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# Topic: Rayleigh scattering

###### In the News (Fri 26 Apr 19)

 Rayleigh scattering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Rayleigh scattering (named after Lord Rayleigh) is the scattering of light by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the light. Rayleigh scattering of sunlight from particles in the atmosphere is one reason light from the sky is blue. The amount of Rayleigh scattering that occurs to a beam of light is dependent upon the size of the particles and the wavelength of the light; in particular, the scattering coefficient, and hence the intensity of the scattered light, varies inversely with the fourth power of the wavelength, a relation known as the Rayleigh law. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Rayleigh_scattering   (1632 words)

 Scattering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Scattering, also called scatter, is the process by which small particles suspended in a medium of a different index of refraction diffuse a portion of the incident radiation in all directions. Scattering varies as a function of the ratio of the particle diameter to the wavelength of the radiation. In scattering experiments, a target of some material is bombarded with a beam of particles (typically electrons, protons, or neutrons) and the number of particles emerging in various directions is measured. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Scattering   (852 words)

 Blue Sky and Rayleigh Scattering Therefore the light scattered down to the earth at a large angle with respect to the direction of the sun's light is predominantly in the blue end of the spectrum. Rayleigh scattering refers to the scattering of light off of the molecules of the air, and can be extended to scattering from particles up to about a tenth of the wavelength of the light. Scattering in which the scattered photons have either a higher or lower photon energy is called Raman scattering. hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/atmos/blusky.html   (703 words)

 Rayleigh Scattering The scattering of light by gases was first treated quantitatively by Lord Rayleigh in 1871 in an effort to explain the blue colour of the sky and the red colour of the sunset. Rayleigh scattering theory is applicable to scattering of UV and visible radiation by air molecules, infra-red radiation by small aerosols, and microwave radiation by cloud and rain drops. and from equation (2.39), the Rayleigh scattering cross-section is, www.ess.uci.edu /~cmclinden/link/xx/node20.html   (323 words)

 Rayleigh scattering   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) For particles not larger than the Rayleigh limit, there is complete symmetry in the probability of scattering with respect to a plane normal to the direction of the incident radiation, so that the forward scatter equals the backward scatter. where n is the number of scatters of diameter d ; m is the index of refraction; and λ; is the wavelength of the radiation. Memories on the Wind Ash scattering cremation remains and ash scattering pet cremains. www.serebella.com /encyclopedia/article-Rayleigh_scattering.html   (604 words)

 Rayleigh scattering Rayleigh scattering is applicable when the radius (r) of the scattering sphere is much smaller than the wavelength (lambda) of the incident light. The variation of scattering as a function of wavelength is complicated by the fact that the refractive index of water varies slightly across the visible spectrum, varying from 1.34658 at 380 nm to 1.33141 at 700 nm. Although the blue colour of the sky is caused by Rayleigh scattering from aerosols or from molecules in the atmosphere, rather than from tiny droplets of water, the polarisation effects shown in Fig. www.philiplaven.com /p8b.html   (513 words)

 Atmospheric Scattering Scattering is the process by which "small particles suspended in a medium of a different index of refraction diffuse a portion of the incident radiation in all directions." With scattering, there is no energy transformation, but a change in the spatial distribution of the energy. Rayleigh scattering mainly consists of scattering from atmospheric gases. Mie scattering is caused by pollen, dust, smoke, water droplets, and other particles in the lower portion of the atmosphere. www.severewx.com /Radiation/scattering.html   (377 words)

 Encyclopedia: Rayleigh scattering The S-matrix is the matrix in quantum mechanics, scattering theory or quantum field theory that relates the final state in the infinite future (out channels) and the initial state in the infinite past (in channels). In scattering, a differential cross section is defined by the probability to observe a scattered particle in a given quantum state per solid angle unit (i. In scattering theory, a scattering channel is a quantum state of the colliding system before or after the collision (). www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Rayleigh-scattering   (3108 words)

 Rayleigh scattering   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) Rayleigh scattering (named after Lord Rayleigh) isthe scattering of light by particles smaller than the wavelength of the light. The amount of Rayleigh scattering that occurs to a beam of light is dependent upon the size of the particles and thewavelength of the light; in particular, the scattering coefficient, and hence the intensity of the scattered light, varies inversely withthe fourth power of the wavelength, a relation known as the Rayleigh law. In the atmosphere, this resultsin blue photons being scattered across the sky to a greater extent than photons of a longer wavelength, and so one sees bluelight coming from all regions of the sky whereas the rest is still mainly coming directly from the Sun. www.therfcc.org /rayleigh-scattering-34673.html   (365 words)

 Rayleigh scattering   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) The amount of Rayleigh scattering that occurs a beam of light is dependent upon size of the particles and the wavelength the light; in particular the scattering coefficient hence the intensity of the scattered light inversely with the fourth power of the a relation known as the Rayleigh law. For particles not than the Rayleigh limit there is complete in the probability of scattering with respect a plane normal to the direction of incident radiation so that the forward scatter the backward scatter. Rayleigh lidar observations of gravity wave activity in the upper stratosphere at Urbana, IL (SuDoc NAS 1.26:182738) www.freeglossary.com /Rayleigh_Scattering   (498 words)

 Laser Induced Mie\Rayleigh Scattering for High Speed Flow Diagnostics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) Rayleigh scattering is the elastic scattering of photons from gas molecules and/or particles much smaller than the wavelength of the laser light. In the case of pure molecular scattering the energy of the scattered light is proportional to the molecular number density of the gas and thus, can be used to determine the fluid density. In addition, the Doppler shift in frequency of the scattered light is proportional to the bulk velocity of the gas. mechanical.poly.edu /research/vo/project3.html   (329 words)

 sciforums.com - Why is the sky blue ? This is classic Rayleigh scattering, except Rayleigh scattering is supposedly peculiar to oxygen gas, and nowdays is attributed to nitrogen (because oxygen and nitrogen gasses have similar molecular distances,. Rayleigh scattering is caused by oscillations in the electric field around the molecule, not stretching of the hydrogen-oxygen bonds within the molecule. However, closer to the ground the air is too dense for Rayleigh scattering to be significant because waves from the closely adjacent scattering molecules overlap and destructively interfere in all but the forward direction. www.sciforums.com /showthread.php?t=27905   (1015 words)

 Raman Scattering This scattering is responsible for the blue color of the sky; it increases with the fourth power of the frequency and is more effective at short wavelengths. In this case the upper state is shown as being in rotational state J with scattering associated with an incoming photon at energy matching the J+2 state. Raman scattering produces scattered photons which differ in frequency from the radiation source which causes it, and the difference is related to vibrational and/or rotational properties of the molecules from which the scattering occurs. hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/atmos/raman.html   (594 words)

 Atmospheric Extinction Assuming that the scatterers are small compared to the wavelength of light, Rayleigh showed that the scattered intensity should be inversely proportional to the fourth power of the wavelength of light, and that this was in good agreement with the spectral distribution of the light in the blue sky. Because the refractivity of air is dispersive, the actual intensity of Rayleigh scattering in air is somewhat steeper than an inverse-fourth-power law, and amounts to about an inverse 4.08-power law across the visible spectrum. The waves re-radiated by the dipoles induced in the scatterers by the incident field are incoherent, as seen by an observer located to the side of the incident beam of light. mintaka.sdsu.edu /GF/explain/extinction/extintro.html   (1029 words)

 Ultraviolet Molecular Rayleigh Scattering Measures Velocity in High-Speed Flow   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) The Rayleigh scattered power is proportional to the gas density, the spectral width is related to the gas temperature, and the shift in the frequency of the spectral peak is proportional to one component of the fluid velocity. In this work at the NASA Lewis Research Center, molecular Rayleigh scattering of the 266-nm fourth harmonic of a pulsed, injection­seeded Nd:YAG (neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet) laser was used to measure velocity in a supersonic free air jet with a 9.3-mm exit diameter. The frequency of the Rayleigh scattered light was analyzed with a planar mirror Fabry-Perot interferometer used in a static imaging mode, with the images recorded on a cooled, high-quantum-efficiency charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera. www.grc.nasa.gov /WWW/RT1996/2000/2520s.htm   (398 words)

 skycolor.htm Scattering in the atmosphere makes the sky blue instead of fl, and this blue light, when mixed/added to the direct sunlight lifts the effective colour temperature further. Rayleigh scattering occurs when the scatters (air molecules) are smaller than the wavelength of light. An alternative explanation is that fluctuations in density are the source of a large fraction of the scattering. www.a1.nl /phomepag/markerink/skycolor.htm   (1180 words)

 Rayleigh Scattering in directory.co.uk Rayleigh scattering refers to the scattering of light off of the molecules of the air, and can be extended to scattering from... Rayleigh Scattering is a rock and roll band from San Diego. My experiment was designed to see if detectors other than the eye could measure Rayleigh scattering to the same power of -4. www.directory.co.uk /Rayleigh_Scattering.htm   (189 words)

 Rayleigh scattering --  Encyclopædia Britannica When the scattering particles are very small compared to the wavelength of light, the intensity of the scattered light is related to that of the incident light by the inverse fourth power of the wavelength (Rayleigh scattering). The scattered wave has an amplitude proportional to the amplitude (E) of the incident wave and inversely to the distance from the scattering centre; i.e., the electric vector E of the scattered wave is E/r, in which is a constant. As it passes through the atmosphere, sunlight is reflected and refracted by the air molecules and by dust particles and molecules of water vapor. www.britannica.com /eb/article-9062822   (792 words)

 Laser Rayleigh scattering   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) Rayleigh scattering is a powerful diagnostic tool for the study of gases and is particularly useful for aiding in the understanding of complex flow fields and combustion phenomena. Although the mechanism associated with the scattering, induced electric dipole radiation, is conceptually straightforward, the features of the scattering are complex because of the anisotropy of molecules, collective scattering from many molecules and inelastic scattering associated with rotational and vibrational transitions. Scattering from very small particles also falls into the Rayleigh range and may dominate the scattering from molecules if the particle density is high. stacks.iop.org /0957-0233/12/R33   (426 words)

 Definition: rayleigh scattering   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07) Rayleigh scattering: Of an electromagnetic wave propagating in a material medium, scattering caused by refractive-index inhomogeneities that are small compared to the wavelength. Note 1: Rayleigh scattering losses vary as the reciprocal of the fourth power of the wavelength. Note 2: Ionospheric scattering is caused partly by Rayleigh scattering. www.atis.org /tg2k/_rayleigh_scattering.html   (66 words)

 Scattering of Light: by small particles and molecules in the atmosphere Selective scattering (or Rayleigh scattering) occurs when certain particles are more effective at scattering a particular wavelength of light. The selective scattering by air molecules is responsible for producing our blue skies on a clear sunny day. Another type of scattering (called Mie Scattering) is responsible for the white appearance of clouds. ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu /(Gh)/guides/mtr/opt/mch/sct.rxml   (216 words)

 Elastic Photon-Atom Scattering Elastic photon scattering is an important tool for obtaining information about the structural properties of matter. The programs and data presented here are useful for evaluating Rayleigh scattering, the contribution to elastic scattering made by the bound electrons of an atom. Rayleigh scattering dominates elastic scattering for most of the x-ray and low-energy gamma-ray regimes. www-phys.llnl.gov /Research/scattering   (367 words)

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