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Topic: Runoff

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  Runoff voting - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Runoff voting can be condensed into a single preference ballot paper, at which point it becomes instant-runoff voting or an "alternative vote".
In a runoff ballot, all candidates are placed on the initial ballot and all voters are allowed to participate in the vote, whereas primaries are generally internal measures within a political party.
A two-round runoff voting system, in practice, may work as a system of primary elections in countries where there are two major partisan blocks, by choosing for the second round of election a candidate in each block.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Runoff_voting   (1105 words)

 Instant-runoff voting - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Unlike runoff voting, however, there are no chances to deal in between rounds, change voters' minds, or gain support of the other candidates.
This is considered a weakness by the advocates of a more deliberative democracy, who point to the French system of presidential election where such between-round dealings are heavily exploited and useful (they say) to draw together a very factionalized electorate.
However, critics of the French runoff system point to the dreaded "votez escroc, pas facho" (vote for the crook, not the fascist) phenomenon, which they believe awarded Chirac an undeserved landslide victory in 2002.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Instant-runoff_voting   (3692 words)

 Reducing Erosion and Runoff
Runoff entering lakes and stream, in addition to carrying pollutants, is water that is needed to soak through the soil to resupply our groundwater.
Erosion and runoff in the home landscape also create unsightly bare areas and deposit mud and dust on driveways and walkways that is then tracked into the house.
Runoff from roofs and paved areas can contribute to erosion by directing large amounts of water in a short time period to nearby areas that are unable to absorb it quickly enough.
www.ext.vt.edu /pubs/envirohort/426-722/426-722.html   (1223 words)

 Stormwater | Agricultural Runoff
Runoff quantity varies significantly according to soil type, presence of vegetation and plant residue, physical soil structures such as contoured rows and terraces, field topography, and the timing and intensity of the rainfall event.
One of the primary pollutants in agricultural runoff is eroded soil.
Control of water pollution in agricultural runoff is most effectively achieved by reducing erosion from the field, and the primary method of doing this is by maintaining a vegetative or plant residue cover on the field at all times or minimizing bare areas of the field.
www.forester.net /sw_0305_impact.html   (3227 words)

 Runoff - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Run-off or runoff may refer to one of the following.
runoff, an excessive water e.g., from precipitation of snowmelt, possibly carrying chemical substances, such as fertilizers.
RUNOFF -- the first computer type-setting program, on the CTSS operating system
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Runoff   (113 words)

 [No title]
Since the distribution of runoff is far from uniform through the Mississippi River basin, with a concentration of much greater values in the southeastern area, the basin-wide average for the region upstream of Vicksburg is substantially lower than that for the entire basin.
The undepleted runoff can be scaled using a ratio of runoff produced upstream of Vicksburg to that of the entire Mississippi basin, based on VIC model results (note that only the ratios are taken from model simulations, and not the predicted runoff).
The runoff values for the entire Mississippi River basin are derived by multiplying the annual undepleted runoffs for each year by the annual ratios.
www.ce.washington.edu /~edm/WEBS_runoff   (856 words)

 Purdue AGEN 526: Storm Runoff Prediction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Runoff is the most basic and important factor needed when planning water control strategies/practices such as waterways, storage facilities or erosion control structures.
Runoff is that portion of precipitation that flows over land surfaces toward larger bodies of water.
The runoff coefficient, C, is dependent upon physical characteristics of the watershed, e.g.
pasture.ecn.purdue.edu /~abe526/resources1/Runoff/rain.html   (765 words)

 Science in Your Watershed -- Glossary
Thus, the terms discharge, streamflow, and runoff represent water with the solids dissolved in it and the sediment mixed with it.
The hydrograph of direct runoff from a storm uniformly distributed over the drainage basin during a specified unit of time; the hydrograph is reduced in vertical scale to correspond to a volume of runoff of 1 inch from the drainage basin.
Runoff, 17; direct runoff, 7; stormflow, 18; overland flow, 14; base runoff, 5; base flow, 5; surface runoff, 20; subsurface runoff, 19; ground-water runoff, 12; storm seepage, 18; depression storage, 7; effective precipitation, 8; rainfall excess, 15; time of concentration, 20.
water.usgs.gov /wsc/glossary.html   (10007 words)

 Phosphorus Index | NRCS
During detachment and movement of sediment in runoff, the finer clay-sized fraction of the source material are preferentially eroded.
As runoff moves from the landscape and toward the water body there is generally a progressive dilution of P through additions of water and a reduction in the amount of sediment carried because of sediment deposition.
The interaction between the particulate and dissolved P in the runoff is very dynamic and the mechanism of transport is complex.
www.nrcs.usda.gov /technical/ECS/nutrient/pindex.html   (4301 words)

 GCM September 1998 -- Reducing pesticide and nutrient runoff using buffers
From the plot with no buffer, pesticide loss to surface runoff was 3 percent of applied amounts and nutrient loss to surface runoff was 2 percent.
Surface runoff losses of pesticides and nutrients increased when the soil was saturated at the time of application.
Greater runoff losses occurred from the herbicides and urea fertilizer, which have higher water solubilities and lower adsorption compared with the insecticide and S-coated urea fertilizer.
www.gcsaa.org /gcm/1998/sep98/09reducing.html   (1495 words)

 Instant Runoff Voting   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Instant Runoff Voting is a system that guarantees the winning candidate has a majority of the votes (instead of a plurality) and eliminates the "wasted vote syndrome" caused by third party candidates.
A runoff election is sometimes (rarely) held when there are three or more candidates and none of them won a majority of the votes.
Instant runoff voting was invented by an American, W. Ware, a Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, around 1870.
www.instantrunoff.com /faq.asp   (553 words)

 8(n) Introduction to Surface Runoff
On a global scale, runoff occurs because of the imbalance between evaporation and precipitation over the Earth's land and ocean surfaces.
Areas having the most runoff are those with high rates of precipitation and low rates of evaporation.
The rapid movement of surface runoff into the stream's channels and subsequent flow causes the discharge to rise quickly.
www.physicalgeography.net /fundamentals/8n.html   (560 words)

 NRDC: Stormwater Strategies - Chapter 12
Surface runoff that discharges through separate sewer systems and combined sewer overflows are the most significant sources of pollutants to District waters, causing almost 70 percent of their overall impairment.
Runoff is directed to the tree-box, where it is cleaned by vegetation and soil before entering a catch basin.
It captures runoff from a one-acre drainage that is 75 percent impervious cover, removing oil, grease, heavy metals, nutrients, and sediment.
www.nrdc.org /water/pollution/storm/chap12.asp   (11622 words)

 runoff   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Since runoff is affected by so many different variable, it is almost impossible to predict the amount of runoff from specific land surfaces.
Mainly runoff is determined from water carried and measured in stream channels.
Measurments are made from stream "gages" that measure the level of flow in feet or the amount of flow, usually in cubic feet per second, that is the amount of water in cubic feet passing a certain point on a river in a second's time.
pls.atu.edu /physci/geology/people/baker/geol1004/runoff_htm.htm   (1506 words)

 Runoff: transfer of landwater to the oceans
Runoff is the movement of landwater to the oceans, chiefly in the form of rivers, lakes, and streams.
Runoff consists of precipitation that neither evaporates, transpires nor penetrates the surface to become groundwater.
Excess runoff can lead to flooding, which occurs when there is too much precipitation.
ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu /(Gh)/guides/mtr/hyd/run.rxml   (438 words)

 International Year of the Ocean - Fact Sheets (Runoff Pollution)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Runoff pollution includes many small sources, like septic tanks, cars, trucks and boats, plus larger sources, such as farms, ranches and forest areas.
In some areas, runoff pollution is so bad that it causes beaches to be closed after rainstorms.
Experts think there is a link between agricultural runoff and water-borne organisms that cause lesions and death in fish.
www.yoto98.noaa.gov /facts/pollut.htm   (440 words)

 Treating and Recycling Irrigation Runoff
The potential contamination of surface and groundwater from runoff presents a major challenge for the greenhouse industry.
Obviously, the less runoff you have to deal with, the less of a problem it creates.
Since up to the first 2 inches of storm runoff must be collected reservoir capacity should be designed on the basis of predict-able storm events.
aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu /GREENHOUSE/nursery/environ/wmrecyc.html   (1139 words)

 Predicting Runoff from Rain Events I   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
When attempting to treat (remove) constituents in the runoff and when attempting to manage the hydraulic effects of runoff, it is necessary to estimate the volume and velocity of runoff that will come from that site.
Precipitation - The amount of runoff is directly related to the amount of precipitation that occurs during a "rain event." When designing a structure, an engineer usually uses a "design storm".
The index, called "curve number" runs from 0 (no runoff, all water retained on site; could be thought of as coarse gravel having infinite drainage capacity) to 100 (all runoff, no retention whatever; could correspond to a smooth impervious surface).
grapevine.abe.msstate.edu /classes/abe4312/2001e/lec3/runoff_1.html   (1470 words)

 Rainfall runoff
Runoff is extremely important in that not only does it keep rivers and lakes full of water, but it also changes the landscape by the action of erosion.
Runoff may be classified according to speed of appearance after rainfall or melting snow as direct runoff or base runoff, and according to source as surface runoff, storm interflow, or ground-water runoff.
Drainage ditches to carry stormwater runoff to storage ponds are often built to hold runoff and collect excess sediment in order to keep it out of streams.
ga.water.usgs.gov /edu/runoff.html   (479 words)

 Measure H: Runoff Elections Charter Amendment - Alameda County, CA
The savings from avoiding a runoff election by lowering the vote threshold to 40% ranges between $100,000 for a runoff election in a council district, to $300,000 for a citywide runoff election for mayor or auditor.
Under current law, a runoff election is required if the candidate with the most votes for the offices of mayor, councilmember or auditor fails to receive at least 45% of the total votes cast for the office.
Under the proposed amendment, a runoff election for these offices would only be triggered if the candidate with the most votes for the office fails to receive at least 40% of the votes cast for that office.
www.smartvoter.org /2004/03/02/ca/alm/meas/H   (739 words)

 ARS | Publication request: A Simple Method to Predict Dissolved Phosphorus in Runoff from Surface Applied Manures
Based on the observed positive correlation between measured P in runoff and runoff volume, multiplying predicted runoff P by the ratio of runoff:rainfall improved the relationship between measured and predicted runoff P (R2 = 0.43).
For these soil box runoff experiments, we observed a positive correlation between measured dissolved reactive P concentrations in runoff and runoff volume.
Multiplying predicted runoff P concentrations by the ratio of runoff:rainfall improved the relationship between measured and predicted runoff P concentrations (R2 = 0.43).
ars.usda.gov /research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=148890   (532 words)

 Is Highway Runoff A Serious Problem?
Highway runoff that soaks into soil with or without the presence of any type of vegetation, channel, or basin is usually harmless to the environment.
The most common contaminants in highway runoff are heavy metals, inorganic salts, aromatic hydrocarbons, and suspended solids that accumulate on the road surface as a result of regular highway operation and maintenance activities.
Recent studies on the migration paths of deicing chemicals have indicated that, in places where highway runoff is discharged through open-drainage systems, as is typically done in many highways, concentrations of deicing chemicals tend to be substantially higher downgradient than upgradient from the highway.
www.tfhrc.gov /hnr20/runoff/runoff.htm   (3696 words)

 Election Selection: Science News Online, Nov. 2, 2002   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
One alternative is the instant runoff, a procedure used in Australia and Ireland that eliminates candidates one at a time from rankings provided by each voter.
The runoff election, in which Chirac trounced le Pen with 82 percent of the vote, suggests that while le Pen was at the top of a few voters' lists, he was near the bottom of many more.
For instance, the paradoxical outcome of the Florida race might have been avoided under the instant runoff, which is advocated by the Center for Voting and Democracy in Takoma Park, Md. In that system, voters rank the candidates, then the candidate with the fewest first-place votes is dropped.
www.sciencenews.org /20021102/bob8.asp   (8918 words)

 Insecticides Reduced in Runoff from Bt Cotton / March 7, 2001 / News from the USDA Agricultural Research Service
Runoff water from Mississippi fields planted with genetically engineered cotton was virtually free of insecticides during a four-year Agricultural Research Service study.
To measure pesticide runoff, the scientists planted cotton that was genetically engineered to contain a toxin from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis.
The scientists concluded that there are no detrimental environmental effects from either pyrethroid or organophosphate insecticides in runoff from any of the watershed sites sampled during this study.
www.ars.usda.gov /is/pr/2001/010307.htm   (317 words)

 Surfline | Runoff
Often referred to as urban runoff, stormwater runoff and non-point source pollution, this type of pollution is rain and river water that collects land-based contaminants and flushes them down to the beach.
In rural areas, similar runoff problems are the result of rainwater flowing over farms, roads, golf courses and lawns into waterways that ultimately reach the beach.
Stormwater runoff from both sources is a threat to human health and the health of coastal ecosystems.
www.surfline.com /surfaz/runoff.cfm   (396 words)

 CTSS PROGRAMMER'S GUIDE Section AH.9.01 12/66
The command RUNOFF will print out (in a format subject to control words placed in the file via TYPSET) a 12-bit BCD line-marked file in manuscript format.
RUNOFF contains several special control features which were not available with the DITTO command, including type-justification.
If this parameter is omitted, Runoff assumes that the ball in use will properly print all CTSS characters in the file.
web.mit.edu /Saltzer/www/publications/AH.9.01.html   (3918 words)

 EPA > Polluted Runoff (Nonpoint Source Pollution)
There are two different types of laws that help control urban runoff: one focusing on urban point sources and the other focusing on urban nonpoint sources.
Controlling runoff from existing urban areas tends to be relatively expensive compared to managing runoff from new developments.
Runoff management plans for existing areas can first identify priority pollutant reduction opportunities, then protect natural areas that help control runoff, and finally begin ecological restoration and retrofit activities to clean up degraded water bodies.
www.epa.gov /OWOW/NPS/facts/point7.htm   (886 words)

 WDNR - Runoff Management
The Runoff Management website provides the information and resources needed to effectively manage polluted runoff from agricultural practices, storm water drainage and nonpoint sources (pollution not identified as caused by a specific source) in Wisconsin.
In October 2002, new administrative rules for the prevention and management of polluted runoff went into effect.
The DNR Runoff Management staff are available to answer your questions and guide you through the process of compliance with these new rules.
www.dnr.state.wi.us /org/water/wm/nps   (987 words)

 Geography 327-- Runoff
regional precipitation versus runoff is analogous to total water input versus effective precipitation
much less than 5% and usually less than 1% of runoff reflecting the area of surface water as a proportion of basin area, i.e.
stream response to hydroclimatic events reflects the relative contributions of surface and subsurface runoff and thus all aspects of the physcial and cultural geography of drainage basins
uregina.ca /~sauchyn/geog327/runoff.html   (807 words)

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