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Topic: Reciprocal altruism


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In the News (Mon 17 Jun 19)

  
  Please go to: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~kruger/
Reciprocal altruism and kin selection are the only mechanisms for the evolutionary maintenance of altruistic or beneficent traits whose theoretical bases have received widespread acceptance (Rothstein & Pierotti, 1988).
Reciprocators are likely to establish long-term relations and to deliver most of their aid to other individuals genetically predisposed to reciprocation.
Reciprocal altruism must involve aid that is returned to an original donor as a result of a behavior that has a net cost to an original recipient.
www-personal.umich.edu /~kruger/ep5.html   (831 words)

  
 [No title]
Or it is an example of "reciprocal altruism" such as occurs between non-relatives who have entered into a pact to exchange favours - one male monkey supporting another unrelated male in a fight over a female, for example, or one bat who has food to spare offering it to another unrelated individual who is hungry.
Namely, that every time the reciprocal altruist helps his friend he is also, so long as he has chosen wisely, increasing the chances of survival of another individual who is himself carrying the gene for reciprocal altruism.
Reciprocal altruism, even if primarily motivated by the expectation of future personal reward, is often being selected partly because of the way it promotes the welfare of a gene-sharing friend.
cogprints.org /843/00/Altruism.htm   (2943 words)

  
 Reciprocal - Search Results - MSN Encarta
Reciprocal, a number or mathematical term that is related to another number or mathematical term by the fact that when the two are multiplied...
In reciprocal insurance organizations, also known as reciprocal exchanges or interinsurance exchanges, each policyholder is directly insured by all...
On the other hand, altruism often occurs in the absence of close genetic relatedness; that is, it can involve other than direct kin.
encarta.msn.com /Reciprocal.html   (159 words)

  
 The Evolution of Altruism
Altruism is the deliberate sacrifice of a portion of an individual’s reproductive capacity in order to increase that of another.
Although the problem of altruism was largely ignored by early evolutionary theory, over the past several decades it has risen to become a central issue in the debate over the level at which natural selection operates - whether that be the level of the gene, individual, kin group, or even an entire population.
Reciprocal altruism is the process by which one individual will commit an altruistic act towards another in exchange for the second individual returning the altruistic favor at some later time.
endeavor.med.nyu.edu /~strone01/altruism.html   (3896 words)

  
 Altruism - EvoWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-11)
Altruism is not quite as spectacular at the organism level, but it nevertheless happens in abundance.
The occurrence of altruism is a seeming paradox for Charles Darwin's mechanism of natural selection, because its natural consequence is a sort of universal selfishness.
The theory of reciprocal altruism holds that psychological mechanisms for providing benefits to non-relatives can evolve insofar as the benefit is reciprocated at some point in the future.
wiki.cotch.net /wiki.phtml?title=Altruism   (1365 words)

  
 Give Until It Hurts: Altruism and Advertising
Altruism is contrary to the normal purpose of advertising, to convince the individual that acquiring a certain product or service will benefit that individual.
Altruism is easier to link to self-esteem for women, since for many women self-esteem is related to a sense of connectedness rather than competition.
The world view that altruism can instill in the minds of the recipients is one that accords with that of the donor: in return for the donor's aid, the recipient is expected to agree with the donor's world view.
www.wsu.edu:8080 /~taflinge/altruism.html   (2953 words)

  
 Reciprocal altruism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In evolutionary biology, reciprocal altruism is a form of altruism in which one organism provides a benefit to another in the expectation of future reciprocation.
A potential example of reciprocal altruism is blood-sharing in the vampire bat, in which bats feed regurgitated blood to those who have not collected much blood themselves knowing that they themselves may someday benefit from this same donation; cheaters are remembered by the colony and ousted from this collaboration.
As the conditions under which reciprocal altruism can operate will vary widely according to ecological and social conditions, and will vary through time for the same population "one would expect selection to favour developmental plasticity of those traits regulating altruistic and cheating tendencies and responses to these tendencies in others".
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Reciprocal_altruism   (877 words)

  
 Replicators in Evolution
Reciprocal altruism looks like a paradox because it requires an animal to voluntarily do a favor for another animal without a guarantee that the favor will be returned later.
Reciprocal altruism is now thought to have evolved from kin selection (see Other Types of Selection).
Reciprocal altruism is a good example of what seems to be a paradox all around, for it does not really directly benefit replicators as kin selection does.
library.thinkquest.org /C004367/be6.shtml   (1295 words)

  
 How Humans Evolved   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-11)
Altruism is not delegated randomly to anyone and everyone, but is delegated contingently to other individuals who also act altruistically (that is, to those who also carry the same, altruistic alleles).
For reciprocal altruism to evolve, three conditions must be met: (1) Individuals must have an opportunity to interact often, (2) individuals must have the ability to keep track of support given and received, and (3) individuals must restrict support only to those who help them.
In both kin selection and reciprocal altruism, the delegation of altruistic behavior is contingentóin the kin selection case it is contingent upon the genetic relationship, while in the reciprocal altruism case it is contingent upon behavior.
www.wwnorton.com /web/evolve/ch/08/questions.shtml   (1444 words)

  
 Altruism: The Thorn in Darwin’s Side
For altruism to develop in this environment it would truly have to be an important behavioral adaptation, an adaptation that increased the chance of survival for both the giver and taker.
In nature for reciprocal altruism to take place the altruist must be able to discern whether or not the altruee (a word I may have just coined) is going to cheat.
It was argued that if altruism had naturally evolved in the way that reciprocal altruism contended, then it should evolve in the computer world as well.
www.u.arizona.edu /~jons/Altruism.html   (3647 words)

  
 Biological Altruism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
If altruism is to evolve, it must be the case that the recipients of altruistic actions have a greater than average probability of being altruists themselves.
The theory of reciprocal altruism, developed by Trivers (1971), is one attempt to explain the evolution of altruism among non-kin.
For reciprocal altruism to work, there is no need for the two individuals to be relatives, nor even to be members of the same species.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/altruism-biological   (5850 words)

  
 Looking for Kindness in Most of the Wrong Places by Craig T. Palmer
Both books are based on the evolutionary concepts of kin selection and reciprocal altruism as put forth in the 1960s and 1970s, and readers of Barber's book may be disappointed to find little discussion of the many studies done on the evolution of altruism since the publication of Ridley's book.
He begins this argument by defining altruism in a way that makes it possible to ignore the reciprocal part of reciprocal altruism: “Altruism is defined as actions that help another individual at some cost to the altruist” (Barber 2004: 9).
That is true, but reciprocal altruism is also predicated on such emotions as anger, suspicion, and moral outrage that cut off altruistic actions when they were not likely to be beneficial to the actor over the longer term.
human-nature.com /nibbs/05/palmerct.html   (1049 words)

  
 Kidney International - Voluntary reciprocal altruism: a novel strategy to encourage deceased organ donation
Altruism, the impulse that underlies our present system, is undermined by proposals that provide tangible inducements to improve donation which are, in their own subtle ways, coercive.
Altruism can be conceived as an adaptive strategy that is reinforced the greater the possibility of reciprocity.
Reciprocity must be highlighted in the strategy and an element of strong reciprocity incorporated.
www.nature.com /ki/journal/v69/n6/full/5000280a.html   (1563 words)

  
 Altruism: selfless or selfish?
Arguments are sometimes made against calculation theories of altruism based on the decision to perform an altruistic act, for example jumping into the water to save a drowning child, is not made based on a calculation of genetic inheritance, but rather emotions and feelings of the right thing to do (7).
The sex difference in altruism seen in the twin study may have been influenced by females' tendency to be more empathetic than men; several studies have shown that females tend to care more than males about close relationships and specific people and their immediate situations (9).
Behavior altruism may not have been able to be isolated from this empathetic difference; the emotions involved with altruism may be inseparable from the decision to commit an altruistic act.
serendip.brynmawr.edu /bb/neuro/neuro01/web2/Costello.html   (1524 words)

  
 Reciprocal sharing and the evolution of altruism
Genetical models of the evolution of reciprocal altruism (as distinct from cooperation, mutualism, or nepotism) have difficulty explaining the initial establishment of an altruist gene in a selfish deme.
It is possible that classic, selfish selection for reciprocity and aggressive sharing was responsible for establishing emotions that form the basis of the entire reciprocal altruism complex, thus bypassing the problem of the original, lone altruist.
I have argued that reciprocity and aggressive sharing are directly associated with the attainment of rank in chimpanzees and humans, and may represent genetic predispositions; the mechanism of selection proposed here is distinct from that suggested by Trivers for reciprocal altruism.
weber.ucsd.edu /~jmoore/publications/Recip.html   (6151 words)

  
 [No title]
Kin selection and reciprocal altruism continued to operate within the larger-scale groups, organising cooperation between closely related individuals and amongst those who lived or worked together for long periods.
In the dialogues the case for individualism came from a political desperado of the worst kind while the case for altruism fell to 'Socrates' who emphasised the harmony and well being of citizens in the ideal state.
In considering the evolution of reciprocal altruism in human beings, Barber emphasizes the significance of emotions such as guilt, shame, and moral outrage, arguing that reciprocal altruism works best in small groups (e.g., hunter gatherers) in which individuals can enhance their fitness by working together and trading perishable goods.
www.lycos.com /info/altruism--individuals.html?page=2   (458 words)

  
 Reciprocal Altruism - How repeated altruistic exchange between individuals benefits them both
Reciprocal altruists are taking something of a risk - since the rewards come later, they are relying on the good will (and good memory) of the recipient to return the favour when they get the chance.
For reciprocal altruism to exist, the same individuals must come into regular contact, and there need to be repeated opportunities for actions that cost the altruist less than they benefit the recipients.
Reciprocal altruism may therefore also be, as Rothstein argues, impossible to separate clearly from kin selection.
www.altruists.org /about/altruism/evolution/reciprocal/Default.asp   (647 words)

  
 SPACE.com -- As Conflict Begins, Researchers Work to Define Humanity's Aspirations for ET
In reciprocal altruism, nice-ness is reciprocated with nice-ness, negativity with negativity.
Reciprocal altruism is seen, for example, in chimpanzee grooming and food sharing.
In nepotism, by contrast, altruism is extended to one's close relatives, not necessarily with the expectation of direct payback.
www.space.com /searchforlife/seti_vakoch_030321.html   (1319 words)

  
 [No title]
The origin of altruism is a fundamental problem in evolution, and the maintenance of biodiversity is a fundamental problem in ecology.
From this center, altruism ripples outward in concentric circles to reciprocity between members of ingroups, systems of cooperation in societies, and relations among nations.
When an individual in need is not related to a potential altruist, Triver's (1971) model of reciprocal altruism has generally been used to explain altruistic behaviour (for an extended critique of reciprocity models see Richerson and Boyd, 2001).
www.lycos.com /info/altruism.html   (838 words)

  
 Spectrum One: Individualism vs Altruism
Undeniable examples of altruism exist among families (in a strong form) and among communities (in a weaker form).
Reciprocal altruism means helping someone out who needs it, with the understanding that the favor may be returned at some distant, unspecified date in the future, whenever the altruist happens to need it.
Which means that if the poor try to restore the missing altruism of the rich by recreating it themselves, they see even less of their paychecks than under ordinary circumstances, which deepens their overall poverty.
www.huppi.com /kangaroo/L-spectrumone.htm   (2963 words)

  
 reasons to know human nature
The likelihood of adoption decreases with older age, ill-health, and ethnic distinction of the orphan, which is all the result of our strong tendency toward reciprocal altruism.
Reciprocal altruism requires the ability to detect cheaters (defectors) so that only altruism is directed toward cooperators.
One way for reciprocal altruism to work (e.g., house and barn building among Amish families) is to shun the defectors.
www.homepage.montana.edu /~mlavin/b403/humans4.htm   (535 words)

  
 Is Altruism Real or an Illusion?
Trivers (1971) has proposed the principle of delayed reciprocal altruism, by which animals will 'return favours' to other animals which have done them a good turn or a good turn is worthwhile because it is likely to be returned.
Sociobiologists call it "delayed reciprocal altruism", whereby one good act is an investment for a potential return favour at a later date [Gross, p413].
Those who use altruism in the first sense will give instances of observed altruism in order to prove their point, those who use the second definition will seek for underlying causes of behaviour in order to dispel examples.
www.humantruth.info /altruism.html   (2638 words)

  
 evolution and altruism
The mechanisms of kin selection and reciprocal altruism (the latter involving game theory) are especially important because they appear to resolve the puzzle of altruism.
Altruism must be a mirage (and perhaps unreasonable as a moral recommendation -- though this last claim doesn't follow immediately, and we would have to reflect further on whether we thought there was an argument for it here.)
Axelrod: This disposition to "reciprocity" (this "strategy") can arise by natural selection of genes (so, it might be argued, humans have been selected for to have this disposition innately), but also at the cultural level (or even "deliberate processes such as imitation of successful patterns of behavior and intelligently designed new strategic ideas.")
www.msu.edu /course/phl/340/phl340/fall99/gifford_1/bioshe484.htm   (881 words)

  
 RoR: Forum
Altruism is (empirically) looking less and less life-supporting, thanks to game theory and similar research.
In that case, if the ethical egoist is to remain true to his principles, where only he is the proper beneficiairy of his actions, the benefits others may derive from the actions of the ethical egoist are accidental, and not ethical.
If collectivists truly believed in a collective, they would realize that the collective is made up of individuals, all serving their own needs is the goal of each part of the collective, and therefore the entire collective benefits most by each acting in its own self-interest.
rebirthofreason.com /Forum/ArticleDiscussions/1118_1.shtml   (1333 words)

  
 William H. Calvin and Derek Bickerton, Lingua ex Machina, chapter 10 (MIT Press)
This question became even more pressing with the rise of Darwinism, the decline of belief in the supernatural, and a growing acceptance that all living organisms are of their nature irredeemably selfish.
m proposing here is that the practice of reciprocal altruism created the set of abstract categories and structures that, once they were joined to a structureless protolanguage, yielded the kind of syntax that all modern human languages exhibit.
So it should be possible, in any species that typically practices reciprocal altruism, for animal B to know whether he grooms his partner A more or less often than A grooms him.
williamcalvin.com /LEM/LEMch10.htm   (3271 words)

  
 Palmer Traditional Stories Article - MU College of Arts and Science Research Communication Project
In his most recent research, Palmer studied the moral values embedded in stories about reciprocal altruism, a social behavior in which one person helps another and, later, expects the favor to be returned.
Many theoretical models of reciprocal altruism suggest the evolutionary success of the tit-for-tat pattern of behavior, where individuals are only altruistic toward people who have been altruistic toward them in the past.
Palmer said this suggests one function of modern children’s stories involving reciprocal altruism is to "soften an evolved tendency to use a tit-for-tat strategy in social behavior."
rcp.missouri.edu /articles/palmer-tradstories.html   (483 words)

  
 What is a good metaphor and a good analogy for this phenomenon? | Ask MetaFilter
In reciprocal altruism an individual provides a benefit for another in exchange for a reciprocal benefit, or the expectation of a reciprocal benefit in the future.
The instinctive nature of reciprocal altruism is illustrated by vampire bat societies.
For animal examples of such reciprocity (bats hunting for each other, cleaning fish, etc.) have a look at "The Origins of Virtue" by Matt Ridley, although many examples might be limited to families.
ask.metafilter.com /mefi/49137   (2100 words)

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