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# Topic: Randomness

 Randomness - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Random is different from arbitrary, because to say that a variable is random means that the variable follows a probability distribution. Random numbers were first investigated in the context of gambling, and many randomizing devices such as dice, shuffling playing cards, and roulette wheels, were first developed for use in gambling. Random numbers are also used for non-gambling purposes, both where their use is mathematically important, such as sampling for opinion polls, and in situations where "fairness" is approximated by randomization, such as selecting jurors and military draft lotteries. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Randomness   (1930 words)

 Encyclopedia :: encyclopedia : Randomness   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) The term randomness is often used synonymously with a number of measurable statistical properties, such as lack of bias or correlation. Mathematicians focused at first on statistical randomness and considered block frequencies (that is, not only the frequencies of occurrences of individual elements, but also those of blocks of arbitrary length) as the measure of randomness, an approach that extended into the use of information entropy in information theory. Randomness is also quite relevant in discussions of free will, and of a first cause. www.hallencyclopedia.com /Randomness   (2318 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) In ordinary language, the word random is used to express apparent lack of purpose or cause. Randomness should also not be confused with unpredictability, as demonstrated by the existence of deterministic chaos. Deviations from randomness are often regarded by parapsychologists as evidence for the theories of parapsychology. www.wikiwhat.com /encyclopedia/r/ra/randomness.html   (845 words)

 Online Encyclopedia and Dictionary - Randomness   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) The term randomness is often used synonymously with a number of measurable statistical properties, such as lack of bias or correlation, but has more recently been associated with deeper ideas in quantum physics and information theory. Randomness should not be confused with unpredictability which is a related idea in ordinary usage. In some applications, both randomness (as tested statistically) and unpredictability are required, as for instance in many uses of random numbers in cryptography. fact-archive.com /encyclopedia/Random   (1418 words)

 Does God Play Dice? You might say that chaos is a mechanism for extracting and displaying the randomness inherent in initial conditions, an idea that the physicist Joseph Ford has advocated for many years as part of a general theory of the information-processing capabilities of chaos. The sequence is truly random when there is no possible way of predicting the next number or numbers from the preceding values, and it is also not possible, retrospectively, to explain how the sequence arose. This often puzzles newcomers to randomisation in statistical work where it is sometimes apparent that there are clumps of high, low and intermediate values in a random number sequence. members.fortunecity.com /templarser/random.html   (4007 words)

 Random Number Generation for Encryption Techniques   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) Random numbers are used extensively within encryption techniques, particularly for generation of keys. If a random sequence conforms to a statistical distribution, then obviously it is not as secure as a random sequence which has no distribution. Obviously, as far as cryptography is concerned, it is important when choosing a random number generator, that the type of random distribution is understood to be of the uniform kind, or at least has a fairly "flat" distribution. www.exegesis.uklinux.net /gandalf/encrypt/random.htm   (1853 words)

 Randomness and Mathematical Proof The conclusion is singularly unhelpful in distinguishing the random from the orderly. This ``incompressibility'' is a property of all random numbers; indeed, we can proceed directly to define randomness in terms of incompressibility: A series of numbers is random if the smallest algorithm capable of specifying it to a computer has about the same number of bits of information as the series itself. For random data the most compact way for the scientist to communicate his observations is for him to publish them in their entirety. www.cs.umaine.edu /~chaitin/sciamer.html   (5230 words)

 Randomness Tests: A Literature Survey When a "random" sequence is taken to be "without any shorter construction" we have a problem: Because it is impossible to check every possible construction, it is also impossible to say that a sequence could not be constructed in a shorter way (unless we restrict ourselves to some particular construction). A new statistical test for random bit generators is presented that is universal in the sense that any significant deviation of the output statistics from the statistics of a perfect random bit generator is detected with high probability. Compagner, A. The Hierarchy of Correlations in Random Binary Sequences. www.ciphersbyritter.com /RES/RANDTEST.HTM   (4064 words)

 randomness   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) A random variable is a variable whose value is not determined by any rule or formula (although there may be a formula for determining the probability that the value is a specific number or within a specific range). A "random number" is a possible value of a random variable (though, of course, after you have that number there is no difference between it and any other number). However, in the usage "Given a random number n," that is, where specificity is required in the usage, I would have to say that all numbers/sets/events are random because they are all possible outcomes of random origins. www.physicsforums.com /showthread.php?p=94256   (2228 words)

 Read This: Randomness Randomness is a book intended for a general audience that explains probability in an accessible way. Most notable, in light of ever expanding computing power; is the brief history of random number tables and the difficulty of generating (pseudo) random numbers. I found Randomness to be an engaging text on the fundamentals of probability theory. www.maa.org /reviews/randomness.html   (828 words)

 Random Reality And randomness comes into play in quantum theory--when a particle such as an electron is observed, its properties are randomly selected from a set of alternatives predicted by the equations. Chaitin defined random truths as ones that cannot be derived from the axioms of a given formal system. The chilling conclusion, wrote Chaitin in New Scientist, is that randomness is at the very heart of pure mathematics (A Random Walk). www.fortunecity.com /emachines/e11/86/randreal.html   (3085 words)

 Cryptographic Randomness This could, of course, amount to some lesser form of randomness (one of the next categories), but at the moment we believe these events are truly random. random() function - this represents a source of algorithmically generated values that are declared random by a battery of statistical tests. A random() function can be thought of as a PRBG of no cryptographic value, usually using a very small seed (16 or 32 bits, in many cases). world.std.com /~cme/html/randomness.html   (1052 words)

 Historical Notes: History [of defining randomness] Randomness and unpredictability were discussed as general notions in antiquity in connection both with questions of free will (see page 1141) and games of chance. And in the 1920s Richard von Mises - attempting to capture the observed lack of systematically successful gambling schemes - suggested that randomness for individual infinite sequences could be defined in general by requiring that "collectives" consisting of elements appearing at positions specified by any procedure should show equal frequencies. Note that definitions of randomness given in dictionaries tend to emphasize lack of aim or purpose, in effect following the common legal approach of looking at underlying intentions (or say at physical construction of dice) rather than trying to tell if things are random from their observed behavior. www.wolframscience.com /reference/notes/1067b   (524 words)

 Alan's page about randomness For the omniscient and omnipotent, randomness is an optional extra, for the finite and fallible, it is an essential part of our theoretical and practical armoury. Randomness and non-determinism are clearly related, but not synonymous - random phenomena are by their nature non-deterministic, but not vice versa. Regarding the input as random and statistical mean we can not worry about very unlikely outcomes (for example, all the telephone days for a day arriving within the same minute). www.hiraeth.com /alan/topics/random   (833 words)

 Harvard University Press: Randomness The result is an interesting book that combines a well-researched, anecdotally presented survey of the history of chance, probability and randomness along with some elementary instruction in probability...It includes a wide-ranging and rich bibliography that reflects the passion of the author for the subject. The fact that randomness, agency, and holiness can readily displace each other in phenomenological explanations of human action is the central concern that might draw students of consciousness to Bennett's book. She argues that the notion of randomness played a crucial role in inhibiting conceptual progress in probability and that it also accounts for present-day struggles to come to terms with the subject...Bennett's book is written in a lucid, engaging style and provides an entertaining introduction to some questions in probability. www.hup.harvard.edu /catalog/BENRAN.html?show=reviews   (553 words)

 random number generators Random numbers have uses in physics (such as noise resonance studies), engineering, and operations research. A ubiquitous use of unpredictable random numbers is in cryptography which underlies most of the attempts to provide security in modern communications (e.g., confidentiality, authentication, electronic commerce, etc.). Unpredictable random numbers were first investigated in the context of gambling, and many randomizing devices such as dice, shuffling playing cards, and roulette wheels, were first developed for use in games of chance. www.experiencefestival.com /random_number_generators   (1116 words)

 RFC 1750 (rfc1750) - Randomness Recommendations for Security   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) Even if the random bits are generated as slowly as one per second and it is not possible to overlap the generation process, it should be tolerable in high security applications to wait 200 seconds occasionally. For example, assuming a few bits of randomness if the inter-keystroke interval is unique in the sequence up to that point and a similar assumption if the key hit is unique but assuming that no bits of randomness are present in the initial key value or if the timing or key value duplicate previous values. This amount of randomness is beyond the limit of that in the inputs recommended by the US DoD for password generation and could require user typing timing, hardware random number generation, or other sources. www.faqs.org /rfcs/rfc1750.html   (8904 words)

 Randomness Encyclopedia Article @ ColorfulImaginations.com (Colorful Imaginations)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) The word random is used to express lack of purpose, cause, order or predictability. A random process is a repeating process whose outcomes follow no describable pattern. "The generation of random numbers is too important to be left to sex." â€”Robert R. Coveyou, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1969 colorfulimaginations.com /encyclopedia/Randomness   (1933 words)

 randomness Computer Encyclopedia Enterprise Resource Directory Complete Guide to Internet   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) A {hack} or {crock} that depends on a complex combination of coincidences (or, possibly, the combination upon which the crock depends for its accidental failure to malfunction). "This hack can output characters 40--57 by putting the character in the four bit accumulator field of an XCT and then extracting six bits - the low 2 bits of the XCT opcode are the right thing." "What randomness!" 3. The connotation is that the person so described is behaving weirdly, incompetently, or inappropriately for reasons which are (a) too tiresome to bother inquiring into, (b) are probably as inscrutable as quantum phenomena anyway, and (c) are likely to pass with time. www.jaysir.com /computer-encyclopedia/r/randomness-computer-terms.htm   (140 words)

 Boundary Institute - Randomness However, at the very least, this apparent deviation in the randomness of physical devices under certain conditions needs to be analyzed further and studied closely by science. If these effects persist through further analyses, and the randomness of fundamental physical processes can be influenced by external global or local events, the implications for both science and society could be very large indeed. Arbitrary samples from the continuous, four-year data archive meet rigorous criteria for randomness, but pre-specifed samples corresponding to events of broad regional or global importance show significant departures of distribution parameters from expectation. www.boundaryinstitute.org /randomness.htm   (1252 words)

 Randomness of Ravenwolf: Sometimes all you have left are memories... Randomness of Ravenwolf: Sometimes all you have left are memories... May you all enjoy your celebrations and thank you to the vets as well as the men and women who are currently serving in the military. This is a paragraph of text that could go in the sidebar. ravenwolf.blogspot.com   (77 words)

 Poetic Randomness   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) Welcome to Poetic-Randomness.com I've always thought that many poems you find in literature seemed to be composed of a random assortment of words strung together, leaving interpretation up to the reader. I've often thought that if you fed tens of thousands of poetic sounding words into a computer and allowed it to attempt to creat poetry that it could do almost the same job as those past poets who wrote while under the influence of halucinagens and other drugs. I would wager a guess that the poet had a completely different interpretation since it was probably based on a completely different era in a completely different society. www.poetic-randomness.com   (168 words)

 Some Recent Progress in Algorithmic Randomness (ResearchIndex)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) 23 the notion of a random sequence (context) - Levin - 1973 6 Randomness and recursive enumerability (context) - Kucera, Slaman - 2001 ACM DBLP 6 The axiomatization of randomness - van Lambalgen - 1990 DBLP citeseer.ist.psu.edu /702682.html   (1525 words)

 Timing and Randomness - Dev Shed Timing and Randomness C programming forum discussing all C derivatives, including C#, C++, Object-C, and even plain old vanilla C. These languages are low level languages, and used on projects such as device drivers, compilers, and even whole computer operating systems. There is no way to produce a truly random number with C++ (I am almost certain the same is true for any other language). I have heard that Intel processors can sense its radiation output, so if this is true it may be possible to use that to get a random number; since the direction of the radiation will be random. forums.devshed.com /c-programming-42/timing-and-randomness-94965.html   (609 words)

 Category:Randomness - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The main article for this category is Randomness. There are 6 subcategories shown below (more may be shown on subsequent pages). Taylor expansions for the moments of functions of random variables en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Category:Randomness   (81 words)

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