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Topic: Reducing sugars

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In the News (Mon 21 May 18)

  Reducing sugar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A reducing sugar is a type of sugar with a ketone or aldehyde group.
This allows the sugar to act as a reducing agent, for example in the Maillard reaction.
Reducing sugars include fructose, glucose, glyceraldehyde, lactose and maltose.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Reducing_sugar   (141 words)

 What is the Relationship Between the Amount of Reducing Sugars and the Absorbance at 730 nm??   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
My hypothesis is that boiling Fehlingís solution w/reducing sugars forms the precipitate that would then be dissolved in ammonium chloride to give a solution whose absorbance (at 730 nm) varies directly with the amount of reducing sugars in the original sample.
Glucose and Fructose are hexose (6 carbon) sugars.
My hypothesis was that boiling Fehlingís solution with reducing sugars forms the precipitate that would then be dissolved in ammonium chloride to give a solution whose absorbance (at 730 nm) varies directly with the amount of reducing sugars in the original sample.
www.selah.k12.wa.us /MS/SciProj98/8TH/SAMB/sugar.html   (1908 words)

 Di- and Polysaccharides
In contrast, acetal forms (glycosides) are not reducing sugars, since with base present, the acetal linkage is stable and is not converted to the aldehyde or hemiacetal.
The outcome is that in a reducing sugar the anomeric carbon is in an aldehyde or hemiacetal.
In a non-reducing sugar, the anomeric carbon is in an acetal.
chemistry2.csudh.edu /rpendarvis/dipolysacch.html   (1325 words)

 Food Science 310   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
Although the reducing sugar test used here is easy to do, the nature of the reactions which occur ultimately leading to the concentration of the reducing sugars present is rather complicated.
Reducing sugars reduce copper, and iodine is formed from potassium iodide, iodate, and sulfuric acid.
Make a reducing sugar standard curve by plotting the difference between thiosulfate volume required to titrate the blank and that required to titrate the known glucose concentrations (on the y-axis) vs. concentration of glucose (on x-axis).
www.wisc.edu /foodsci/courses/fs310/lab15.html   (606 words)

 Elimination of reducing sugars present in trisodium citrate - Patent 4308398
After the starch is converted into sugar, the resulting sugar-containing material is subjected to the action of a citric-acid producing strain of a fungus in the presence of nutrients, under conditions conducive to fermentation, to produce citric acid.
Based on this range of reducing sugars, an amount of from 0.05 to 0.09 percent by weight of hydroxylamine based on the weight of anhydrous trisodium citrate has been found to be effective in the present invention.
The data presented in Table II indicated that hydroxylamine sulfate is effective in eliminating reducing sugars present in the citrate, as indicated by the elimination of color fading of the detergent dye.
www.freepatentsonline.com /4308398.html   (1720 words)

 Muscovado Sugar | Natural Sugar, Sugar Cane, Raw Sugar, Turbinado Sugar
Raw sugar that leaves the sugar mills is similar to "turbinado" sugar, and "sugar in the raw".
The liquor left over from the preparation of white sugar and the washings from the affination stage both contain sugar which it is economically viable to recover.
In some areas of the world sugar cane juice is merely evaporated to produce a crude raw sugar; the sugar crystals are not removed from the mother syrup in centrifugals.
www.wildernessfamilynaturals.com /muscovado_sugar.htm   (2381 words)

Aside from the sugars and starches that meet this vital nutritional role, carbohydrates also serve as a structural material (cellulose), a component of the energy transport compound ATP, recognition sites on cell surfaces, and one of three essential components of DNA and RNA.
sugars oxidized by Tollens' reagent (or Benedict's or Fehling's reagents).
It is a reducing sugar because of the hemiacetal function remaining in the glucose moiety.
www.cem.msu.edu /~reusch/VirtualText/carbhyd.htm   (4742 words)

 Fehling's solution on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
The substance to be tested is heated with Fehling's solution; formation of a brick-red precipitate indicates the presence of the aldehyde group.
Simple sugars (e.g., glucose) give a positive test, so the solution has been used to test for the presence of glucose in urine, a symptom of diabetes; Benedict's solution, which gives the same test, is now more widely used.
The cupric ion (complexed with tartrate ion) is reduced to cuprous ion by the aldehyde (which is oxidized) and precipitates as cuprous oxide (Cu O); for this reason, sugars that react with Fehling's solution are called reducing sugars.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/F/Fehlings.asp   (320 words)

The principal sugars in the corolla of the carnation are reducing sugars and sucrose; the former predominate at all stages of flower development.
At the "goose-neck" stage, reducing sugars are present in smaller amounts than sucrose but during flower development and senescence, reducing sugars increase to a maximum, roughly coincident with full flower opening, and then decrease until half of the maximum remains at wilting; sucrose disappears as the reducing sugars increase.
Feeding carnation flower buds with sucrose causes an accumulation of reducing sugars in the petals and the life of the open flower is very nearly doubled; the same treatment applied to narcissus causes only a small improvement in longevity but results in substantial growth of the ovary.
www.actahort.org /books/41/41_2.htm   (310 words)

 Reducing Sugars
In one sense, monosaccharides that are in the ring form are not reducing sugars because they don't have the aldehydo group that can be oxidized.
Your experiment for this week's lesson is to test a variety of carbohydrates to see whether or not they are reducing sugars.
In a sense, that test can be used to determine the presence of a monosaccharide because a monosaccharide is a reducing sugar and, therefore, presumably, if you have a reducing sugar, you have a monosaccharide.
dl.clackamas.cc.or.us /ch106-07/reducing.htm   (274 words)

 JCS : Volume 4/2000 : Issue 3 : Modification of the Potassium Ferricyanide Reducing Sugar Test for Sugars from Extracts ...
This test, however, is a reducing sugar test and does not detect non-reducing sugars, which are known to contribute to the stickiness potential of the lint.
Treatment with a mild (0.2 M) sulfuric acid solution converted sucrose (a physiological sugar) and melezitose (an insect-honeydew sugar) to reducing sugars that are detectable by the standard potassium ferricyanide test.
The modified potassium ferricyanide sugar test provided a more realistic quantification of sugars present, and the difference between standard and modified sugars was directly proportional to the amount of sucrose and melezitose present.
www.cotton.org /journal/2000-04/3/202.cfm   (352 words)

These contaminants are mainly sugar deposits produced either by the cotton plant itself (physiological sugars) or by the feeding insects (entomological sugars), the latter being the most common source of contamination.
The main sugars of insect honeydew, trehalulose (from whiteflies) and melezitose (from aphids), and of plant sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) are all readily identified in this test.
Complex sugars are broken down to simpler sugars, and the simpler sugars, given sufficient time and moisture, are further broken down to carbon dioxide and water.
www.geocities.com /vijayakumar777/cottonstickiness.html   (1758 words)

 Carbohydrates   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
The simplest of the common sugars are glyceraldehyde (2,3 di hydroxy propanal) and di hydroxy acetone.
Using photosynthesis, plants make their own sugars from CO water and sunlight in the leaves and then send these sugars to other parts of the plant as food or for storage.
One of the most common sugars made by plants is sucrose, which is transported in the sap.
www2.canisius.edu /~corsot/biochemistry/sugars.htm   (958 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
The extracts were clarified and the reducing sugars determined in the usual way.
Untreated sample - 16.6% reducing sugars Ammonia treated sample - 16.4%' The treated and untreated samples give very similar results, as was found when pure glucose was analysed (1)9 and Indicate that ammonia does not react with sugars themselves but forms a complex when polyphenols are also present.
react with sugars and polyphenols in the tobacco and so cause a low result to be obtained for the reducing sugar assay.
www.library.ucsf.edu /tobacco/batco/OCR/1400/1455.txt   (566 words)

 Organic Molecules, Laboratory Notes for BIO 1003
Fructose, the sugar found in many fruits, has the same molecular formula as glucose, but the atoms of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are arranged a little differently in the two monosaccharides.
When a solution containing Benedict’s reagent and a reducing sugar is heated, the copper (II) ions in the Benedict’s reagent are reduced to copper (I) ions and the solution changes from blue to green to orange to red-orange to brick-red.
Polysaccharides do not test positive for reducing sugars unless they undergo a hydrolysis reaction (by heating or digestion) during which the polysaccharides are broken down to form monosaccharides.
faculty.baruch.cuny.edu /jwahlert/bio1003/organic.html   (2080 words)

 CHE 415 - General Biochemistry I - Laboratory Exercise #9
Pentoses are distinguished from hexoses by the Bial test, which dehydrates pentoses to furfural, forming a dark blue or blue-green color in complex with orcinol and ferric ion (Fe); hexoses are dehydrated to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which forms a yellow color, instead.
Benedict’s test is used to identify whether a sugar is reducing or nonreducing, by treating the sugar with Cu ion in the presence of base, which, in the case of the reducing sugar, reduces the copper to Cu and forms a red precipitate.
Examine each of the four samples using the Seliwanoff test to determine which of the sugars is a ketose (fructose).
people.uis.edu /efish1/Che415/Labrtry9/labrtry9.htm   (1170 words)

 [No title]
By measuring the amount of an oxidizing agent that is reduced by a solution of a sugar, it is possible to estimate the concentration of the sugar.
Reducing sugars are the additives that are put into sweets to help people lose weight.
Chemically speaking, reducing sugars are carbohydrates that reduce Fehling's reagent (alkaline cupric ion solution complexed with tartrate ion) or Tollens' reagent (a solution of silver ammonia ion).
homeroastnbrew.info /hbd/1992/0973   (6126 words)

 CyberEd® PLATO Science :: Science Education Software   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
Explain why non-reducing sugars give a negative result when they are heated with Benedict's reagent unless they are first hydrolysed.
Hydrolysis of the non-reducing sugar is seen to occur when the sample is boiled in acid and the effect of this reaction on the ability of the sample to reduce the Benedict's reagent is indicated by the animation.
Students are then able to consolidate their knowledge of these biochemical tests by carrying out virtual experiments to identify whether various samples contain sugar, and if so whether this is reducing sugar or non-reducing sugar.
www.cybered.net /ad_click.asp?banner_id=139   (481 words)

 Re: Is there a way in which to test for reducing sugars except for benedicts.
Reducing substances, in cane sugar for example, are sometimes also refered to as invert sugar.
Reducing substances, on the other hand, are any components that have active aldehyde ends or anomers that have the ability to reduce copper (Cu).
Sucrose cannot be considered a reducing sugar because the 1-2 linkage of glucose and fructose leave no aldehyde site available.
www.madsci.org /posts/archives/jan2000/947280059.Bc.r.html   (251 words)

 Carbohydrates Central - The Most In Depth Carbohydrates Resource On The Internet   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
Carbohydrates are dietary nutrients which include sugars, starches, and fibers and are the body's main source of energy.
sugar because it's what all carbohydrates are broken down into in the...
Carbohydrates: Mainly sugars and starches, together constituting one of the three principal types of...
carbohydrates.filegen.info   (982 words)

 Re: What are the differences between reducing and non-reducing sugars?
It is this method where the name reducing sugars is derived from.
The sharpness of the end-point is improved by the use of an indicator, methylene blue, which is decolorized in the presence of a minute excess of reducing sugars.
Sucrose will not reduce the cupric ions therefore they are refered to as non reducing.
www.madsci.org /posts/archives/2000-10/973011362.Bc.r.html   (214 words)

 Chapter 25: Reducing sugars   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
Sugars that contain aldehyde groups that are oxidised to carboxylic acids are classified as reducing sugars.
They are classified as reducing sugars since they reduce the Cu to Cu which forms as a red precipitate, copper (I) oxide.
Ketoses can also be reducing sugars because they can isomerise (a tautomerisation) to aldoses via an enediol:
www.mhhe.com /physsci/chemistry/carey5e/Ch25/ch25-2-5.html   (104 words)

 Benedict   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
The Benedict's test allows us to detect the presence of reducing sugars (sugars with a free aldehyde or ketone group).
All monosaccharides are reducing sugars; they all have a free reactive carbonyl group.
The final color of the solution depends on how much of this precipitate was formed, and therefore the color gives an indication of how much reducing sugar was present.
www.biosci.ohiou.edu /introbioslab/Bios170/170_2/benedict.htm   (114 words)

 DiabetoValens.com - The Diabetes Guide
This is a biochemical test to detect reducing sugars in solution, devised by the US chemist S. Benedict (1884-1936).
A high concentration of reducing sugars induces the formation of a red precipitate; a lower concentration produces a yellow precipitate.
The Clinitest Reagent Tablet reacts with all reducing sugars and is not specific for glucose.
my.diabetovalens.com /investigations/sugar.asp   (535 words)

 What is MSG?
In the hydrolysis method, the protein is hydrolyzed with a strong mineral acid to free amino acids, and the glutamic acid is then separated from the mixture, purified, and converted to its monosodium salt, [monosodium glutamate].
reaction flavors are produced from a combination of specific amino acids, reducing sugars, animal or vegetable fats or oils, and optional ingredients including hydrolyzed vegetable protein.
The FDA has also admitted that processed free glutamic acid found in reaction flavors which are produced from a combination of specific amino acids, reducing sugars, and animal or vegetable fats or oils, and optional ingredients including hydrolyzed vegetable protein is also carcinogenic (Lin, L.J. Regulatory status of Maillard reaction flavors.
www.truthinlabeling.org /HowIsItManufactured.html   (1017 words)

 A Colorimetric method for the estimation of glucose (or reducing sugars) in solution.
A Colorimetric method for the estimation of glucose (or reducing sugars) in solution.
Below is a short sample of the essay "A Colorimetric method for the estimation of glucose (or reducing sugars) in solution.".
This would be hard as they are very small and all the amounts of various sugars and chemicals would have to be changed to fit into the cuvetts.
www.coursework.info /i/33655.html   (492 words)

 Reducing added sugars and calories so you can get fit   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
One small step towards reducing added sugar intake is to use low or no calorie sweeteners in place of sugar.
SPLENDA® No Calorie Sweetener is made from sugar so it tastes like sugar and consumers have quickly adopted it as their no calorie sweetener of choice.
of sugar, which is ideal for cooking and baking, as well as in 1- and 2-lb.
www.medicalnewstoday.com /medicalnews.php?newsid=27212   (852 words)

 Project Summary -Legal limit for reducing sugars in prefabricates targeting 50 ppb acrylamide in French fries   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
When the reducing sugars in the raw material are low, even uncareful frying results in relatively low AA contents.
When fructose+glucose in the prefabricates is limited to 0.7 g/kg fresh weight and the frying temperature is restricted, the average AA content in the French fries should be around 50 ppb.
The control of the sugar is a simple measure to reduce AA in French fries.
www.acrylamide-food.org /show_project.cfm?projectID=925   (136 words)

 Chapter 10   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-23)
Ketoses are not normally reducing sugars but in basic solutions will rearrange to aldoses and become reducing sugars.
A special name for the acetal bond in sugars is the glycosidic bond.
The glycosidic bond no longer allows the oxidation reaction and are not reducing sugars.
opbs.okstate.edu /~Blair/Bioch2344/Chapter10/Chapter10.htm   (741 words)

 Benedicts Solution, A Reagent for Measuring Reducing Sugars: The Clinical Chemistry of Stanley R. Benedict -- 277 (16): ...
Stanley Rossiter Benedict was born in Cincinnati in 1884.
to reduce the corrosiveness, and by substituting citrate for tartrate
Much of the background information for sugar chemistry and clinical usage of Benedict's Reagent was kindly provided by Professor
www.jbc.org /cgi/content/full/277/16/e5   (801 words)

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