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Topic: Quantum optics

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  Quantum optics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Quantum optics is a field of research in physics, dealing with the application of quantum mechanics to phenomena involving light and its interactions with matter.
Research into quantum optics, which aims to bring photons into use for information transfer and computation, is now often called photonics to emphasize the claim that photons and photonics will take the role that electrons and electronics now have.
Atoms are considered as quantum mechanical oscillators with a discrete energy spectrum with the transitions between the energy eigenstates being driven by the absorption or emission of light according to Einstein's theory with the oscillator strength depending on the quantum numbers of the states.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Quantum_optics   (1054 words)

 Quantum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For instance, a "light quantum", being a unit of light (that is, a photon).
Usually referred to as quantum "mechanics", it is regarded by virtually every professional physicist as the most fundamental framework we have for understanding and describing nature, for the very practical reason that it works.
Quantum theory, the branch of physics based on quantization, began in 1900 when Max Planck published his theory explaining the emission spectrum of fl bodies.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Quantum   (1388 words)

 Quantum optics - Open Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The fundamental ideas of quantum optics, namely Albert Einstein's 1905 theory of the photoelectric effect and all the understanding of the interaction between light and matter following from it not only form the basis of quantum optics but also here crucial for the development of quantum mechanics as a whole.
A clearer understanding of the statistics of light was gained, with the introduction of the concepts of coherent states, squeezed light etc. being the successes of the 1970s and 1980s, as well as the development of short and ultrashort laser pulses, opening the way to the study of unimaginably fast processes (see femtosecond physics).
This kind of use of statistical mechanics is the fundament of most concepts of quantum optics: Light is described in terms of field operators for creation and annihilation of photons, i.e.
open-encyclopedia.com /Quantum_optics   (760 words)

 Quantum optics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Quantum optics is a field of research in physics, dealing withthe application of quantum mechanics to phenomena involving light and its interactions with matter.
Research into quantum optics, which aims to bring photons to use for information transfer and computation, is now often called photonics to emphasize the claim that photons and photonics will take the rolethat electrons and electronics now have.
Atoms are considered as quantum mechanical oscillators with a discrete energy spectrum withthe transitions between the energy eigenstates being driven by the absorptionor emission of light according to Einstein's theory with the oscillator strength depending on the quantum numbers of the states.
www.therfcc.org /quantum-optics-23585.html   (727 words)

 Encyclopedia article: Quantum optics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
However, the subfields of quantum mechanics dealing with matter-light interaction were principally regarded as research in matter rather than in light and hence, one rather spoke of atom physics (additional info and facts about atom physics) and quantum electronics (additional info and facts about quantum electronics).
Other remarkable results are the demonstration of quantum entanglement (additional info and facts about quantum entanglement), quantum teleportation (additional info and facts about quantum teleportation) and (recently, in 2004) quantum logic gates.
The latter are of much interest in quantum information theory (additional info and facts about quantum information theory), a subject which partly emerged from quantum optics, partly from theoretical computer science (The branch of engineering science that studies (with the aid of computers) computable processes and structures).
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/q/qu/quantum_optics.htm   (670 words)

 Quantum Optics
Quantum Optics is the study of radiation and matter in the optical wavelength domain, where sophisticated advances in laser technology enable tests of fundamental physical questions with unprecedented precision.
Boyd is interested in studies of the nonlinear interaction of light with matter, in the development of nanostructured materials with exotic optical properties, and in the creation of quantum states of light through use of nonlinear optical techniques.
Eberly's group is involved in the study of nonclassical states of radiation, continuous quantum entanglement, optical dark-state solitons, and electron correlation in high-field ionization.
spider.pas.rochester.edu /mainFrame/research/qo.html   (414 words)

 LSP:Quantum Optics
The setting of the linear optics components in the grey box entangle the output channels in such a way that if the ancillary detectors are triggered in a given configuration, the output state of the gate is projected in the state corresponding to the desired logic function applied on the input Qbits.
Quantum dots are nano-islands (10 nm) of a semiconductor embedded in another semiconducting material (Fig.
To improve the quantum efficiency of these detectors, the reflection and transmission coefficients can be tailored by 2D or 3D light confinement techniques to enhance the photon absorption probability.
www-lsp.ujf-grenoble.fr /eng/recherche/a1t4/a1t4a3/experiments.htm   (1358 words)

 Quantum Optics: Coupling One Atom To One Photon
In "Yale scientists bring quantum optics to a microchip," you'll discover that it is now possible to perform quantum optics experiments in a micro-chip electrical circuit using microwaves instead of visible photons and lasers.
This represents a new paradigm in which quantum optics experiments can be performed in a micro-chip electrical circuit using microwaves instead of visible photons and lasers.
Under the peculiar rules of quantum mechanics, the state of the system becomes a coherent superposition of two simultaneous possibilities: the energy is either an excitation of the atom, or it is a photon.
radio.weblogs.com /0105910/2004/09/11.html   (765 words)

 Quantum Teleportation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
In quantum teleportation, an unknown quantum state is faithfully transferred from a sender (Alice) to a receiver (Bob).
We have implemented quantum teleportation with light beams serving as both the entangled pair and the input (and output) state.
Quantum teleportation is theoretically perfect, yielding an output state which equals the input with a fidelity F=1.
www.its.caltech.edu /~qoptics/teleport.html   (532 words)

 The Department of Physics
Quantum trajectory theory treats the open systems encountered in quantum optics according to a scattering scenario, in which the inputs are classical fields (external fields) and the outputs are classical stochastic processes that model the scattered fields after detection (after their measurement).
Quantum optics has traditionally concerned itself with uniquely quantum mechanical aspects of optical phenomena (e.g., photon antibunching and squeezing, violations of Bell inequalities).
A quantum trajectory theory of continuous variable teleportation is being developed for comparison with the stochastic electrodynamics proposal.
www.phy.auckland.ac.nz /html/h_carmichael.html   (487 words)

This textbook offers a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the basic ideas in modern quantum optics, beginning with a review of the whole of optics, and culminating in the quantum description of light.
Quantum mechanics is introduced in detail using the Dirac notation, which is explained from first principles.
In addition, a number of non-standard topics are covered such as the impossibility of a light-based Maxwell’s demon, the derivation of the Second Law of thermodynamics from the first-order time-dependent quantum perturbation theory, and the concept of Berry’s phase.
www.worldscibooks.com /physics/p380.html   (309 words)

 Quantum Optics - Cambridge University Press   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The book begins by developing the basic tools of quantum optics, and goes on to show the application of these tools in a variety of quantum optical systems, including lasing without inversion, squeezed states and atom optics.
The final four chapters are devoted to a discussion of quantum optical tests of the foundations of quantum mechanics, and to particular aspects of measurement theory.
Assuming only a background of standard quantum mechanics and electromagnetic theory, and containing many problems and references, this book will be invaluable to graduate students of quantum optics, as well as to researchers in this field.
www.cambridge.org /uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521435951   (265 words)

 HP Labs : Quantum Science Research : Nanophotonics and Quantum Optics
Quantum Information Science (QIS) is a rapidly emerging discipline with the potential to revolutionize measurement, computation and communication.
Similarly, quantum metrology and imaging have interest for the nanoscale manufacturing and physical security industries, as these techniques allow tiny phase shifts, displacements, and forces to be accurately measured remotely even when the target is enclosed within an inaccessible or hostile environment.
Our research emphasizes the development of quantum information processing primitives based on nonlinear quantum optics (such as a universal set of optical gates and single-photon detectors) in photonic nanostructures.
www.hpl.hp.com /research/qsr/quantumoptics.html   (869 words)

 Caltech Quantum Optics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Cavity quantum electrodynamics is one of the few experimentally viable systems in which the intrinsic quantum mechanical coupling dominates losses due to dissipation.
We have used an ensemble of cesium atoms to generate nonclassically correlated photon pairs with a programmable delay interval; additionally, the ensemble is a source of conditional single photons.
Quantum interference and frequency metrology, squeezed light, and more...
www.its.caltech.edu /~qoptics   (508 words)

 Department of Physics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The quantum optics and quantum informatics group at Macquarie University (QOQIMU) enjoys an excellent reputation for a decade of significant achievements in the areas of cavity quantum electrodynamics, nonlinear quantum interferometry, propagation of Bose-Einstein condensates, quantum measurement bounds, practical quantum cryptography, resources and bounds in quantum computation, quantum communication and foundations of quantum theory.
To extend knowledge, understanding and methods in quantum science and to employ concepts and tools of quantum science to propose and critically evaluate research and development in quantum technology.
To lead research in theoretical quantum science and technology through a combination of expertise in quantum optics, quantum mechanics and quantum informatics, skills in relevant areas of mathematical physics and productive collaborations with experimentalists in quantum science and technology.
www.physics.mq.edu.au /~barry/theory/quaptics.html   (550 words)

 ITAMP Workshop: Mesoscopic Physics, Quantum Optics, and Quantum Information
Using a mechanism analogous to cavity quantum electrodynamics, an atomic state can be transferred to a long-lived mode of the fluctuating voltage, atoms separated by millimeters can be entangled, or the quantum state of a solid-state device can be mapped onto atomic or photonic states.
Semiconductor quantum dots have optical properties similar to simple atomic systems, unlike higher dimensional semiconductor structures that are dominated by manybody physics associated with the continuum states.
For a quantum dot on resonance with a cavity, the spontaneous emission rate has been increased by a factor of five, while the probability to emit two or more photons in the same pulse has been reduced to 2% compared to a Poisson-distributed source of the same intensity.
www.cfa.harvard.edu /itamp/mesoscopic/mesoscopic.html   (5264 words)

 USATODAY.com - Nobel physics prize brings quantum optics out of dark   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Shining a light on the workings of optics — the foundation for technologies that allows for more precise clocks and global positioning satellites — netted the 2005 Nobel Prize in Physics for two Americans and one German on Tuesday.
Quantum optics explains how individual light particles, or photons, combine to create coherent or scattered beams of light.
Hall was a leader at the 1983 conference that defined the speed of light as the distance light travels in 1/299,792,458 of a second, a measure made possible via precision lasers.
www.usatoday.com /news/world/2005-10-04-americans-nobelprize_x.htm?csp=34   (889 words)

 Quantum key distribution with 1.25 Gbps clock synchronization
We have demonstrated the exchange of sifted quantum cryptographic key over a 730 meter free-space link at rates of up to 1.0 Mbps, two orders of magnitude faster than previously reported results.
A classical channel at 1550 nm operates in parallel with a quantum channel at 845 nm.
Bennet and G. Brassard, “Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing,” in Proc.
www.opticsexpress.org /abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-9-2011   (461 words)

 Wiley::Quantum Optics in Phase Space
"Quantum Optics in Phase Space" has been successful in preparing students and researchers for their quest of unravelling the mysteries of nature.
The first experiments that led to the development of quantum optics as a subject have been described in fullest detail.
Classical experiments in optics have been re-explained with the help of quantum optics.
www.wiley.com /WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-352729435X,descCd-reviews.html   (375 words)

 Quantum Optics @ Georgia Tech   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Abstract: A quantum repeater at telecommunications wavelengths with long-lived atomic memory is proposed, and its critical elements are experimentally demonstrated using a cold atomic ensemble.
The former is ideal for long-distance quantum communication, and the latter is naturally suited for mapping to a long-lived atomic memory.
Such techniques can be applied to quantum information processing, e.g., to create one-photon light sources and many-particle atomic entanglement.
www.physics.gatech.edu /qoptics   (236 words)

 Wiley::Quantum Optics: An Introduction, 2nd Revised and Enlarged Edition   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Optics, Light and Lasers: The Practical Approach to Modern Aspects of Photonics and Laser Physics (Paperback)
This is the revised and supplemented edition of the acknowledged "Lectures on Quantum Optics" by W. Vogel and D.-G. Welsch.
The rigorous development of quantum optics in the context of quantum field theory and the attention spent to details make the book valuable to graduate students as well as to researchers in related areas.
www.wiley.com /cda/product/0,,352740256X,00.html   (246 words)

 Quantum Optics
Theoretical studies are currently being performed in a number of topics in atom optics, quantum optics and nonlinear optics.
Nonlinear atom optics has the potential to impact a number of fields of physics, including the generation and manipulation of coherent matter waves or ‘atom lasers’, the preparation of quantum entanglements in mesoscopic quantum systems, and the study of the interface between the microscopic and macroscopic worlds.
Research in the Nonlinear and Quantum Optics Group includes ultrashort pulse propagation in nonlinear media, Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in atomic vapors, optical trapping of particles using laser beams, and the theory of electromagnetic anyons in chiral planar nanostructures.
www.optics.arizona.edu /research/Quantum.htm   (800 words)

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