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Topic: Rare Earth hypothesis

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 Rare Earth hypothesis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In planetary astronomy and astrobiology, the Rare Earth hypothesis asserts that the emergence of complex multicellular life (metazoa) on Earth required an extremely unlikely combination of astrophysical and geological events and circumstances.
The Rare Earth hypothesis is the contrary of the principle of mediocrity (also called the Copernican principle), whose best known recent advocates include Carl Sagan and Frank Drake.
The mediocrity principle and cosmic pluralism are the antithesis of the Rare Earth hypothesis.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Rare_Earth_hypothesis   (7566 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The answers lie in the seemingly rare and often complex conditions that appear to have been necessary for complex life to both evolve and maintain itself on Earth and by contrast, the wide range of conditions that are exploited by microorganisms.
With just the extinctions that have occurred on Earth in the past 10,000 years and with those that are occurring today, we should already realize how precious life is. But in consideration of the possibilities of a Rare Earth, we may want to redefine that term.
Join RARE EARTH authors Dr. Don Brownlee and Dr. Peter Ward on Tuesday, June 13th at 6pm, PT for a closer look at what their hypothesis is all about.
www.destinationspace.net /screening/rearthrev.asp   (1336 words)

Earth probably is not the best possible planet for complex life development, since less plate tectonics would allow a faster rate of oxygen build up.
There are many "Rare Earth" factors (such as planet mass, abundance of water and carbon, plate tectonics, etc.) that may play important and even critical roles in allowing the apparently difficult transition from slime to civilization.
Our "Rare Earth" hypothesis is that on most planets, this will be too short a time to allow complexity to arise at all.
fraynelson.com /biblioteca/ciencia_y_tecnologia/rare_earth_debate.htm   (8465 words)

 Fermi Paradox - Crystalinks
The Rare Earth Hypothesis attempts to resolve the Fermi paradox by suggesting that Earth is not typical, but unusual, and perhaps even unique.
While a unique Earth has had historical support on philosophical or religious grounds, the Rare Earth Hypothesis deploys quantifiable and statistical arguments in support of the theory that multicellular life is exceedingly rare in the universe because Earth-like planets are themselves exceedingly rare.
Opponents dismiss both Rare Earth and the anthropic principle as tautological - if a condition must exist in the universe for human life to arise, then the universe must already meet that condition, as we are here - and as an unimaginative argument.
www.crystalinks.com /fermiparadox.html   (1282 words)

 Half Hollow Hills: Rare Earth Hypothesis
The orbit of Earth happens to be "just right", falling in a narrow habitable zone of orbit distances in which a planet not only has liquid water now, but also had liquid water several billion years ago when the Sun was cooler and life first formed.
Earth’s position is about 25,000 light years from the galactic center, which is just right.
Earth’s moon is very unique, as it is one of the only moons that have a large percentage of its primary’s mass.
www.halfhollowhills.k12.ny.us /page.cfm?p=672   (1006 words)

 An Earth-Centered Universe -- Again? | EnergyBulletin.net | Peak Oil News Clearinghouse   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Ever since Copernicus put forth his sun-centered hypothesis, in 1514, the place of Earth in the cosmos has been, as the authors note, “periodically trivialized.” It is this trivialization which is known as the “Principle of Mediocrity” and which has formed an important element in our intellectual atmosphere for nearly five hundred years.
Rare Earth is a book that does more than challenge the view of Earth’s insignificance in the galaxy.
To accept that this Earth is the unique habitat of life is the essential first step in gaining a new appreciation as well for human life.
www.energybulletin.net /1492.html   (1666 words)

 The Earth
Convinced that the earth was undistinguished, none of their reasoning argued for any special architectural skills in selecting this planet as the home for man. Unwisely, Drake and Sagan assumed that once life originates on a planet, it evolves toward ever higher complexity, culminating on many planets in the development of culture.
When the earth cooled down from this impact and the oceans condensed, we arrive at Genesis 1:2 where “darkness was upon the face of the deep.” Each of the six creative “days” which begin from that point forward would be an enormous period of time, far greater than twenty-four-hours.
The “Rare Earth” hypothesis and creation’s amazing architect now show that man’s home is in its own way a masterfully prepared “ark” traveling through space, as Noah’s ark with its cargo of animals once carried life through the flood.
www.heraldmag.org /2006/06ja_2.htm   (2470 words)

 Rare Earth Hypothesis
The suggestion is that meteorites hit Earth in huge explosions, with one 65 million years ago killing off many plants and animals, including the dinosaurs.
The Earth may be in a unique protected “Life Zone” where because of the fortuitous presence of Jupiter we are not hit as hard as we could have been by meteorites.
If the “RARE EARTH” hypothesis turns out to be true then it greatly increases the significance of loss, each time a plant or animal is driven to extinction and strengthens the responsibility for humans to be good stewards of the planet.
fig.cox.miami.edu /~cmallery/255/255life/rareearth.htm   (1999 words)

 SPACE.com -- Rare Earth Debate Part 1: The Hostile Universe
Peter Ward, co-author of "Rare Earth," and professor of geological sciences at the University of Washington.
Frank Drake, chairman of the board of trustees of the SETI Institute, and professor of astronomy and astrophysics at the University of California at Santa Cruz.
Donald Brownlee, co-author of "Rare Earth," and professor of astronomy of the University of Washington.
www.space.com /scienceastronomy/rare_earth_1_020715.html   (1687 words)

 Amazon.com: Rare Earth: Why Complex Life is Uncommon in the Universe: Books: Peter Ward,Donald Brownlee   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Chapter 11 describes ways in which the rare-earth hypothesis might be tested, and chapter 12 reassesses the odds of complex life in the universe via a modified form of the Drake equation.
Rare Earth makes a compelling argment for the fact that we are alone in the Universe.
The conditions that allowed Earth to be a lifeboat in the starry ocean for our form of life might be rare but it doesn't preclude life forms so drastically and dramatically different from our own as to have no commonality with us at all.
www.amazon.com /Rare-Earth-Complex-Uncommon-Universe/dp/0387987010   (2999 words)

 Rare Earth (band) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rare Earth was an American rock band affiliated with Motown's Rare Earth record label (which was named after the band) in the late-1960s and 1970s.
Although not the first White band signed to Motown, Rare Earth were the first big hit-making act signed by Motown that consisted entirely of White American members.
Rare Earth had a number of Top Ten hits in the 1970-1971 period, including covers of The Temptations' "(I Know) I'm Losing You" (which was used in the documentary video It's Time) and "Get Ready".
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Rare_Earth_(band)   (406 words)

 Was the 'Rare Earth' Hypothesis Influenced by a Creationist? Skeptical Inquirer - Find Articles
Was the 'Rare Earth' Hypothesis Influenced by a Creationist?
The idea that complex life may have evolved only as a result of a series of exceedingly rare events on Earth, and its corollary--that advanced life may well be rare in the universe--gained new credence and respectability with publication last year of the book Rare Earth: Why Complex Life Is Uncommon in the Universe.
Darling examines each in turn and concludes that the hypothesis is based on circular reasoning and that the proponents have fallen into the trap of going out of their way to find reasons why Earth is special.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m2843/is_6_25/ai_79794362   (765 words)

 Touchstone Archives: No Other Eden
Briefly, in Rare Earth Ward and Brownlee introduce their hypothesis that simple microbial life is common throughout the universe but that complex metazoan life is extremely rare.
They base the second half of their hypothesis primarily on the large number of astronomical factors that must be satisfied within narrow ranges for complex life to exist.
This physical understanding of the universe, in which the Earth is not the center of anything, has been extrapolated and inflated into a general metaphysical doctrine that asserts a complete lack of “specialness” for the Earth or its inhabitants.
www.touchstonemag.com /archives/print.php?id=13-05-036-b   (1499 words)

 Honolulu Star-Bulletin Hawaii News
The "Rare Earth Hypothesis," written by Ward and astronomer Don Brownlee, also at the University of Washington, has fueled an ongoing debate about whether Earth's life forms exist elsewhere in the universe.
In "Rare Earth," Ward and Brownlee describe special conditions needed for development of higher levels of life, which they say are unlikely on other planets.
They basically say, if you look at the Earth and what it has taken for life to reach the level of complexity we have here today, there's a whole chain of circumstances that have to be met for it to happen.
starbulletin.com /2001/11/03/news/story9.html   (488 words)

 Introduction – Astrobiology and the Rare Earth Hypothesis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Miller-Urey experiments, 1950s, life (organic molecules) could be synthesized from inorganic elements in a test tube under conditions thought possible in the early Earth.
Earth is of suitable size, distance form the Sun and composition for life, particularly liquid water on surface
Earth protected from many large impacts from comets and asteroids, e.g.
www.eas.slu.edu /People/DJCrossley/uniquearth/introduction.htm   (519 words)

 Amazon.co.uk: Rare Earth: Why Complex Life Is Uncommon in the Universe: Books: Peter Douglas Ward,Don Brownlee   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Using these ideas it sets out the thesis that for simple life to arise in the universe may not be rare, since it took a mere 600 million years for "simple life" to arise after the formation of the earth.
Using the earth as their only possible example, the factors needed for complex life to arise - & to be maintained - are explored at length.
They explain many key concepts in astrobiology, and show that many of the key factors in the rise of complex life on Earth are a result of pure chance, and that with minor changes in these factors complex life would not have evolved at all.
www.amazon.co.uk /Rare-Earth-Complex-Uncommon-Universe/dp/0387987010   (1759 words)

 Rare Earth Debate Part 1: The Hostile Universe - UFO Evidence
Summary: When the book "Rare Earth" was published two years ago, it raised a great deal of controversy among astrobiologists.
In my view, life in the form of microbes or their equivalents is very common in the universe, perhaps more common than even Drake and Sagan envisioned.
These factors suggest that microbial life -- the sort of life the dominated Earth for the first two billion years -- is widespread in the stellar neighborhood.
www.ufoevidence.org /documents/doc975.htm   (1639 words)

 Half Hollow Hills: Alternative Hypothesis
It seems a bit odd that, not even a century ago, was the relatively nascent evolution theory of Darwinism thoroughly rejected in the Scopes Monkey Trial, May 04, 1925, in which a teacher from Tennessee was charged with teaching this once radical theory.
Cosmic Ancestry is the belief that life on Earth spawned from extraterrestrial creatures from space.
Life on earth is the only model by which scientists can use to theorize on life in the universe.
www.halfhollowhills.k12.ny.us /page.cfm?p=678   (643 words)

 Amazon.fr : Rare Earth: Why Complex Life Is Uncommon in the Universe: Livres en anglais: Peter D. Ward,Donald Brownlee   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Their rare Earth hypothesis predicts that while simple, microbial life will be very widespread in the universe, complex animal or plant life will be extremely rare.
Ward and Brownlee make a convincing if depressing case for their hypothesis, undermining the principle of mediocrity (or, "Earth isn't all that special") that has ruled astronomy since Copernicus.
Arguing that complex life is a rare event in the universe, this compelling book magnifies the significanceAand tragedyAof species extinction.
www.amazon.fr /Rare-Earth-Complex-Uncommon-Universe/dp/0387952896   (489 words)

 In the News: The Privilege of Life on Earth
Since it is Earth’s ability to support life that many take to be its most important quality, it is clear that this is a major failure of the metaphysical version of the Copernican Principle if the actual conditions which support life are so rare that they may only exist for Earth.
Gonzalez: The Rare Earth hypothesis simply proposes that Earth-like planets capable of supporting complex life are not as common as many astronomers have believed.
Brownlee and Ward conclude that their hypothesis should move us to have greater concern for the environment since “good planets are hard to come by.” While I agree this is a worthwhile implication, it is hardly the most significant one.
www.arn.org /docs2/news/privilegedearth112001.htm   (4344 words)

 Introduction to Rare Earth   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The Rare Earth hypothesis suggests that Earth-like planets containing complex life as we know it are likely quite rare in the Universe.
One of the factors that scientists believe to be necessary is a long period of relatively stable climate resulting from a stable planetary orbit at just the right distance from an appropriate type of star.
The Sun is a G-type star in the main-sequence phase of its life, which means that it is engaged in the stable burning of hydrogen by nuclear fusion to produce helium in its core, and radiating energy mostly in the form of visible light.
btc.montana.edu /ceres/html/Rare/rareearth_introduction.htm   (345 words)

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