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Topic: Race (historical definitions)

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In the News (Sat 20 Apr 19)

  Learn more about Race in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Race is a type of classification used to group living things based on such elements as common descent, heredity, physical attributes, behavior, economic and academic achievement, and language.
The term race is generally not used in contemporary scientific classification, but is sometimes used within, and often outside of, the scientific community in much the same sense as the terms subspecies, population or breed are in biology.
The historical definition of race, before the development of evolutionary biology, was that of common lineage, a vague concept interchangeable with species, breed, cultural origin, or national character ("The whole race of mankind." --Shakespeare; "Whence the long race of Alban fathers come" --Dryden).
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /r/ra/race.html   (4734 words)

Race is a type of classification used to group living things based on such elements as common descent, heredity, physical attributes, behavior, economic and academic achievement, and even language.
The term race is rarely used in contemporary scientific classification, but is sometimes used within, and often outside of, the scientific community in much the same sense as the terms subspecies, population or breed are in biology.
A rejection of 19th century assumptions was initiated by Franz Boas, the founder of American academic anthropology.¹ In the first decades of the 20th century he studied the relationship between race and height in New York City, discovering that the children of immigrants were taller than their parents.
www.guajara.com /wiki/en/wikipedia/r/ra/race.html   (4709 words)

 Center for Study - Definitions of Race
Race, technically, refers to differential concentrations of gene frequencies responsible for traits which, so far as we know, are confined to physical manifestations such as skin color or hair form; it has no intrinsic connection with cultural patterns and institutions.
Race is a group that is socially defined but on the basis of physical criteria.
Race - A specious classification of human beings created by Europeans (whites) which assigns human worth and social status using "white" as the model of humanity and the height of human achievement for the purpose of establishing and maintaining privilege and power.
www.euroamerican.org /library/definitions_race.asp   (477 words)

 ipedia.com: Race Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The historical definition of race, before the development of evolutionary biology, was that of common lineage, a vague concept interchangeable with species, breed, cultural origin, or national character ("The whole race of mankind." – Shakespeare; "From whence the race of Alban fathers come" – Dryden).
Individual human beings would theoretically be assigned to a race by the application of an operational definition that would involve checking all pertinent characteristics of each individual against the list of characteristics that define each race, but, in practice, humans are frequently classified into races on grounds of much less stringent requirements.
Some people define their ideas of race in terms of the genetic similarities of groups of individuals that have formed when the human race migrated across the globe and subsequently adapted to new environments or was otherwise changed genetically.
www.ipedia.com /race.html   (5659 words)

 RACE - The Power of an Illusion . Background Readings | PBS
Race, on the other hand, is a much more recent idea, tied up with the founding of the U.S. In colonial America, our early economy was based largely on slavery.
Historically, African Americans in the Jim Crow South were classified according to "blood" ancestry, but the amount (one quarter, one sixteenth, one drop) varied from state to state, which meant that, as historian James Horton points out, "you could cross a state line and literally, legally change race."
Historically, membership in many Native American tribes was based on acceptance of tribal language, customs, and authority, not "blood" degree.
www.pbs.org /race/000_About/002_04-background-02-12.htm   (1251 words)

 Finance Choices - Personal Finance Wiki
Conceptions of race, as well as specific racial groupings, vary by culture and time and are often controversial due to their impact on social identity and identity politics, and many regard race as a social construct.
They argue that race definitions are imprecise, arbitrary, derived from custom, have many exceptions, have many gradations, and that the numbers of races observed vary according to the culture examined.
Race "connotes geographic ancestry, by continent or large continental subregion" and "is used to denote continental or subcontinental clades".
www.financechoices.co.uk /personal-finance-wiki.php?title=Race   (10460 words)

 Raceandhistory.com - Myth of One Hindu Race
The view that the Sudras represent a differentiate of the Aryan race is wholly false, as it cannot explain differences in physical anthropology such as the flat Sudric nose (plattyrhinism) and thick lips.
The Indo-Islamic (Mughalloid) Race - The Muslims of South Asia are overwhelmingly descendants of `Foreign Mussulman Immigrants', ie.
Indo-Mon-Khmer Race - The majority of East Indics (Assamics, Vangics, Odrics etc.), except the Aryan upper castes and the Kolarian lower castes, are of Indic Mon-Khmer (a branch of Mongoloids or East Asiatics) stock.
www.raceandhistory.com /historicalviews/hindumanyraces.htm   (2850 words)

 Race: Is It a Valid Issue?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
If an unbiased zoologist were to descend upon the earth from Mars and study the races of man with the same impartiality as the races of fishes, birds, and mammals, he would undoubtedly divide the existing races of man into several genera and into a very large number of species and subspecies (Osborn 129).
A modern definition of race would probably be something like "`a population which differs significantly from other human populations in regard to the frequency of one or more of the genes it possesses'" (Boyd 25).
When placed in proper historical context and examined with the benefit of modern scientific knowledge, even these new definitions lose their veneer of biological import, and it becomes clear that the concept of race has no place in serious medical studies.
www-personal.umich.edu /~jonmorro/race.html   (2837 words)

 Asian Origins   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Various methods have been used to determine race, but most of the races derived from these methods are illegitimate except races formed from the socio-cultural perspective.
Races and race systems have been formed by skin color, skull shape, physical features and genetics, but all of the races formed by these methods are illegitimate.
Races formed on the grounds that the Asian race is formed on are the best way to categorize race.
kennethomura.tripod.com /asian_race/id4.html   (1673 words)

 Demographic and Economic Analysisfooter
As the nation's population continues to diversify, issues of race and ethnicity gain increasing attention from minority groups, from the mainstream media, and, as is the focus of this report, from the federal and state governments.
The analysis was based on Utah public school enrollment data by race from 1970 to 1994, and on MARS estimates tabulated from the Utah county population data of the 1980 and 1990 censuses.
Moreover, the administrative procedures used to collect race and ethnicity data in the public schools and the decennial census introduce additional error because there is considerable confusion among reporting entities and, ultimately the public, on how to collect/report race and ethnicity in a consistent fashion.
www.governor.state.ut.us /dea/publications/race.htm   (8343 words)

 Frankenberg: White Women, Race Matters
Frankenberg's thesis is that race shapes white women's lives through a system of racial privilege, and analyzes racism and challenges to it in white women's experiences.
Drawing on recent writing which views 'race' as a fluid social, political, and historical construct, Frankenberg explores white women's lived experience of 'race,' and specifically 'whiteness.' White Women, Race Matters is an engaging, well-written text which should be invaluable for advanced undergraduate courses or graduate courses in race, women's studies, or qualitative methodology.
Through her interviews with and analysis of white woman who are widely diverse in age, class, family situation, sexual orientation, political values and experiences, Frankenberg's study forms a complex treatment of a subject neglected by social scientists, and only recently addressed by white novelists, poets, and cultural critics.
www.upress.umn.edu /Books/F/frankenberg_white.html   (576 words)

 Defining Race Racism and Racial Discrimination
In any discussion on race relations it is important that all of us know the meaning and definition of terms used.
Examine the definitions, so that you can understand the significance of the words in your own lives.
The differences between the achievements of the different people are entirely attributable to geographical, historical, political, economic, social and cultural factors.
academic.udayton.edu /race/01race/race08.htm   (442 words)

 raceandhistory.com - Racism: Past and Present
Proposition number four: Historically, racism has been used and is used as a mechanism and a strategy to divide and exploit people of color and poor and working people, particularly to divide between white working-class people and poor people and whites in general and people of color.
The final proposition is the thesis of this discussion: That the creation of a new society with genuine political and economic democracy is impossible without the eradication of institutional racism and the breakup of white supremacy.
I would submit to you that is a part of the bitter harvest of the last fifteen years in which racism has been allowed to become sort of okay in American society, under the guise of dealing with a civil rights movement that's gone too far, that is encroaching on the rights of white people.
www.raceandhistory.com /historicalviews/racism.htm   (7807 words)

 Race (historical definitions)
Coon and his work were widely accused, even at the time, of obsolete thinking or outright racism, but some of his terminology continues in use to a lesser degree even today, even though the "-oid" terms now have offensive connotations [3].
Haddon in 1935, which sought to show that population genetics allowed for only a highly limited definition of race at best.
Another popular work during this period, "The Races of Mankind" by Ruth Benedict and Gene Weltfish, argued that though there were some racial differences, they were primarily superficial, and in any case did not justify political action.
www.danceage.com /biography/sdmc_Race_(historical_definitions)   (1720 words)

 Grace Fellowship Church, Plainville, MA - Pastor Rickard
It is the culminating judgment of human history in which every unbeliever of the human race is judged and sentenced to the lake of fire.
It is that principle of freedom whereby an individual of the human race has the right to retire from the company of others, remaining in seclusion from the knowledge, or observation of others.
Christ died a spiritual death when the sins of the entire human race were imputed to Him during those three hours of darkness on the cross.
www.gracedoctrine.org /9.htm   (11421 words)

 Ethics Updates - Race, Ethnicity, and Multiculturalism
The Heart of the Race Problem by Quincy Ewing (March, 1909) "The foundation of [the race problem], true or false, is the white man's conviction that the Negro as a race, and as an individual, is his inferior....
Polls indicate that young people tend to have more relaxed attitudes to race relations, but other indicators suggest that racial tensions on high school and college campuses are still a problem.
Cornel West's Race Matters (Boston: Beacon Press, 1993) and his Prophetic Thought in Postmodern Times (Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press, 1993) are both well-argued analyses by one of the foremost contemporary African-American thinkers.
ethics.sandiego.edu /Applied/Race   (4054 words)

 Discrimination based on Race
Students may believe that racism is limited to individual actions; they may be unfamiliar with the concept of institutional racism which occurs when racism is supported by governmental policies and laws.
Race is a highly charged topic, and students may feel some reluctance to discuss it openly.
As a class, read the definition of race and accompanying paragraphs.
www.un.org /Pubs/CyberSchoolBus/discrim/race.asp   (3850 words)

 CCRR - CCRR Resources - Past CCRR Activities
The goal of the program is to provoke honest and serious discussions about race relations at MIT by developing and sustaining alliances both within and among racial and ethnic groups, providing a historical and contextual framework to understand the roots of racism, and motivating faculty, staff, and students to be activists.
This program intends to confront the notion that Whiteness is an invisible race, which allows patterns of racial privilege to escape observation and criticism and certain culturally specific behaviors or values to be considered normal or mainstream.
The notion of Whiteness as a race, a culture, and a social construct continues to challenge CCRR.
web.mit.edu /ccrr/racethefuture/index.html   (778 words)

Acts, Historical Background - [download] - chronology, and some of the political background of the Acts of the Apostles.
His family was Jewish, by race, but the were actually Idumeans (Edomites).
Zacharias' Prophecy - [download] - the praise and prayer of Zacharias when his son, John the Baptist, was born.
www.gracenotes.info /topics.html   (4626 words)

 North Dakota State Data Center
Census Data Page (including Historical Census Data and Census 2000 Profiles)
Questions and Answers for Census 2000 Data on Race
View explanation of Census 2000 race categories modified for use in the production of post-2000 population estimates and projections
www.ndsu.nodak.edu /sdc/data/raceethnicity.htm   (123 words)

 The Choices Program   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Analyze how the United States Constitution approaches issues of race and citizenship.
Explore with their classmates the Supreme Court's historical definitions of "citizen."
Notes: Before the lesson, students should have become familiar with the Constitution, the Amendments, and the function of the Supreme Court.
www.choices.edu /TAH_race3.cfm   (273 words)

 SAGE Publications - Table of Contents - Race and Crime   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Historical Antecedents of Race and Crime in America
Historical Overview of Race and the Courts in America
Send mail to: webmaster@sagepub.com with questions or comments about this Web site.
www.sagepub.com /booksProdTOC.nav?prodId=Book226142   (71 words)

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