100 ng of the D-8 naphthalene, as previously described. www.sisweb.com /referenc/applnote/ap10-a.htm   (2082 words)

 Normalized Quantification by Real-Time PCR of Epstein-Barr Virus Load in Patients at Risk for Posttransplant ... for the quantification of cell-associated EBV DNA in transplant Quantification of EBV genomes in healthy blood donors, immunosuppressed HTx transplant recipients, and patients with PTLD. Detection and quantification of latently infected B lymphocytes in Epstein-Barr virus-seropositive, healthy individuals by polymerase chain reaction. jcm.asm.org /cgi/content/full/39/2/564   (4281 words)

 Quantification Theory The four quantification rules dictate the conditions under which it is permissible to delete or add a quantifier: Using these quantification rules together with the inference and replacement rules of the propositional calculus, it is possible to prove the validity of any of the valid categorical syllogisms. Quantification theory makes it possible to prove the validity of many arguments that could not easily be expressed in categorical logic at all. www.philosophypages.com /lg/e12.htm   (629 words)

 Charles L. Webber, Jr. Quantification of heart rate variability using methods derived from nonlinear dynamics. Zbilut, J.P., Giuliani, A., Webber, C.L. Jr., Colosimo, A. Recurrence quantification analysis in structure-function relationships of proteins: an overview of a general methodology applied to the case of TEM-1 beta-lactamase. Zbilut, J.P., Colosimo, A., Webber, C.L., Jr., Giuliani A. The role of hydrophobicity patterns in prion folding as revealed by recurrence quantification analysis of primary structures. homepages.luc.edu /~cwebber   (1030 words)

 Detection and Quantification of Gene Expression in Environmental Bacteriology -- Sharkey et al. 70 (7): 3795 -- Applied ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) of pathogens (5); and quantification and enumeration of bacteria Quantification of ammonia oxidizing bacteria in arable soil by real-time PCR. Quantification of bacterial mRNA involved in degradation of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene by Pseudomonas sp. aem.asm.org /cgi/content/full/70/7/3795   (7243 words)

 Respiratory Pathogens In Metalworking Fluids: DNA-Based Methodologies for Rapid Detection, Quantification, and Species- ... Their rapid detection/identification and specific quantification in MWF samples is warranted for early detection and elimination of these occupational hazards. The conventional culture-based methods for detection and quantification are largely based on agar plating using general or specific microbiological media, which makes them time-consuming and ambiguous yielding only the viable (culturable) counts. Experiments are in progress to improve this method into a real-time PCR based quantification method and extension of the protocol for quantification of total (both culturable and non-culturable) mycobacteria in MWF. www.acgih.org /events/course/Yadayabstract.htm   (436 words)

 Plural Quantification For this application of plural quantification to work, PFO must be applicable to all kinds of concrete objects, and it must be ontologically innocent, or at least not committed to any entities that share those features of abstract objects that are found to be nominalistically objectionable. For instance, instead of employing usual singular quantification over tables and chairs, it is proposed that we use plural quantification over atoms (or whatever simple objects of which tables and chairs are composed) arranged tablewise or chairwise (Dorr and Rosen 2002; Hossack 2000; van Inwagen 1990). Proponents of plural quantification claim that these theories allow plural locutions to be formalized in a way that is fundamentally different from the old set-theoretic paraphrases. plato.stanford.edu /entries/plural-quant   (8505 words)

 Gyros / Protein Quantification Overview Based on the well-established sandwich immunoassay format, Gyrolab Bioaffy is well suited to a wide range of protein quantification applications. An efficient tool for high throughput insulin quantification, matching current technologies in terms of assay performance, whilst reducing sample and reagent consumption. The soon to be launched Gyrolab Bioaffy 20 HC is equipped with a high-capacity column to enable quantification of concentrations up to the mg/ml range, minimizing the need for sample dilution. www.gyros.com /applications/applications_overview.html   (201 words)

 Quantification - Auburn University - College of Veterinary Medicine The intensity of the fluorescent signal is proportional to the amount of amplification product and is measured at each thermal PCR cycle. The threshold cycle for positive samples is converted into starting target copy numbers by use of the standard regression. Three aliquots of nucleic acids extracted from EDTA blood of a dog chronically infected with very low numbers of Hepatozoon americanum are examined for monitoring of the response to therapy. www.vetmed.auburn.edu /index.pl/quantification   (229 words)

 Quantification Courses General Education quantification courses can be divided into two categories: (1) precalculus and calculus courses, which have a prerequisite of satisfactory performance on Penn State's mathematics placement test, and (2) other General Education quantification courses that have no prerequisites but may have suggested preparation. Assistance in quantification courses is available for all students at the Math Center. General Education quantification courses are designated with the suffix "GQ." They may be selected from mathematics, statistics, computer science, and symbolic logic. www.psu.edu /dus/handbook/gq.html   (1824 words)

 CHI's Gene Quantification: Introspection and RNA Meditations We have developed an extremely sensitive technique termed immuno-detection amplified by T7 RNA polymerase (IDAT) that is capable of monitoring proteins, lipids, and metabolites and their modifications at the single-cell level. There are significant problems with assay standardization, relevant normalization, and the interpretation of results that are numerical and lend themselves to statistical analysis yet whose accuracy is significantly affected by reagent and operator variability. XP technology will allow us to perform experiments under tightly controlled conditions ensuring the high level of reproducibility that is required for extracting the quality of data necessary for systems analysis, target validation, compound screening and compound optimization. www.healthtech.com /2002/qga/index.htm   (3166 words)

 Amazon.com: Gene Quantification (Advanced Biomedical Technologies): Books: Francois Ferre   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) Gene quantification is proving invaluable in biological research for comparing patterns of gene expression and in medical research for deciphering pathological processes. Hence the common theme to all gene quantification methods presented is the fact that quantification requires amplification, either controlled gene amplification or signal amplification. Special attention is given to a distinction between relative quantification, for biological applications; and accurate quantification, for medical/clinical applications. www.amazon.com /Gene-Quantification-Advanced-Biomedical-Technologies/dp/0817639454   (701 words)

 [No title] Tarski's method of truth and satisfaction as applied to quantification), to show those aspects of a sentence's meaning which follow from the logical role of certain terms (and not from the lexical meaning of words; cf. As with other approaches to logical form, quantification provides a central illustration This is because, since Frege, it has been generally accepted that the treatment of quantification requires a "transformation" of a sentence's surface form. Constant in these discussions has been the assumption that logical form is integrated into syntactic description generally, and hence that the thesis that natural languages are logical is an ultimately an empirical issue within the general theory of syntactic rules and principles. kleene.ss.uci.edu /~rmay/LogicalForm.html   (1317 words)

 [No title] A set-theoretical semantics for any genuine quantification over all propositions, however, would demand a set of all propositions, and any such supposed set will fall victim to precisely the same type of argument levelled against a set of all truths. Within any logic we have there seems to be no place for any genuine quantification over 'all propositions', then, for precisely the same reasons that there is no place for a set of all truths. It seems to be phrased entirely in terms of quantification and turns simply on notions of truths, of properties, and the fact that the hypothesis of a one-to-one mapping of a certain sort leads to contradiction. www.sunysb.edu /philosophy/faculty/pgrim/exchange.txt   (4334 words)

 LightCycler® Kits for Quantification in the Field of Oncology Research Product Sheet - Roche Diagnostics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-22) The LightCycler® Kits for quantification in the Field of oncology research are specifically designed for researchers using the LightCycler® Instrument. A variety of kits are available for quantification of over-amplification/-expression in human malignancies, micrometastasis, fluoropyrimidine metabolism and telomerase research, respectively. For quantification of Telomerase (hTERT)-encoding mRNA and specifically adapted for PCR in glass capillaries using the LightCycler® instrument. www.roche-diagnostics.com /products_services/oncology_research_kits.html   (306 words)

 Easier fluorescent quantification of proteins: News from Sigma-Aldrich These improved performance characteristics are the result of extensive research by a team of scientists that developed the current kit employing this novel fluorophore in a convenient kit format. The ability to bind to free amines reversibly in an aqueous environment make this the preferred method for quantification prior to mass spectrometry of precious small samples. Tolerance of buffering and solubilising substances that interfere with other commonly used quantification methods eliminates the requirement of precipitation and risk of sample modification. www.laboratorytalk.com /news/sgm/sgm148.html   (335 words)

 Verification of an Assay for Quantification of Hepatitis C Virus RNA by Use of an Analyte-Specific Reagent and Two ... Verification of an Assay for Quantification of Hepatitis C Virus RNA by Use of an Analyte-Specific Reagent and Two Different Extraction Methods and (iii) correlation of quantification by CTM48 HCV ASR and Quantification by the two methods was correlated (r = 0.97). jcm.asm.org /cgi/content/full/42/8/3581   (3231 words)

 Active Motif » Tools to Analyze Cellular Function Active Motif's Fluorescent Protein Quantification Kit simplifies protein quantification by providing highly sensitive detection reagents in a convenient and easy-to-use format. Protein quantification is an essential step in many modern cell biology procedures, such as Western blot and ELISA. Increasing amounts of BSA protein were quantified using the Fluorescent Protein Quantification Kit in the presence of a variety of contaminants. www.activemotif.com /catalog/cell_biology/fluorescent_protein_quantification   (280 words)

 Reference and Quantification in Discourse This study tries to determine how reference and quantification are expressed in natural language (in particular, in English), taking into account that language does not normally come in the form of isolated sentences but in the form of discourse. Since this kind of quantification (one case of "A-Quantification") functions on the level of entire propositions, all the difficulties that stem from the unselectivity of implicit quantification in traditional DRT re-appear with such adverbs. Non-universal individual level quantification over universally quantified sets, possibly with an unexpressed universal adverb of quantification ("always"): "Most farmers beat their donkeys" is interpreted as "For any set of... www.ifi.unizh.ch /groups/CL/hess/hess_habil.html   (4827 words)

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