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Topic: Radiological warfare

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In the News (Thu 27 Jun 19)

  Radiological weapon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A radiological weapon (or radiological dispersion device, RDD) is any weapon that is designed to spread radioactive material with the intent to kill, and cause disruption by psychologically and financially impacting a city.
Radiological weapons are widely considered to be militarily useless for a state-sponsored army and are not believed to have been deployed by any military forces.
Means of radiological warfare that do not rely on any specific weapon, but rather on spreading radioactive contamination via a food chain or water table, seem to be more effective in some ways, but share many of the same problems as chemical warfare.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Radiological_weapon   (944 words)

 Radiological warfare - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Radiological warfare is any form of warfare involving deliberate radiation poisoning, without relying on nuclear fission or nuclear fusion.
Radiological weapons are normally considered weapons of mass destruction, and are very commonly equated with a radiological bomb often mis-called a "dirty bomb" (which refers to a nuclear weapon with a radiological side effect).
Rather, radiological warfare would be of vastly more use to terrorists spreading or intensifying fear, uncertainty and doubt.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Radiological_warfare   (257 words)

 Chapter 11: What We Now Know   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
Although many discussions of radiological warfare took place in classified military circles,[58] the basic notion of radiological warfare was not secret and was a subject of public speculation.
The radiological warfare test safety panel was an early example of the use of an expert panel to evaluate possible risks of planned government activities.
Hamilton's evident enthusiasm for radiological warfare research raises questions about his impartiality as head of the panel,[80] but the panel as a whole appears to have dealt with serious public health issues in a responsible manner.
www.eh.doe.gov /ohre/roadmap/achre/chap11_2.html   (11829 words)

 WMD Handbook
Such weapons include biological, chemical, nuclear and radiological devices, and range from the silent threat of a poison gas attack to a cataclysmic nuclear explosion.
Radiological weapons are thought by many to be the likely choices for terrorists.
If there were a threat of a nuclear or radiological attack, people living around potential targets such as military bases and chemical plants, may be advised to evacuate.
www.yhti.net /~fcema/Handbook.html   (2998 words)

 112: Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Warfare Fundamentals
As of this writing, large-scale biological warfare attacks by an enemy are as yet an untried weapon.
Biological warfare elements are difficult to detect, and slow to identify.
Radiological warfare is the deliberate use of radiological weapons to produce injury and death in man.
members.tripod.com /~Motomom/112CBRC   (2689 words)

 Radiation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
This type of attack, known as radiological warfare (RW), is the deliberate use of radiological materials to produce injury and death.
The explosion of a radiological weapon, similar to that of an ordinary bomb, causes damage by the heat and blast liberated at the time of detonation.
To date, the significant medical effects of the radiological accident at Chernobyl provide the model for this type of radiological event, and the possibility that terrorists may attempt to attack such facilities has led to the implementation of more stringent security measures at nuclear facilities.
www.apsf.org /resource_center/newsletter/2002/spring/09radiation.htm   (2524 words)

This procedure is for peace-time radiological emergencies and does not specifically apply to nuclear warfare radiological contamination.
The radiological hazard of nuclear weapons in transit is similar to other radioactive materials and can be handled with similar tactics.
Radiological contamination, itself, is not a medical emergency.
phoenix.gov /FIRE/20403.html   (893 words)

 News-61 ARMY WEAPONS TESTS ALMOST DITCHED   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
The documents also fill in many questions about the radiological warfare program from 1949 to 1954 - such as why it began, why Dugway was chosen for tests and why the program was apparently abandoned.
Even though Army officials described him as "one of the original proponents of the use of RW (radiological warfare)," Hamilton opposed the planned use of radioactive tantalum-182 because he felt it remained radioactive too long and could be easily scattered - creating risks to people and wildlife.
And, of course, radiological weapons were only of limited use in an actual war and useless in "situations where casualty production in a matter of hours or days is essential or against mobile enemy units," the 1950 oversight committee said.
personalpages.tds.net /~kknowlto/News_61.htm   (1598 words)

DOD was not ready to collect and secure radiological sources when the war began in March 2003 and for about 6 months thereafter.
Before DOD could collect radiological sources, it had to specify criteria for which sources should be collected and how to safely collect them, coordinate within DOD, coordinate assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), and resolve contract issues.
Until radiological sources could be collected, some sources were looted and scattered, and some troops were diverted from their regular combat duties to guard sources in diverse places.
www.gao.gov /docsearch/abstract.php?rptno=GAO-05-672   (418 words)

 The Berkeley Science Review: Read: Articles
Radiological warfare—the use of radioactive material not as a bomb but as a radiological poison for military use—had been tossed around in the days before the Manhattan Project (and was apparently an objective of the Nazi bomb project) but was largely forgotten after the Manhattan Project was initiated.
Hamilton detailed strategies for poisoning municipal water supplies with radioisotopes and described the terrorizing psychological aspects of radiological warfare (“It can be well imagined the degree of consternation, as well as fear and apprehension, that such an agent would produce upon a large urban population after its initial use”).
In May of 1948, Hamilton’s advocacy of radiological warfare convinced Army brass to form a committee of scientists to study the feasibility of radiological weapons, with Hamilton as a member.
sciencereview.berkeley.edu /articles.php?issue=9&article=plutonium   (2277 words)

 GAO Report
According to various biological warfare and scientific experts we consulted for our prior work, 11 it is difficult to obtain, produce, and disseminate plague, especially in sufficient quantities to produce mass casualties.
Such transfers are important to practice because the response to a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear terrorist incident would likely require a response from multiple agencies at the federal, state, and local levels.
Radiological Emergency Provides mobile National Oil and As many as 60 collateral Travels by ground Response Team laboratories for field Hazardous Substances duty personnel located in transportation or military analysis of samples and Pollution Contingency Las Vegas, Nev., and air.
www.globalsecurity.org /security/library/report/gao/gao-01-14.htm   (15125 words)

 Weapons of Mass Destruction Links
Radiological weapons (also known as “dirty bombs” or “radiological dispersal devices”) use chemical explosives such as dynamite or gunpowder to spread radioactive materials over a large area.
Mother Nature being a blabbermouth, chemical, biological, nuclear, and radiological weapons and warfare are always going to be around, despite all that is being done along the lines of disarmament.
Some weapons of mass destruction (especially chemical, radiological and biological weapons) are as easy or easier to make than many hard drugs, and a multi-billion dollar (US) “war on drugs” hasn’t kept marijuana, cocaine and methamphetamine from being both obtainable and affordable in this and most other countries.
members.tripod.com /~vfrickey/cbrlinks.html   (3133 words)

 News-24 DID DUGWAY CONDUCT OVER 600 RADIATION TESTS?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
First in 1951, a subcommittee overseeing radiological weapons testing recommended that "meteorological requirements for carrying out the tests could be reduced considerably, if necessary, in order to get the tests off on time" - which suggests the Army was more concerned about schedules than safety.
The same report even said radiological weapons had major advantages over chemical and germ weapons because they "(were) less affected by meteorological conditions, produced longer periods of denial and (were) less subject to personnel protective measures."
Other documents mentioned that radiological warfare tests were conducted at Dugway from 1960 to 1962, in part to scrutinize shielding methods during a moratorium on open-air nuclear bomb tests.
personalpages.tds.net /~kknowlto/News_24.htm   (3170 words)

 The Memory Hole > Chemical Corps Doc: "Summary of Major Events and Problems" (Fiscal Year 1954)
Radiological warfare assumed a very minor position, with the Chemical Corps continuing research on a small scale.
Of this total, 53 per cent was obligated for biological warfare and the remainder for chemical and radiological warfare.
Differences of opinion arose among those who believed that this type of warfare would be effective and those who were convinced it did not deserve consideration.
thememoryhole.org /mil/chem-corps/summary_1954.htm   (1256 words)

 IEER Release | Radiological Warfare Suspicions Point Up Need for Materials Accounting and Reporting to Enhance Security   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
"The most important measure to reduce the risk of a radiological attack and to mitigate its consequences, should one occur, does not seem to be a high priority at present," said Dr. Arjun Makhijani, president of the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research in Takoma Park, Maryland.
That would not only ensure that the licensees authorized to hold these materials are verifying that they actually possess them, but it would provide authorities with early response information that would enable faster detection should any materials be missing.
That is currently impossible because the needed registries of radiological and nuclear materials do not exist at all levels.
www.ieer.org /comments/radwpnpr.html   (378 words)

 Atomic Bombing: How to Protect Yourself
The Atomic Energy Commission has reported that studies on the feasibility of radiological substances as a method of warfare are being continued.
What would be done to prepare to use RW would be to collect the debris of smashed uranium atoms from atomic furnaces in which fissionable material is being burned.
These emit beta rays (electrons) or gamma rays of substantial energy, and half of their substance would be disintegrated in periods from about a week to a year.
www.foody.org /atomic/atomic06.html   (1264 words)

 Defense and Security Applications for Nanomaterials and Nanoparticles - Supplier Data by Strem Chemi
In these devices, metal clusters that are deposited on a substrate and positioned at a nanometric distance from a wave-reflecting layer act as nanoresonators and are able to receive, store, and transmit energy within the visible and infrared range.
Destruction of stockpiled warfare agents and decontamination of exposed personnel is equally important to the military and for homeland defense.
The nanocrystalline metal oxides, which are semiconductors that are activated by light, mediate the mineralization of chemical weapon agent simulants by oxygen and peroxide.
www.azonano.com /Details.asp?ArticleID=1337   (1343 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-25)
A composite summary and evaluation of the progress reports rendered by the three military departments and other defense on the implementation of my directive of 27 October 1950 is forwarded herewith for information and appropriate action.
The announced interim policy that chemical warfare will be used in retaliation only must not be allowed to deter achievement of preparedness in either chemical or biological warfare.
The three military departments review their requirements as early as possible, and subsequently their procurement programs, to assure that the required state of readiness in chemical and biological warfare will be attained.
www.gwu.edu /~nsarchiv/radiation/dir/mstreet/commeet/meet4/brief4.gfr/tab_l/br4l1b.txt   (577 words)

 Low-Level Radiation: Are Chemical Officers Adequately Trained - Storming Media
Most of the radiological terminal learning objectives for the courses are focused on nuclear weapons and their effects.
Low-level radiological sources can present physical health hazards and there can be adverse psychological impacts if individuals believe that they may have been exposed and adequate responses are not initiated.
The radiological training currently being taught does not provide adequate information for chemical officers to properly advise their commanders on the low-level radiation threat.
www.stormingmedia.us /88/8898/A889824.html   (235 words)

 www.GovExec.com - Army gave chem-bio warfare training to Iraqis (1/28/03)
The U.S. Army trained 19 Iraqi military officers in the United States in offensive and defensive chemical, biological and radiological warfare from 1957 to 1967, according to an official Army letter published in the late 1960s.
One was called Chemical Officer Orientation, which provided general military education training such as map reading, weapons familiarization and also "unconventional warfare" including "principles of CBR [chemical, biological and radiological weapons] employment," "conducting CBR training," "calculation of chemical munitions requirements," intelligence organization and operations, and various CBR protective instruction.
It is not clear when Army training of foreign nationals in offensive chemical, biological and radiological warfare was discontinued.
www.govexec.com /dailyfed/0103/012803gsn.htm   (1476 words)

 The Henry L. Stimson Center - History of the US Offensive Biological Warfare Program
October 1948: The Committee on Biological Warfare, convened by the Research and Development Board of the newly formed Office of the Secretary of Defense, concludes its "Report on Special Biological Warfare Operations." The so-called Baldwin Report notes that the United States is vulnerable to biological warfare attacks, particularly subversive ones.
June 1950: The Ad Hoc Committee on Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Warfare, created by Defense Secretary Louis Johnson in October 1949 to study technical and strategic issues, recommends the construction of a biological warfare production facility, field tests of biological warfare agents and munitions, and expansion of biological warfare research programs.
December 1958: The Defense Science Board sponsors a biological and chemical warfare symposium at the Rand Corporation to examine the military and political impact of biological warfare.
www.stimson.org /cbw?sn=CB2001121275   (3651 words)

 Chapter 11: Footnotes
The Armed Forces Special Weapons Project, the Air Force, and the Army's Chemical Corps were interested in both offensive and defensive radiological warfare, while the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory focused on defense.
Joseph Hamilton's papers, including those dealing with the radiological warfare test safety panel, were declassified in 1974, but the GAO report provided the first opportunity for most people to learn about it.
The fourth experiment was not an intentional release; like the Oak Ridge radiological warfare experiments, it involved a sealed source of radiation that was later returned to the laboratory.
www.eh.doe.gov /ohre/roadmap/achre/chap11_fn.html   (6939 words)

 Psychological effects of nuclear and radiological warfare Military Medicine - Find Articles
Not since 1945 has the world experienced nuclear warfare, although there has been the threat of nuclear terrorism and a large number of nuclear/radiological accidents.
Studies of radiological accidents have found that for every actually contaminated casualty, there may be as many as 500 people who are concerned, eager to be screened for contamination, sometimes panicked, and showing psychosomatic reactions mimicking actual radiation effects.
The authorities set up a radiological screening post in the soccer stadium and announced that anyone concerned about contamination could come in for a free screening.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3912/is_200112/ai_n9013084   (1035 words)

 Subject Category Guide
Joint and combined operations; Campaigns; Battles; Invasions; Theater operations; Psychological warfare; Conventional warfare; Methods of attack and combat support; Tactical and strategic defense planning, policy and doctrine; War gaming; Military exercises; Threat evaluation; Types of warfare; Rapid deployment operations; Amphibious and riverine operations.
For chemical, biological and radiological warfare, See 15/06/03, Chemical, Biological and Radiological Warfare.
Submarine warfare; Naval mine warfare; Torpedo attack; Techniques and equipment for the interception and destruction of submarines, including tracking and computing systems; Fleet exercises.
www.dtic.mil /dtic/subcatguide/milsciences.html   (627 words)

 GAO Report
However, there were differences in the selection of medical countermeasures for threats that were mutually recognized and the use of drugs and vaccines varied within the national forces as well as among the three forces.
Appendix I lists some of the major chemical warfare agents and their physiological effects and Appendix II lists examples of agents cited as potential biological warfare agents and their effects.
Although these Coalition members agreed that a chemical warfare threat was present in Iraq, they were not in full consensus with regard to the specific types of chemical agents that might be used.
www.globalsecurity.org /wmd/library/report/gao/gao-01-13.htm   (15244 words)

 NTI: Global Security Newswire
WASHINGTON — The U.S. Army trained 19 Iraqi military officers in the United States in offensive and defensive chemical, biological and radiological warfare from 1957 to 1967, according to an official Army letter published in the late 1960s.
While the training was described as mostly defensive, it also included offensive instruction in such subjects as principles of using chemical, biological and radiological weapons, and calculating chemical munitions requirements, according to a Dec. 12, 1969, letter from then-Army Chief of Legislative Liaison Col. Raymond Reid to then-U.S. Representative Robert Kastenmeier (D-Wisc.).
Only a few weeks before Reid sent his letter, Nixon issued a statement on Nov. 25 saying the United States opposed first use of lethal chemical weapons and incapacitating chemicals and announcing that he would ask the Senate’s approval to ratify the Geneva Protocol of 1925 prohibiting the first use of chemical and biological weapons.
www.nti.org /d_newswire/issues/2003/1/28/1s.html   (1512 words)

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