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Topic: Quantum number


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In the News (Tue 23 Apr 19)

  
  ScienceDaily: Quantum number
Each quantum number specifies the value of a conserved quantity in the dynamics of the quantum system.
Quantum number -- A quantum number describes the energies of electrons in atoms.
Specifically, atomic orbitals are the quantum states of the individual electrons in the...
www.sciencedaily.com /encyclopedia/Quantum_number   (1536 words)

  
 Quantum number Summary
Quantum numbers are the four numbers used to describe not only the distribution of electrons in atoms and molecular systems but also the allowable values of certain physical quantities of an electron's behavior.
It is an intrinsic quantum number that is unrelated to the s-shaped orbital.
However, it should be understood that the elementary particles are quantum states of the standard model of particle physics, and hence the quantum numbers of these particles bear the same relation to the Hamiltonian of this model as the quantum numbers of the Bohr atom does to its Hamiltonian.
www.bookrags.com /Quantum_number   (1755 words)

  
 Hydrogen Schrodinger Equation
This relationship between the magnitude of the angular momentum and the quantum number is commonly visualized in terms of a vector model.
The orbital quantum number is used as a part of the designation of atomic electron states in the spectroscopic notation.
The orbital quantum number plays a role in the Zeeman interaction since the orbital motion contributes a magnetic moment, and is important as an indicator of subshell differences in electron energies.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/quantum/hydcol.html   (315 words)

  
 Quantum number - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The principal quantum number (n = 1, 2, 3,...) denotes the eigenvalue of H with the J
However, it should be understood that the elementary particles are quantum states of the standard model of particle physics, and hence the quantum numbers of these particles bear the same relation to the Hamiltonian of this model as the quantum numbers of the Bohr atom does to its Hamiltonian.
Typical quantum numbers related to spacetime symmetries are spin (related to rotational symmetry), the parity, C-parity and T-parity (related to the Poincare symmetry of spacetime).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Quantum_number   (829 words)

  
 Hydrogen Schrodinger Equation
While the azimuthal dependence of the wavefunction only requires the quantum number to be an integer, the coupling to the colatitude equation further constrains that integer to be less than or equal to the orbital quantum number.
It is called the magnetic quantum number because the application of an external magnetic field causes a splitting of spectral lines called the Zeeman effect.
When this is expressed in quantum terms, photon emission is always accompanied by a change of 1 in the orbital angular momentum quantum number.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/quantum/hydazi.html   (460 words)

  
 Atom - MSN Encarta
This number is called the orbital’s secondary quantum number, or its angular momentum quantum number (abbreviated l).
An s-orbital, with a secondary quantum number of 0, is spherical.
The magnetic quantum number determines how orbitals with the same size and angular momentum are oriented in space.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761567432_5/Atom.html   (1227 words)

  
 Quantum dice debut TRN 011404
Quantum random numbers could also be useful for increasing the efficiency of quantum secret-sharing schemes, quantum encryption and various forms of quantum communications.
A quantum particle decoheres, or is knocked out of its quantum state, when it interacts with energy from the environment in the form of light, heat, electricity or magnetism.
Random quantum operations can be used as control operations that, when subjected to the noise affecting a prototype quantum computer, will generate a response that depends only on the noise, he said.
www.trnmag.com /Stories/2004/011404/Quantum_dice_debut_011404.html   (958 words)

  
 Duran: Chapter Nine Quantum Numbers and the Wave Mechanical Model of the Atom   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
The orbital quantum number, l, (or angular momentum quantum number) cannot be larger than n-1, but can be zero or a positive integer.
The quantum number l determines the geometric shape of the orbital.
Spin is an intrinsic quantum number, which causes electrons to behave as if they are spinning on their axis, generating a magnetic field.
www.chem.ufl.edu /~chm2040/Notes/Chapter_9/quantum.html   (407 words)

  
 Quantum Numbers
The Bohr model was a one-dimensional model that used one quantum number to describe the electrons in the atom.
Quantum Chemistry: Describes the way atoms combine to form molecules and the way molecules interact with one another, using the rules of quantum physics.
One of the key insights in quantum chemistry is that, because an electron is not a classical particle located at a definite point in space, even a single electron can "surround" the nucleus of an atom, filling a volume roughly as big as the whole atom.
www.csulb.edu /~dbosonet/Wilson_Chemistry_2006-07/quantum_numbers_2006.htm   (907 words)

  
 Quantum Numbers
The Bohr model was a one-dimensional model that used one quantum number to describe the distribution of electrons in the atom.
It forces the number of subshells in a shell to be equal to the principal quantum number for the shell.
The number of orbitals in a shell is the square of the principal quantum number: 1
chemed.chem.purdue.edu /genchem/topicreview/bp/ch6/quantum.php   (2581 words)

  
 Random Numbers Info
Quantum physics is a set of theories elaborated by physicists during the first half of the XXth century and which describes microscopic systems like atoms or elementary particles.
When designing a random number generator, it is thus a natural choice to take advantage of this intrinsic randomness and to resort to the use of a quantum process as source of randomness.
Until recently the only quantum random number generator that existed were based on the observation of the radioactive decay of some element.
www.randomnumbers.info /content/Generating.htm   (876 words)

  
 Quantum Numbers
Since the frequency f varies with the harmonic number n, we wrote the symbol for the frequency with the subscript n, denoting which harminic number the frequency corresponds to (so that we could write, for example, that the frequency of the first overtone, corresponding to n = 2, is given from Eq.
As a result, the quantum state corresponding to n = 2 is called first-excited state, and its energy is correspondingly called the energy of the first-excited state (who could have guessed...).
Such a diagram shows the various energy levels (or energies of the various quantum states) stacked on top of one another, with higher energy being higher up in the diagram (that is, the energy increases as you move up in the diagram).
physics.mtsu.edu /~phys2020/Lectures/L6-L11/L8/Quantum_Numbers/quantum_numbers.html   (974 words)

  
 Quantum number.
A quantum number as far as I can recognize is the single unit value in a non abstractive measure therefore if the number 3 has a value in a Chronograph it would be subject relative to its effect of angular definition.
The quantum numbers are actually just a description of how many of these discreet units are present in a given object.
When we represent the quantum states that are occupied by mesons, we generally form the multiplets of mesons based on the quantum numbers N, l, s, j, P, and C. Within these multiplets are members with different values of I, G, S, C, B and T numbers as well.
www.physicsforums.com /showthread.php?p=105263   (692 words)

  
 Grandinetti-Teaching-Chem 121-Course Notes-Quantum Numbers
Let's look at the quantum numbers needed to label the possible standing waves or states of an electron trapped by its electrostatic attraction to a positively charged nucleus.
This quantum number defines the shape of the orbital.
The spin quantum number shows up when the wave function of quantum mechanics is modified to include the effects of relativity.
www.grandinetti.org /Teaching/Chem121/Lectures/QuantumNumbers   (869 words)

  
 Quantum Mechanical Model
The principle quantum number represents physically the radial extension that the region extends from the center of the atom.
The second quantum number in the set is called the subsidiary number and is symbollically represented by L. L can have values beginning with zero and increasing in value one integer until the integer N-1 is reached.
The third quantum number in the set is called the magnetic quantum number and is symbolized as M. M values begin at -L values and proceed with every integer until L+1 is reached.
members.aol.com /profchm/quantum.html   (1833 words)

  
 Quantum Numbers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
model was a one-dimensional model that used one quantum number to describe the electrons in the atom.
Quantum Chemistry: Describes the way atoms combine to form molecules and the way molecules interact with one another, using the rules of quantum physics.
One of the key insights in quantum chemistry is that, because an electron is not a classical particle located at a definite point in space, even a single electron can "surround" the nucleus of an atom, filling a volume roughly as big as the whole atom.
www.howe.k12.ok.us /~jimaskew/cquantum.htm   (955 words)

  
 Quantum numbers/electron configuration
The first or principal quantum number, n, refers to the energy levels 1 – 7 (corresponding to the row numbers on the periodic table).
The "azimuthal quantum number" (l) defines the shape of the orbital and is generally designated by the letters s,p,d, and f.
The number of sublevels in each energy level is equal to the value of the principal quantum number.
www.salineschools.com /users/sparksb/quantumS2.html   (1156 words)

  
 Electron Configuration
Or, the secondary quantum number gives the shape of the orbital so the analogy can be made to the shape of the computer with larger values associated with computers with more components.
The final quantum number is the spin quantum number, it describes the spin orientation of an electron.
The number of electrons in an atom of an element is given by the atomic number of that element.
library.thinkquest.org /10429/high/eleconfig/electron.htm   (812 words)

  
 ACTIVITY LEARNING QUANTUM NUMBERS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
Quantum numbers are identified as principal, orbital, magnetic, and spin.
Each orbital is described by a number symbolizing the principal quantum number and a letter symbolizing the orbital quantum number.
In your journal, write a summary that describes how all three quantum numbers are used to identify the electronic structure of an atom.
www.unco.edu /chemquest/3con11w.htm   (626 words)

  
 Quantum Computing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
In this case a number of quantum dots are put into a common microcavity characterized by a high quality factor.
The computation process utilizes the three lowest levels of a quantum dot; two of them represent a state of a qubit, while the third one is used to arrange an electron interaction with the electromagnetic field.
A number of propositions were generated that use either electrical [2] or optical [37] methods to control the two-qubit rotations in NMR solid-state QC.
www.ece.ncsu.edu /nano/quantum_computing.htm   (1897 words)

  
 General Chemistry Online: Glossary: Electrons in atoms
The number of orbitals in a subshell is the same as the number of possible m
quantum number has only two possible values, the Pauli principle says that a maximum of two electrons can occupy an atomic orbital- and these electrons must have opposite spins.
The quantum number that determines the size and (in hydrogen atoms) the energy of an orbital
antoine.frostburg.edu /chem/senese/101/electrons/glossary.shtml   (1144 words)

  
 Modern Theory of Atomic Structure, page 2
The Magnetic quantum number is used to designate the number of orientations of the various types of orbitals on the three-dimensional axis system.
Quantum Numbers are terms which were developed to aid in describing electron behavior according to the Schrodinger Wave Equation.
This number is the spin quantum number and is symbolized as s.
www.bcpl.net /~kdrews/mtas/modern2.html   (1095 words)

  
 Quantum number
In quantum theory, the division of energy of a system into discrete units (quanta), so that continuous infinitesimal changes are excluded.3.
The distortion that arises in the mapping of a continuous signal on to a number of discrete levels so that it may be coded for digital transmission.
The ratio of the number of photon-induced reactions occurring to the total number of incident photons.
www.basicfiles.com /Quantum_number.htm   (1045 words)

  
 Chemistry : Chapter 3 : Overview   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-09)
For each quantum number there is a set of possible values and each quantum number describes some aspect of the electron and its orbital.
The first quantum number is called the principal quantum number and is represented by n.
The next quantum number is the angular momentum quantum number, which has the symbol of l.
www.wwnorton.com /chemistry/overview/ch3.htm   (2305 words)

  
 QUANTUM NUMBERS-PRINCIPLE QUANTUM NUMBER-AZIMUTHAL QUANTUM NUMBER-MAGNETIC QUANTUM NUMBER-SPIN QUANTUM NUMBER
These constant numbers are necessary to describe the position, spin, energy and orientation of an orbital in space.
The values of principle quantum number are from 1 to n (where n is a positive whole number i.e.
Magnetic quantum number indicates the orientation of an orbital in space in an applied magnetic field.
www.citycollegiate.com /atomic_structureXIa.htm   (174 words)

  
 Quantum field theory Summary
Quantum field theory originated in the problem of computing the energy radiated by an atom when it dropped from one quantum state to another of lower energy.
As described in the article on identical particles, quantum mechanical particles of the same species are indistinguishable, in the sense that the state of the entire system must be symmetric (bosons) or antisymmetric (fermions) when the coordinates of its constituent particles are exchanged.
For example, in every quantum theory the global phase of the wave function is arbitrary and does not represent something physical, so the theory is invariant under a global change of phases (adding a constant to the phase of all wave functions, everywhere); this is a global symmetry.
www.bookrags.com /Quantum_field_theory   (5286 words)

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