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Topic: Radioisotope thermoelectric generator


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  Thermoelectric News | Information, consulting, analytic services for energy conversion since 1995
A team at Rensselaer and the Washington University of Medicine in St. Louis are developing a small, implantable thermoelectric device and heat pipe to cool specific portions of the brain and help inhibit epileptic seizures.
Thermoelectricity: Thermoelectric And Thermomagnetic Properties in Low-dimensional And Nanoscale Materials
Al was an icon in the US Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator programs, and space nuclear power generally, for as long as I can remember.
www.zts.com   (662 words)

  
  History
Thermoelectric generators are solid-state power sources that utilize the Seebeck effect, while thermoelectric coolers are solid-state heat pumps utilizing the Peltier effect.
A thermoelectric converter consists of a number of alternate n- and p- type semiconductor thermoelements, which are connected electrically in series by metal interconnects, sandwiched between two electrically insulating but thermally conducting ceramic plates to form a module.
Thermoelectric generators could eventually be used to waste heat, such as that produced by combustion in an automobile, to electricity.
www.its.caltech.edu /~jsnyder/thermoelectrics/history_page.htm   (809 words)

  
 Pulse generator   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Radioisotope thermoelectric generators similar to those employed in spacecrafts for long duration power sources are a desirable alternative for this application.
In accordance with this embodiment, the radioisotope thermoelectric generator power conditioning system includes a push-pull inverter, which is superior to a single ended configuration in that it draws a nearly contant current during each complete cycle of oscillation and thus maintains continuously matched loading of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator.
Since the thermoelectric source 12 is electrically equivalent to a battery 14 in series with a resistor 16 approximately equal to the impedance of the designed load it is desirable to design the inverter to present a constant current load to the radioisotope thermoelectric generator.
www.sacnewsmonthly.com /invent/gas_ignition/pulse_generator.html   (2768 words)

  
 Radioisotope thermoelectric generator - Wikipedia Light!   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
RTGs can be considered as a type of battery and have been used as power sources in satellites, space probes and unmanned remote facilities.
RTGs are usually the most desirable power source for unmanned or unmaintained situations needing a few hundred watts or less of power for durations too long for fuel cells, batteries and generators to provide economically, and in places where solar cells are not viable.
In addition, RTGs were used to power the two Viking landers and for the scientific experiments left on the Moon by the crews of Apollo 12through 17.
godseye.com /wiki/index.php?title=Radioisotope_thermoelectric_generator   (2391 words)

  
 Radioisotope thermoelectric generator : RTG   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
A radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) uses the fact that radioactive materials (such as plutonium) generate heat as they decay into non-radioactive materials.
Fission generates very large amounts of heat, but is much more complex and not as reliable as simply using the heat produced by radioactive decay.
Three of the squeakers fell to the spears of the Griffs--young distance from the rise upon which the spectators from Sandynugghur were a pole through them, six of them carried the beast up to the colonel's with all those long bristles, and that sharp high back, and.
www.termsdefined.net /rt/rtg.html   (402 words)

  
 radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG)
RTGs employ banks of thermoelectric elements (typically silicon-germanium unicouples) to convert the heat generated by the decay of a radioisotope, such as plutonium-238 (half-life of 87.7 years), into electricity.
Galileo was equipped with two RTGs and Cassini with three.
RTGs have also been used to power Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyager, Viking, the Apollo surface experiments, and, more recently, Ulysses.
www.daviddarling.info /encyclopedia/R/RTG.html   (211 words)

  
 Power Systems (Progress Report 3)
The space-borne radioisotope thermoelectric generator is designed to withstand a beating and survive, all without releasing harmful, excessive radiation into the earth (or space) environment.
RTGs are primarily limited by the half-life of the radioisotope used and the thermal-to-electric energy conversion efficiency.
Since the RTGs Plutonium 238 or other primary radioisotopes generally emit short-range alpha particles, the power source is often mounted on a five meter boom that extends away from the spacecrafts main body and electronics suites.
mmae.iit.edu /~MAE442/powrprg3.htm   (2170 words)

  
 Radioisotope thermoelectric generator   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
A radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) is a simple electrical generator which obtains its power from radioactive decay.
RTGs can be considered as a type of battery and have been used as power sources in satellites, space probes and unmanned remote facilities.
RTGs are usually the most desirable power source for unmanned or unmaintained situations needing a few hundred watts or less of power for durations too long for fuel cells, batteries and generatorss to provide economically, and in places where solar cells are not viable.
www.kiwipedia.com /rtg.html   (126 words)

  
 Radioisotope thermoelectric generator
A radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) uses the fact that radioactive materials (such as plutonium) generate heat as they decay into non-radioactive materials.
The heat used is converted into electricity by an array of thermocouples which then power a lighthouse, or an interplanetary space probe.
Fission generates very large amounts of heat, but is much more complex and not as reliable as simply using the heat produced by radioactive decay.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/ra/Radioisotope_thermoelectric_generator.html   (196 words)

  
 Long-life thermoelectric generator - Patent 3945854
Thermoelectric long-lasting microgenerator which may be implanted in the human body, using a cylinder containing a radioactive isotope as a heat source and the human body as a cold source.
A very long-lasting thermoelectric microgenerator according to claim 12, wherein the outer wall of the heat source is surrounded by an extra metallic wall polished on the inside and the space between the outer wall of the heat source and the extra metallic wall is kept under a very high vacuum.
The structure of the thermoelectric microgenerators intended to be implanted in the human body to stimulate the operation of an organ, or else to be substituted for the latter must fulfill a certain number of particularly severe conditions.
www.freepatentsonline.com /3945854.html   (2946 words)

  
 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Radioisotope thermoelectric generator
RTGs are usually the most desirable power source for unmanned or unmaintained situations needing a few hundred watts or less of power for durations too long for fuel cells, batteries and generators to provide economically, and in places where solar cells are not viable.
RTGs are a potential source of radioactive contamination: if the container holding the fuel leaks, the radioactive material may contaminate the environment.
It carried a SNAP-27 RTG containing 44,500 curies (1,650 TBq) of plutonium dioxide which survived reentry into the Earth's atmosphere intact, as it was designed to do, the trajectory being arranged so that it would plunge into 6-9 kilometers of water in the Tonga trench in the Pacific Ocean.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Radioisotope_thermoelectric_generator   (2970 words)

  
 NuclearSpace: Facts About RTG Misconceptions
Early RTG models contained much less fuel than is used today and were designed to burn up and disperse their fuel at high altitudes.
The generator was recovered and its fuel was used in a later mission.
Therefore, when the RTG is tested to 2000 psi static pressure, the front of the RTG test specimen experiences the 19,600 psi reflected pressure.
www.nuclearspace.com /facts_about_rtg.htm   (767 words)

  
 High performance thermoelectric materials and methods of preparation - Patent 5610366   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
A thermoelectric device having a plurality of thermoelectric elements with at least one of the thermoelectric elements comprising a first material having a skutterudite-type crystal lattice structure with a unit cell of eight groups of AB.sub.3 wherein A comprises a metal atom and B comprises a non-metal atom.
Thermoelectric devices are essentially heat pumps and power generators which follow the laws of thermodynamics in the same manner as mechanical heat pumps, refrigerators, or any other apparatus used to transfer heat energy.
Thermoelectric device 20 is preferably manufactured with a plurality of thermoelectric elements (sometimes referred to as "thermocouples") 22 disposed between cold plate 24 and hot plate 26.
www.freepatentsonline.com /5610366.html   (7630 words)

  
 Radioisotope rocket at AllExperts
The radioisotope rocket is a type of rocket engine that uses the heat generated by the decay of radioactive elements to heat a working fluid, which is then exhausted through a rocket nozzle to produce thrust.
The basic idea is a development of existing radioisotope thermoelectric generator, or RTG, systems, in which the heat generated by decaying nuclear fuel is used to generate power.
The Pioneer space probes are powered by radioisotope thermal generators located on the end of a long arm to keep their radiation away from the spacecraft electronics.
en.allexperts.com /e/r/ra/radioisotope_rocket.htm   (513 words)

  
 RTG
RTGs use the natural decay of plutonium-238 to produce heat, which is directly transformed into electricity through a thermocouple device.
Q-Metrics was a key team member in the development of a complete RTG Transportation System which met the safety requirements of the NRC and the thermal performance imposed by NASA to ensure the thermal integrity of the RTG and prevent thermally induced creep damage.
The fact that the RTGs are the only power source for the spacecraft meant that the reliability was paramount to the success of the mission.
www.qmetrics.com /radioisotope_thermoelectric_generato.htm   (405 words)

  
 Radioisotope thermoelectric generator - NewMars
The ends of each RTG unit have significantly less heat transfer surface than the sides, and therefore have less heat flow.
If the RTG’s are laid out parallel or in a ring where their main heat transfer surfaces face each other, they will produce less power because they radiate heat back and forth to each other, reducing their net heat transfer.
Each RTG in the array should present as small a cross section to the others as possible, to reduce heat transfer between the units.
www.newmars.com /wiki/index.php?title=Radioisotope_thermoelectric_generator&redirect=no   (1577 words)

  
 Senior-Articles: Relevant Articles about improving your Quality of Life...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
The Radioisotope Thermoelectric generator consists of two parts: One part which is responsible for producing heat and the other helps in converting this heat into electricity.
However, radioisotope thermoelectric generators are relatively safer and need only to be contained within secure elements or shells to avoid contamination to the neighboring surroundings.
Radioisotope Thermo Electric Generators: The New Science Nuclear Generators by Jason Uvios If you had to orbit the earth, travel to the moon or just hover around in the outer reaches of space, you might not have fared well with normal power generation systems.
www.senior-articles.com /ezineready.php?id=32577   (1002 words)

  
 Radioisotope thermoelectric generator information - Search.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
In addition, RTGs were used to power the two Viking landers and for the scientific experiments left on the Moon by the crews of Apollo 12 through 17.
The RTG itself survived reentry of the Earth's atmosphere intact, and plunged into the Tonga trench in the Pacific Ocean.
The Plutonium-238 used in RTGs has a half-life of 88 years, as opposed to the plutonium-239 used in nuclear weapons and reactors, which has a half-life of 24,100 years.
c10-ss-1-lb.cnet.com /reference/Radioisotope_thermoelectric_generator   (2329 words)

  
 Radioisotope thermoelectric generator - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pu RTG, as the casing itself is adequate.
RTGs were also used for the Nimbus, Transit and Les satellites.
It carried a SNAP-27 RTG containing 44,500 curies (1,650 TBq) of plutonium dioxide which survived reentry into the Earth's atmosphere intact, as it was designed to do, the trajectory being arranged so that it would plunge into 6-9 kilometers of water in the Tonga trench in the Pacific Ocean.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Radioisotope_thermoelectric_generator   (3048 words)

  
 Thermoelectricity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Thermoelectricity is the conversion from temperature differentials to electricity or vice versa.
Thermoelectric power sometimes refers to this direct conversion, but usually just refers to a power plant which converts heat into electricity, through the use of steam turbines or similar devices.
Thermoelectricity was widely used in the remote parts of the Soviet Union from the 1920s to power radios.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Thermoelectric   (245 words)

  
 radioisotope   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
The cause of the problem lies in radioisotope scans, which are used in examinations of the thyroid gland, heart bloodflow scans, and radioactive iodine therapy...
Each radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) packs a whopping 40,000 curies--equivalent to the radioactivity from strontium-90 released during the 1986...
Some of the probe's instruments are powered by three radioisotope thermoelectric generators, which convert the natural decay of radioactive material into...
www.mongabay.com /igapo/biotech/radioisotope.html   (2090 words)

  
 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG)
Most recently, an RTG provides power for the New Horizons spacecraft which was launched January 19, 2006, ‘from Florida's Kennedy Space Center on a 9-1/2 year journey to explore Pluto and its moons.
For the mission, the Department of Energy developed and delivered a radioisotope thermoelectric generator, or "RTG." This "space battery" provides an uninterrupted and reliable source of heat and electricity in remote and harsh environments such as deep space.
Heat generated by the radioactive decay of plutonium-238 is converted into electricity by solid-state thermoelectrics.'
www.osti.gov /accomplishments/rtg.html   (516 words)

  
 A Primer on Radioactive Space Power
The energy from an RTG is much different from that produced by nuclear power plants on Earth.
Each RTG is about four feet long (1.2 meters), weighs 121 pounds (55 kg) and contains about 24 pounds (11 kg) of plutonium dioxide pressed into 72 solid ceramic-like pellets each about the size of marshmallow.
RTGs also have flown on Earth-orbiting weather, communications and navigational satellites for both NASA and the U.S. military.
www.space.com /businesstechnology/technology/nuclear_exploration.html   (399 words)

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