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Topic: Ratification


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In the News (Wed 20 Mar 19)

  
  Ratification - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Ratification includes the process of adopting an international treaty by the legislature, a constitution, or another nationally binding document (such as an amendment to a constitution) by the agreement of multiple sub-national entities.
An important exception is the United States, where treaty ratification requires a two-thirds majority in the U.S. Senate (and the United States House of Representatives does not vote on it at all).
The ratification of the current Constitution of Ireland was achieved by plebiscite in 1937.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ratification   (504 words)

  
 United Nations Treaty Collection - Treaty Reference Guide
The instruments of "acceptance" or "approval" of a treaty have the same legal effect as ratification and consequently express the consent of a state to be bound by a treaty.
Ratification defines the international act whereby a state indicates its consent to be bound to a treaty if the parties intended to show their consent by such an act.
In the case of bilateral treaties, ratification is usually accomplished by exchanging the requisite instruments, while in the case of multilateral treaties the usual procedure is for the depositary to collect the ratifications of all states, keeping all parties informed of the situation.
untreaty.un.org /english/guide.asp   (5386 words)

  
 The Balanced Budget Amendment--The Road to Ratification
Ratification is an up-or-down vote in each legislative chamber on the language as proposed by Congress; states may make no changes, or ratification is invalid.
How ratification is handled in each state is subject to individual practices, governed by state constitution, statute, and the rules of each chamber.
In a number of states, the resolution for ratification is introduced early in the session, prior to Congressional action, in the hope of expediting consideration.
www.ncsl.org /programs/fiscal/bbarept.htm   (1606 words)

  
 Ratification of Constitutional Amendments - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net
New Jersey's ratification was rescinded on Mar 24, 1868; Ohio rescinded its ratification on Jan 15, 1868 and ratified again on Mar 13, 2003.
This amendment was specifically rejected by Kentucky on Mar 12, 1869; by Delaware on Mar 18, 1869; by Ohio on Apr 30, 1869; by Tennessee on Nov 16, 1869; by California on Jan 28, 1870; by New Jersey on Feb 7, 1870; and by Maryland on Feb 26, 1870.
This amendment was specifically rejected by Georgia on Jul 24, 1919; by Alabama on Sep 22, 1919; by South Carolina on Jan 28, 1920; by Virginia on Feb 12, 1920; by Maryland on Feb 24, 1920; by Mississippi on Mar 29, 1920; by Delaware on Jun 2, 1920; and by Louisiana on Jul 1, 1920.
www.usconstitution.net /constamrat.html   (944 words)

  
 Ratification   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Ratification was the process by which the thirteen states studied, debated and finally approved (or rejected) the newly drafted constitution.
The public appears to have been about evenly split at the beginning of the ratification debate and such notable figures as Samuel Adams, Thomas Paine and Patrick Henry were vocal opponents.
Ratification was achieved in Virginia only after it was decided to add a Bill of Rights to the Constitution.
www.u-s-history.com /pages/h372.html   (477 words)

  
 Constitution - Ratification
The parliamentary ratification was held on 11 November 2004.
Ratification was subject to a non-binding referendum on 10 July 2005, where Luxembourg people voted in favour of the Constitution.
Ratification was subject to a non-binding referendum on 20 February 2005, where Spanish people voted in favour of the Constitution.
www.unizar.es /euroconstitucion/Treaties/Treaty_Const_Rat.htm   (822 words)

  
 LANDMINES IN INTERNATIONAL LAW: RATIFICATION AND NATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION, Landmine Monitor Report 1999
Ratificationconstitutes a solemn act on the part of a sovereign or by the president of a republic whereby he[/she] declares that a treaty, convention or other international instrument has been submitted to him[/her] and that after examining it he[/she] has given his approval thereto, and undertaken its complete and faithful observance’.
The term ‘ratification’ is sometimes confused with the process by which a treaty formally enters into force following a state’s ratification, generally by the exchange or deposit of an instrument of ratification by the state concerned.
As in the case of ratification, the Ottawa Convention requires that an instrument of accession be deposited with the depositary.
www.icbl.org /lm/1999/appendices/international_law.html   (3876 words)

  
 Observing Constitution Day
Ultimately, during the ratification debate in Virginia, Madison conceded that a bill of rights was needed, and the Federalists assured the public that the first step of the new government would be to adopt a bill of rights.
The featured document is an endorsed ratification of the federal Constitution by the Delaware convention.
The first real test for ratification occurred in Massachusetts, where the fully recorded debates reveal that the recommendation for a bill of rights proved to be a remedy for the logjam in the ratifying convention.
www.archives.gov /education/lessons/constitution-day/ratification.html   (892 words)

  
 The Road to Ratification: Amending the U.S. Constitution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
An examination of the ratification process reveals the difficult hurdles that a proposed amendment must overcome to be added to the U.S. Constitution.
The packet include a letter from the national archivist requesting return notification that the packet was received, the certified copies of the language, 50 slip law copies, and a form for the state to fill out if the proposed amendment is ratified.
Ratification of the amendment language as adopted by Congress is an up-or-down vote in each legislative chamber.
www.ncsl.org /programs/legman/about/amend_US_Const.htm   (750 words)

  
 FindLaw: U.S. Constitution: Amendments
After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.
Hence, the ratification date given in the following notes is the date on which the legislature of a given State approved the particular amendment (signature by the speaker or presiding officers of both houses being considered a part of the ratification of the ''legislature'').
Ratification was completed on July 1, 1971, when action by the legislature of the 38th State, North Carolina, was concluded, and the Administrator of the General Services Administration officially certified it to have been duly ratified on July 5, 1971.
caselaw.lp.findlaw.com /data/constitution/amendments.html   (3884 words)

  
 The Avalon Project : The American Constitution - A Documentary Record
Ratification of the Constitution by the State of Maryland; April 28, 1788.
Ratification of the Constitution by the State of South Carolina; May 23, 1788.
Ratification of the Constitution by the State of Virginia; June 26, 1788.
www.yale.edu /lawweb/avalon/constpap.htm   (801 words)

  
 Questions on Ratification
In Connecticut, the process of electing delegates to the ratification convention was similar, but not identical to the process of election representatives to the House of Representatives.
For Virginia the convention delegates were elected from the districts for the House of Delegates, the lower house of the General Assembly.
One noteworthy difference in personnel between the regular legislature and 1788 convention, however, is that officeholders such as judges, members of the Senate, of the executive council, etc., who might be ineligible for election to the House of Delegates were eligible for a election to the convention.
revolution.h-net.msu.edu /threads/ratification.html   (843 words)

  
 Global Beat: Prospects for the Start-2 Ratification and Forecasts for Future Developments
According to our information representatives of executive branch (particularly ministry of defense, which is carrying the responsibility for the ratification of the treaty) have not taken advantage of the complete openness to dialogue demonstrated by the faction.
The faction is ready to carry on a dialogue on the ratification of the treaty (the faction has been demonstrating its readiness to carry on a dialogue about other items as well).
The prospects for ratification depend both on the will of the executive branch to push the Treaty and the ability of the opposition in the Duma to overcome its defeat and frustration after the vote on Kirienko.
www.bu.edu /globalbeat/nuclear/safranchuk042798.html   (2870 words)

  
 The Old Exchange & The U.S. Constitution
The plan for ratification [of the Constitution] was designed to avoid the problems which had held up adoption of the Articles of Confederation for three and a half years.
The voters of each state were to call a convention for the specific purpose of ratification of the constitution of the United States of America.
The rules required ratification by nine states for the Constitution to become the law of the land.
www.oldexchange.com /html/Constitution.html   (246 words)

  
 AMERICAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS PACT OF SAN JOSE, COSTA RICA
The instrument of ratification was received at the General Secretariat of the OAS on September 5, 1984, with a reservation and interpretative declarations.
The instrument of ratification was received at the General Secretariat of the OAS on November 5, 1981, with reservations.
The instrument of ratification was received at the General Secretariat of the OAS on June 23, 1978, with a reservation and a declaration.
www.oas.org /juridico/english/Sigs/b-32.html   (3194 words)

  
 Constitutional Topic: Ratification Conventions - The U.S. Constitution Online - USConstitution.net
Two methods for ratification are provided - by three-fourths of the state legislatures or by three-fourths of the states in convention.
Note that the Supreme Court has ruled that a popular referendum is not a substitute for either the legislature nor a convention, nor can a referendum approve of or disapprove of the legislature's or a convention's decision on an amendment.
The persons selected must agree to be placed on the ballot - 14 of whom are opposed to ratification, 14 or whom are in favor.
www.usconstitution.net /consttop_acon.html   (1089 words)

  
 ARCHIVE OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION - "Formal and Informal Ratification in the European Union". [University of Illinois EUC ...
While noting that ratification may be formal or informal, much of this literature treats each important domestic actor as if it has de facto formal ratification power.
Informal ratification may be thought of as a case in which the government pays "audience costs" for unpopular international agreements.
Because these kinds of ratification differ significantly, Putnam's ratification metaphor is not always the most appropriate conceptualization of two-level politics in the European Union.
aei.pitt.edu /521   (279 words)

  
 History
As supporters of the Equal Rights Amendment between 1972 and 1982 lobbied, marched, rallied, petitioned, picketed, went on hunger strikes, and committed acts of civil disobedience, it is probable that many of them were not aware of their place in the long historical continuum of women’s struggle for constitutional equality in the United States.
As the amendment approached the necessary ratification by three-quarters of the states, the threat of rescission surfaced.
As of 2002, ratification bills testing this three-state strategy have been introduced in one or more legislative sessions in five states (Illinois, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Virginia), and supporters are seeking to move such bills in all 15 of the unratified states.
www.equalrightsamendment.org /era.htm   (2306 words)

  
 Campaign for the U.S. Ratification of the CRC - 2006 CRC Summit
American University, Washington, DC The Campaign for U.S. Ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) convened a national Summit entitled, "Convention on the Rights of the Child: Mobilizing Communities for Ratification", from May 18th - 20th, 2006, on the campus of American University in Washington, DC.
Furthermore, she addressed ratification roadblocks, in particular that the root of opposition to the CRC lies in the fact that the convention will shed light on problems occurring in the U.S. that most people would rather not think about.
Ratification of the CRC will assist the U.S. in fulfilling its role as a world leader as well as being a leader for children, domestically and internationally.
www.childrightscampaign.org /crcsummit.htm   (1668 words)

  
 President Reagan on Montreal Protocol Ratification | EPA History | US EPA
The President today transmitted to the Senate for ratification the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, which was concluded in Montreal on Sept. 16.
I transmit herewith, for the advice and consent of the Senate to ratification, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, done at Montreal on September 16, 1987.
United States ratification is necessary for entry into force and effective implementation of the Protocol.
www.epa.gov /history/topics/montreal/01.htm   (220 words)

  
 United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (TOC)
On October 19, 2005, President Bush signed the instrument of ratification for the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (TOC), its supplementary Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, and its Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air.
Secretary Rice countersigned the instrument of ratification on October 25, 2005.
The successful negotiation and widespread ratification of the TOC represent the global community’s resolve to combat transnational organized crime as a serious worldwide threat.
www.state.gov /r/pa/prs/ps/2005/56006.htm   (395 words)

  
 ratification
Ratification is the act of approving an unauthorized commitment, by an official who has the authority to do so, for the purpose of paying for services or supplies provided to the Fund as a result of the unauthorized commitment.
The Installation Commander or designee is the ratification authority for unauthorized commitments that exceed $2,500.
If the ratification authority authorizes the ratification, he or she will return the file to the Fund Manager for issuance of appropriate procurement documents and/or payment.
www.usma.edu /chaplain/of/ratification.htm   (647 words)

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