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Topic: Rainfall

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In the News (Tue 25 Jun 19)

  rain -> Distribution of Rainfall on Encyclopedia.com 2002   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
One of the primary elements in climate and a factor of tremendous importance in the distribution of plant and animal life, rainfall varies from less than an inch annually in a desert to more than 400 in.
Factors controlling the distribution of rainfall over the earth's surface are the belts of converging-ascending air flow (see doldrums ; polar front), air temperature, moisture-bearing winds, ocean currents, distance inland from the coast, and mountain ranges.
The southwest coast of Chile, the west coast of Canada, and the northwest coast of the United States receive much rain because they are struck by the moisture-bearing westerlies from the Pacific and are backed by mountains that force the winds to rise and drop their moisture.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/section/rain_DistributionofRainfall.asp   (832 words)

 Rainfall Characteristics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
To be able to determine probable rainfall intensity for a given return period and rainfall duration; to study the implication of rainfall characteristics on runoff and erosion; to calculate areal rainfall depths from point rainfall measurements.
Rainfall is the driving force for the hydrologic cycle, that group of physical phenomena which control our water supplies.
Rainfall characteristics affect the amount of runoff which occurs, the severity of erosion possible in various parts of the country, and our dependency on irrigation for crop growth.
pasture.ecn.purdue.edu /~engelb/agen526/Rain/Index.html   (990 words)

 Water Resources   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Rainfall analysis is performed by the SBCFCD's Hydrology Section to determine long and short rainfall depth duration and return period information.
Rainfall level is measured by reading the graduated scale on the outside of the gage.
The capacity of these units is approximately 80 inches of rainfall and only have to be visited once or twice per year for downloading data and calibration of the tipping bucket mechanism.
www.countyofsb.org /pwd/water/rainfall.htm   (468 words)

 SD : Environment : Rainfall Variability and Drought in Sub-Saharan Africa
Rainfall variability at a time scale from years to days is as much a characteristic of climate as the total amounts recorded.
There is also no marked negative trend in rainfall, although the years after 1974, and particularly after 1985, have been characterised by marked pseudo-periodic fluctuations, with peaks in 1985 and 1989, and lows in 1987 and 1992.
This is the wettest (Rainfall index: 1938 mm) and one of the least variable groups of countries in the continent.
www.fao.org /waicent/faoinfo/sustdev/EIdirect/EIan0004.htm   (1698 words)

 Encyclopedia: Rainfall
Orographic precipitation is well known on oceanic islands, such as the Hawaiian Islands, where much of the rainfall received on an island is on the windward side, and the leeward side tends to be quite dry, almost desert-like, by comparison.
This phenomenon results in substantial local gradients of average rainfall, with coastal areas receiving on the order of 20 to 30 inches (500 to 750 mm) per year, and interior uplands receiving over 100 inches (2.5 m) per year.
Convectional rainfall occurs when air is heated up, usually by the land below it (land tends to heat up faster than air or water bodies).
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Rainfall   (413 words)

 RAINFALL   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
On the other hand, rainfall decreases in the high lands in Guacalate River Basin that are situated behind the Fuego, Acatenango and Agua volcanoes because of the loss of humidity on the slope.
Rainfall characteristics at seven stations in the area which are considered to represent the rainfall characteristics in the basin are tabulated in the following table.
The probable rainfall for the basins of the three reference points were estimated by the use of the Gumbel Method with the Thomas plotting position.
www.geo.mtu.edu /volcanoes/fuego/rainfall.html   (309 words)

 RAINFALL OUTLOOK FOR SWAZILAND FOR THE 2002   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Normal rainfall is forecasted for the country for the period October to December 2002 and January to March 2003.
Above normal denotes the probability of rainfall falling in the wettest third of the recorded rainfall climatology in each region, below normal is defined as the probability of rainfall falling in the driest third; while normal is the chance of rainfall falling in the middle third centred on the climatological median.
Figure 1, in addition to the normal rainfall distribution and the rainfall forecast regions, probabilistic forecast is shown in boxes adjacent to each rainfall forecast region.
www.swazimet.gov.sz /seasonal_forecast/rainfall_outlook_for_swaziland.htm   (673 words)

 AllRefer.com - rain : Measurement of Rainfall (Weather And Climate: Terms And Concepts) - Encyclopedia
Included in such records is the fall of snow, reduced to its equivalent in rain.
Rainfall is measured, in terms of inches or millimeters of depth, by means of a simple receptacle-and-gauge apparatus or by more complex electrical or weighing devices placed where eddies of air will not interfere with the normal fall of the raindrops.
In addition to the daily, monthly, and annual totals, the depth of individual rainfalls and their intensity (amount of rain falling during a specific period of hours or minutes) and other pertinent facts are recorded.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/R/rain-measurement-of-rainfall.html   (235 words)

 Rainfall Interpolation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Rainfall interpolation is generally better for wet seasons than for dry seasons.
Rainfall data was collected from the Santa Barbara Flood Control District for both seasons, 1982-83 and 1989-90.
Obviously, this is due to the large variations in rainfall between sample points that may or may not be due to extremes in elevations between these points, or due to measurement error in collection of the rainfall data itself.
www.geog.ucsb.edu /~dylan/rainfall/rainfall.html   (843 words)

Rainfall data represented in the maps used in these renderings of the Hawaiian Island chain is the result of possibly the most extensive and elaborate study of rainfall anywhere on the planet.
Rainfall, on the other hand, varies greatly across each island and is the primary distinguishing element of climate.
The measurement of rainfall is done today much as it was 500 years ago, and is still subject to the same flaws in data collection and compilation.
www2.hawaii.edu /~mckay/rainfall.htm   (385 words)

 Rainfall measurements with navigational radar
If it is possible to extract rainfall information without disturbing the navigational use of the radar, integration over the radar image can potentially provide a reliable measure of regional rainfall on a routine basis.
Rainfall was measured with an optical rain gauge on the buoy, and on the ship by video taping the radar screen every 10 minutes at 25 frames/s.
An ocean mixed layer model was driven with observed winds and radar-derived rainfall and the model salinity compared with the observed sea surface salinity.
www.es.flinders.edu.au /~mattom/rainposter/figure05.html   (1261 words)

 Climate Prediction Center - ENSO Rainfall
This area of increased rainfall occurs where the exceptionally warm ocean waters have reached about 28°C or 82°F. This overall pattern of rainfall departures spans nearly one-half the distance around the globe, and is responsible for many of the global weather impacts caused by El Niño.
The heaviest rainfall [in units of millimeters (mm)] is shown by the darker green and blue colors, and lowest rainfall is shown by the lighter green colors.
The rainfall departures are shown in units of 100 millimeters.
www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov /products/analysis_monitoring/ensocycle/ensorain.html   (391 words)

 Drought Statement - Rainfall deficiencies intensify
Furthermore, different industries are impacted by different lengths of periods of rainfall deficiencies and for example, it may take water supply storages longer to recover from a period of rainfall deficiency than a farming or grazing activity.
To reiterate, rainfall is said to be deficient if it is within the lowest 10% of historical totals (decile range 1 or below the 10th percentile) for the period in question (3 months or longer).
Rainfall deficiency maps for standard periods (3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months) are updated monthly on the Bureau's web site.
www.bom.gov.au /announcements/media_releases/climate/drought/20030204.shtml   (855 words)

 Experimental 0-3 Hour Convective Weather Forecast Products
Rainfall forecasts are for the highest rainfall amounts within square regions 40 km (~20 miles) on a side.
Rainfall amount forecasts are for rainfall in the categories 0.1-0.49, 0.5-0.99, 1-1.99, and 2+ inches.
All data are input to an extrapolative/statistical algorithm that analyzes the intensity, position, and short-term movement of rainfall and convective systems, and general atmospheric conditions (humidity, stability, and vertical motion) conducive to rain.
www.nws.noaa.gov /mdl/radar/03h.htm   (437 words)

 Support Forums - Rainfall disaggregation
From some of the conversations we had last year on that, he suspects that the statistics of sub-hourly data are somewhat very different from hourly and that it would be indeed very difficult to go down with a good accuracy without a reference station.
rainfall data from hourly data would without any doubt be of very high interest for anyone interested urban runoff management.
I would therefore advise against using hourly rainfall for simulation on typical urban catchments as a casual practice and to be very cautious about the results thereby obtained.
www.bossintl.com /forums/printthread/threadid/5241.html   (933 words)

 MET EIREANN - Climate - Rainfall in Ireland   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Rainfall in the west generally averages between 1000 and 1250 mm.
Rainfall amounts are collected by a standard gauge consisting of a funnel and a container.
Unlike the rain in many other countries, especially in the tropics, average hourly rainfall amounts in Ireland are quite low, ranging from 1 to 2mm.
www.met.ie /climate/rainfall.asp   (335 words)

 Satellite Based Area Rainfall Estimation
The rainfall in Eritrea is mainly convective and thus it is more localized and its spatial and temporal distribution as well as the intensity of rainfall is highly variable.
High temperature and intense summer rainfall is the prevailing climate over the western lowlands while winter rainfall, large amount of cloud cover, high humidity and hot temperatures are the characteristics climate observed over the eastern escarpment and lowlands (coastal regions).
Satellites are used to estimate rainfall using radiation signals reflected or emitted from the ground and atmosphere and observed by it.
www.punchdown.org /rvb/rain/NurThesis1.html   (8730 words)

 Top Story - NASA SATELLITE CONFIRMS URBAN HEAT ISLANDS INCREASE RAINFALL AROUND CITIES - June 18, 2002   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Rainfall was measured by the precipitation radar instrument on NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite.
The higher rainfall rates depicted here were derived from measurements of mean monthly rainfall during the warm seasons (May through September) from 1998 through 2000.
It was also found that, on average, maximum rainfall rates in the downwind region often exceeded the maximum values in upwind region by 48%-116%.
www.gsfc.nasa.gov /topstory/20020613urbanrain.html   (1247 words)

 Interfan area >>Climate/Hydrology>>Rainfall   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
A major part of this region falls in a zone of moderate to high rainfall (1200-2000mm annually), higher towards the northeast due to proximity of the Himalayas.
The daily rainfall plot for one of the stations (Muzaffarpur) illustrates the typical monsoonal rainfall.
The total annual rainfall is very strongly concentrated in the rainy season, and that amount is even more concentrated in a few intensive rain hours during the 5-60 rainy days.
www.iitk.ac.in /gangetic/interfan/interfan_area_climate_rainfall.htm   (180 words)

 RAINFALL IN JERUSALEM IN INCHES in the Bible Encyclopedia - ISBE (Bible History Online)
The amount of rainfall in ancient times was probably about the same as in present times, though it may have been distributed somewhat differently through the year, as suggested by Huntington.
The rainfall is largely on the western slopes of the mountains facing the sea, while on the eastern slopes there is very little.
Yahweh controls the elements and commands the rain: "He made a decree for the rain" (Job 28:26); "For he saith to the snow, Fall thou on the earth; likewise to the shower of rain" (Job 37:6).
www.bible-history.com /isbe/R/RAINFALL+IN+JERUSALEM+IN+INCHES   (662 words)

 Rainfall Point Intensities in Air Mass Thunderstorm Environment: Walnut Gulch, Arizona   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Rainfall point intensities (accumulated rainfall depth over a specified duration) for 5-, 15-, 30-, and 60-minute durations for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, and 100-year return periods were determined for southeast Arizona.
The mean point rainfall intensities of the five sets of gages are very close (between 0 and 11 percent) to the NOAA values of the 5-, 15-, 30-, and 60-minute durations for all return periods.
Much larger differences between the mean point rainfall intensities for all durations were found when these results were compared to those of a previous study done with a shorter rainfall record (between 14 and 33 percent for the 25-, 50-, and 100-year return-periods).
www.awra.org /~awra/jawra/papers/J02005.html   (352 words)

This water can be supplied to the crops by rainfall (also called precipitation), by irrigation or by a combination of rainfall and irrigation.
If there is some rainfall, but not enough to cover the water needs of the crops, irrigation water has to supplement the rain water in such a way that the rain water and the irrigation water together cover the water needs of the crop.
Especially in low rainfall climates, the little rain that falls is often unreliable; one year may be relatively dry and another year may be relatively wet.
www.fao.org /docrep/S2022E/s2022e03.htm   (586 words)

 Climate Outlook - Rainfall
Above-normal rainfall is defined as within the wettest third of recorded rainfall amounts in each region; below-normal rainfall is defined as within the driest third of rainfall amounts; near-normal is the third centered around the climatological median.
October to March constitutes an important rainfall season over southern Africa.An exception is north-eastern Tanzania, where the rainfall season usually is divided in two (OND and MAM), and the extreme south-western part of South Africa, where winter rainfall predominates.
In the case of western Tanzania for October-December 1998, for example, there is a 15% probability of rainfall occurring in the above-normal category (i.e., within the range of the wettest third of recorded precipitation totals); a 45% chance in the near-normal category; and a 40% chance in the below-normal category.
iri.ldeo.columbia.edu /outreach/meeting/COF/Oct98_Afr   (787 words)

 City of Knoxville - Stormwater Engineering Rainfall Data
Rainfall data is collected and maintained by the Stormwater Engineering Section, Suite 480 City County Building (215-2148), as part of the NPDES monitoring program; see the NPDES webpage for additional information.
Monthly rainfall data files contain the daily rainfall amounts at the five City monitoring stations and at the official NOAA station at McGhee-Tyson Airport.
Rainfall can occur in some parts of the city and not others due to prevailing winds, localized thunderstorms, alignment of ridges and valleys, etc.
www.ci.knoxville.tn.us /engineering/stormwater/rainfall   (350 words)

 Karnataka.com: A brief profile - Rainfall
In the districts of Bijapur, Raichur, Bellary and southern half of Gulbarga, the rainfall is lowest varying from 50 to 60 cm.
Rainfall in the winter season (January to February) is less than one per cent of the annual total, in the hot weather season (March to May) about 7% and in the post-monsoon season about 12%.
There are about 26 rainy days (with daily rainfall of atleast 2.5 mm) in the south-west monsoon begins from the northern parts of the State around 2nd week of October and by the 15th October monsoon withdraws from the entire State.
www.karnataka.com /profile/rainfall.shtml   (273 words)

 Buffalo National River Hydrologic Data System   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The data from these stations are presented in rainfall reports, river level reports, watershed maps, station charts, and river level hydrograph plots.
Rainfall reports display rainfall data in a text report for all stations or for an individual station.
Watershed maps display rainfall and river level data positioned on a watershed map at the station location.
www.buffaloriverandrain.com   (215 words)

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