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Topic: Rational pricing

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 Rational pricing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rational pricing is the assumption in financial economics that asset prices (and hence asset pricing models) will reflect the arbitrage-free price of the asset as any deviation from this price will be "arbitraged away".
Thus, in a correctly priced derivative contract, the derivative price, the strike price (or reference rate), and the spot price will be related such that arbitrage is not possible.
In a futures contract, for no arbitrage to be possible, the price paid on delivery (the forward price) must be the same as the cost (including interest) of buying and storing the asset.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Rational_pricing   (2612 words)

 Psychological pricing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Psychological pricing is a theory in marketing that these prices have a psychological impact that drives demand greater than would be expected if consumers were perfectly rational.
However, some suggest that intentionally awkward pricing was adopted primarily to control employee theft, before the turn of the 20th century when stores expanded beyond owner-operators and used cash registers.
Given that the parity of wholesale prices is evenly distributed, it is unnatural that sale prices end more frequently in odd numbers.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Psychological_pricing   (691 words)

 Worrisome oil prices : Need for a rational, transparent pricing regime,Indian Economy, News Analysis, India News Online
However, while all these may succeed in staving off a price hike in the near future, it’s time that the government puts in place a more rational and transparent pricing mechanism.
A complex pricing structure that has been in existence since the dismantling of the administered price mechanism in April 2002 has allowed auto fuel consumers to be overcharged.
While this is good news for the consumer, it is time for a reality check on the current oil pricing regime in the country.
news.indiamart.com /news-analysis/worrisome-oil-prices-3596.html   (557 words)

 PM calls for economic and rational energy pricing - The Economic Times
Rational pricing and distribution policies, he said, are the solution to power wastage and the best answer to the challenge of power conservation.
Seeking a national debate on “the need for economic utilisation of energy and a rational pricing policy,” Mr Singh said “irrational pricing of energy” was the root of all problems.
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh decided to take on the issue of subsidies and energy pricing head-on, when he said that the absence of rational tariffs was the root cause of all problems in the energy sector.
economictimes.indiatimes.com /articleshow/959030.cms   (320 words)

 Price-at-Risk: A methodology for pricing utility computing services
Therefore, although dynamic pricing techniques may prove useful in the future for managing short-term capacity shortages, the case for their current application in other sectors is not as compelling.
Whereas the attributes are important and affect the pricing decision, their impact is indirect and is captured in the price elasticity.
However, assigning prices to each item in the product line (“how to price”) is perhaps the most important task in the pricing process and is the only one that is performed by the “pricer” alone.
www.research.ibm.com /journal/sj/431/paleologo.html   (5337 words)

 Financial economics: economics financial mathematical, 1986 economics financial, access banking economics edition financial kit market money myeconlab plus seventh
In recent decades, a lot of work has concerned itself with the prices of derivatives, financial instruments that derive their value from other, underlying, assets.
Stock options are a classic form of derivative -- Fischer Black, Myron S. Scholes, and Robert C. Merton did ground-breaking work in the early 1970s on the determination of stock option prices on the basis of the underlying stock's price and volatility.
Arbitrage is always a self-terminating activity -- it brings prices to a level at which it can no longer occur.
wikipedia.openfun.org /wiki/Financial_economics   (483 words)

 Editorial: Rate debate
"Rational" and "pricing" are two words rarely seen together in any sentence describing the international transportation market.
The plain problem is, neither side approaches "rational pricing" rationally.
To move away from commodity-type pricing and towards value-added pricing, ocean carriers may also have to look at how they can tailor their services better to meet individual shippers’ needs.
www.americanshipper.com /paid/NOV00/Editorial.asp   (617 words)

 IBM Products - Australia
Rational Rose Data Modeler is a visual modelling tool that makes it possible for database designers, analysts, architects, developers and anyone else on your development team to work together, capturing and sharing business requirements, and tracking them as they change throughout the process.
Rational Rose Data Modeler gives you the freedom to transfer between object and data models and take advantage of basic transformation types such as many-to-many relationships.
Regression testing with IBM Rational® Robot is a good -early step into -automation, because it is easy to use and helps testers learn about automation processes as they work.
www.microway.com.au /catalog/ibm/products.stm   (2457 words)

 Mathematical finance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Option Tutor - a visual presentation of modern option pricing theory
A central difference is that while a financial economist might study the structural reasons why a company may have a certain share price, a mathematician may take the share price as a given, and attempt to use stochastic calculus to obtain the fair value of derivatives of the stock.
The subject naturally has a close relationship with the discipline of financial economics, but mathematical finance is narrower in scope and more abstract.
www.sciencedaily.com /encyclopedia/financial_mathematics   (259 words)

 Energy pricing to have new approach - Sify.com
Seeking a national debate on economic utilisation of energy and rational pricing policy, the Prime Minister said that without this it would not be possible to address the issue of energy conservation, a must for achieving the goal of electrification of the entire nation in the next five years.
In this backdrop, he talked of rationalisation of subsidies and a pricing policy with in-built incentives for consumers for efficient and rational consumption of electricity.
Regretting that in the past, private investment in the field of energy, particularly power, was encouraged without proper pricing and distribution policy, he said a "multi-faceted" approach on pricing in all forms of energy was the need of the hour.
sify.com /finance/fullstory.php?id=13629072   (529 words)

 PharmaMetrics - Success Stories
The company expressed immediate interest in the software solutions, and also asked the PharmaMetrics team to develop Standard Operating Procedures, Standard Contract Shells, Pricing Guidelines and a set of Customer Prioritization questions to be utilized by their account management team in their goal of rational pricing.
One measure of success of the PharmaMetrics "rational pricing" methodology occurred at an offsite meeting.
But both departments felt comfortable that the methodology put in place was fair, rational and would optimize their managed care opportunities.
www.pharmametricsinc.com /stories   (736 words)

 The Hindu Business Line : Towards energy conservation and rational pricing
With the UPA Government committed to complete electrification of all household in the next five years, there are not many choices other than pursue a rational pricing policy since this alone is the "single most important energy conservation step" as the Prime Minister himself put it.
Dr Singh more than once singled out power sector in his speech and repeatedly warmed to the focal point that "in the final analysis, economic pricing is probably the best way to ensure economic and efficient use of any asset or resource".
The Planning Commission and its Deputy Chairman, Dr Montek Singh Ahluwalia, too have been underscoring the importance of bringing a modicum of minimum pricing reform in energy sector and in particular in the power sector.
www.thehindubusinessline.com /2004/12/17/stories/2004121700600700.htm   (777 words)

 Automated Website Testing: IBM and Rational Pricing
Let's hope that IBM isn't stuck in a mainframe mentality when it decides on what should be Rational pricing.
Rational is one of the big three makers of automated Website testing software, with a revenue of $689 million in its last fiscal year.
IBM could probably sell 20 times the current sales volume if it reduced the cost of Rational software to five or ten percent of what it is now.
www.ad-mkt-review.com /public_html/air/ai200301.html   (1406 words)

 Zell/Lurie Real Estate Center at Wharton : Wharton Real Estate Review
While the gap between asset pricing and market fundamentals should narrow as the economy and stock market recover, longer-term forces, such as the lower return expectations for all asset classes, more rational and efficient capital allocation and powerful demographic trends, should continue to be positive influences on the pricing for real estate investments.
Upon close examination it becomes clear that the pricing movement is completely in line with theoretical expectations.
Despite the weaker property market conditions, liquidity abounds, and asset pricing is rich.
realestate.wharton.upenn.edu /review.php?issue=spring2004   (1456 words)

 PIB Press Release
The Prime Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh, emphasised the need to encourage a national debate on the need for the economic utilisation of energy and the imperative of rational pricing policy.
I do think that the Government must recognize, reward and honour such individuals and organisations at the same time I also believe that we must adopt an economically rational pricing policy that has the built in incentive for consumers to voluntarily try and conserve energy through its optimal and rational utilisation.
Without an economic pricing policy, albeit the one that is sensitive to social inequities and income disparities, it will not be possible for us to sincerely address the challenge of energy conservation.
pib.nic.in /release/rel_print_page.asp?relid=5639   (1433 words)

 Theory of Rational Option Pricing
Since the deduced restrictions are not sufficient to uniquely determine an option pricing formula, additional assumptions are introduced to examine and extend the seminal Black-Scholes theory of option pricing.
The possibilities for further extension of the theory to the pricing of corporate liabilities are discussed.
Explicit formulas for pricing both call and put options as well as for warrants and the new "down-and-out" option are derived.
www.defaultrisk.com /pa_related_06.htm   (284 words)

 PM For Rational Approach To Energy Pricing
A rational approach to energy pricing is integral to any strategy aimed at improving the efficiency of energy use and reducing the adverse environmental impact of excessive energy consumption.
The Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh, said that rational approach to energy pricing is integral to any strategy aimed at improving efficiency of energy use and reducing the adverse environmental impact of excessive energy consumption.
The introduction of pricing in the demand model is important as it is the critical factor that would help us not only in ascertaining the correct pattern of energy mix but also enable a better demand forecast for energy type.
www.indiainfoline.com /nevi/pmca.html   (1867 words)

 SSRN-Rational Asset Pricing Implications from Realistic Trading Frictions by Jean-Pierre Zigrand
We study a simple rational expectations model whose asset pricing implications address some of the mispricings, informational inefficiencies and overreactions observed in real markets, without a need to resort to behavioural assumptions.
Zigrand, Jean-Pierre, "Rational Asset Pricing Implications from Realistic Trading Frictions" (October 2001).
Rational Asset Pricing Implications from Realistic Trading Frictions
papers.ssrn.com /sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=302819   (246 words)

Given that Microsoft is in final beta with the next version of Visual Studio, and has been working closely with Rational during the development cycle, they’re assured of a compelling integration story for at least the lifetime of this release, i.e., the next three to five years.
The IBM acquisition of Rational software will likely affect most companies depending on what software development life cycle tools are in the environment.
The knock against Rational has always been that it’s the Cadillac of the software design industry yet the “operator’s” manual is six inches thick.
techrepublic.com.com /5102-6296-5031945.html   (1036 words)

 Manmohan for multi-faceted pricing in energy sector - Deccan Herald
Pointing out that “irrational pricing of energy” was the core of the problem, Dr Singh sought a national debate on: “The need for economic utilisation of energy and a rational pricing policy,” The Prime Minister also lamented that loss of power on account of theft was being dismissed either as transmission and distribution loss.
Dr Singh stressed that a multi-faceted approach on pricing in all forms of energy was the need of the hour, with an in-built incentive for consumers to “voluntarily try and conserve energy through its optimal and rational utilisation”.
Favouring subsidies only on ‘social, economic and political grounds’, Dr Singh said the absence of rational pricing policy was the root cause problems in energy sector.
www.deccanherald.com /deccanherald/dec152004/n21.asp   (761 words)

Convergence to second-best pricing is not assured if demands for various services within the cap grow at very different rates and if (as is generally the case) lagged service quantities are used as weights for the price cap.
Given the dangers inherent in premature pricing flexibility under price caps, the Commission should not grant additional pricing flexibility unless there has been a clear demonstration that existing pricing flexibility is inadequate to respond to the level of actual competition.
Thus, allowing peak/off-peak pricing would likely be very difficult to audit and verify that the correct periods were being rated as the peak period.
www.fcc.gov /Bureaus/Common_Carrier/Comments/access_reform/samples/MCICOM.htm   (17736 words)

 FPIC - xChange
The predatory pricing environment of the past is diminishing as rational pricing returns to the marketplace.
Actuarially sound pricing is essential to maintaining the financial strength that creates long-term value for our shareholders.
Companies that remain in this market are stabilizing prices at levels more in line with our pricing levels.
www.fpic.com /x2.php   (198 words)

 Economy & Policy
Seeking a national debate on “the need for economic utilisation of energy and a rational pricing policy”, he said a rational pricing policy was required for all forms of energy, including petroleum, LPG, kerosene, water and electricity.
Prime Minister Manmohan Singh today said irrational pricing of energy was the major cause of problems in the energy sector.
The country must, therefore, opt for an economically-rational pricing policy, with built-in incentives for consumers to try and conserve energy through its optimal and rational utilisation, he said.a
www.business-standard.com /common/storypage.php?hpFlag=Y&chklogin=N&autono=175495&leftnm=lmnu2&lselect=0&leftindx=2   (386 words)

The first is with Ferson, "Country Risk and Asset Pricing." The goal of this paper is to provide a unified framework for assessing risk and asset selection in a global context.
We noted that most of the asset pricing tests had been conducted within the paradigm of constant expected returns and risks.
However, this paper was one of the first attempts to study international asset prices in a conditional (time-varying returns and risk) framework.
www.duke.edu /~charvey/roverv.htm   (2489 words)

 Rational pricing brings its own rewards
Most well-known artists are pricing themselves out of the market.
These, knowing prices to be what they are today, for good artists -- or even young artists -- are very low.
Collectors are advised to keep their eyes open for first-time-out artists here as well as those like Shaghir Khan, for they will be seeing them soon in larger shows.
www.indianexpress.com /fe/daily/19971218/35255183.html   (475 words)

 Rational Products
Product Pricing: Rational licenses its products in ways appropriate for the product and the platform on which it runs.
sales representative can provide you with detailed pricing for all Rational products, in the configuration that works best for your project and organization.
Rational also simplifies the acquisition, training, support, and deployment of our tools to reduce your total cost of ownership.
www.ee.unb.ca /kengleha/courses/CMPE3213/OOAD/Rational/RationalProducts.htm   (232 words)

 EconPapers: Rational Pricing of Options during the South Sea Bubble
Rational Pricing of Options during the South Sea Bubble
EconPapers: Rational Pricing of Options during the South Sea Bubble
econpapers.repec.org /paper/mmfmmfc04/93.htm   (128 words)

 The Industry Standard: Guest Blog: Thomas Goetz: Rational Pricing for Broadband?
The Industry Standard: Guest Blog: Thomas Goetz: Rational Pricing for Broadband?
Even though they've slashed their rates in half (for a one-year promotion), they're still way out of proportion compared to electricity, or water, or gas, or any other utility - which is what broadband is (and how it should be treated).
Indeed, unlike cable service, there's no 'value added' in getting broadband - it's simply a pipe, without addons or options (which is why some providers have been deliberately slowing down service for most of their customers, in order to offer 'super high speed' access to those who pay more).
www.thestandard.com /movabletype/thomasgoetz/archives/003303.php   (288 words)

"The challenge of rational pricing and distribution of electricity has to be addressed in a non-partisan manner.
We need to work towards more rational pricing policies to ensure new investments," he said launching the Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojna.
"The challenge of economic generation, distribution and pricing of electricity has to be addressed in a non-partisan manner so that we can, in fact, ensure rapid spread of electrification across the country and can attract new investments in this vital sector," he added.
www.outlookindia.com /pti_print.asp?id=290171   (393 words)

 The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - Business
The Planning Commission today called for an increase in plan allocation for irrigation by around Rs 6,500 crore per year but suggested a slew of politically sensitive measures, including a “more rational” electricity pricing regime and linking the subsidy policy of micro-irrigation to ground water status.
The MTA, which has made 318 policy recommendations and identified 59 priority areas, calls for a “move towards more rational electricity pricing”.
Significantly, with the international crude oil prices now crossing the $ 60 per barrel mark, he said, the government was making all efforts to push omestic oil and gas exploration and production to meet the demand of the economy growing at 7-8 per cent.
www.tribuneindia.com /2005/20050628/biz.htm   (3898 words)

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