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Topic: Reduction

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In the News (Fri 24 May 19)

  Reduction Mammaplasty
In most cases, breast reduction isn't performed until a woman's breasts are fully developed; however, it can be done earlier if large breasts are causing serious physical discomfort.
Breast reduction surgery may be performed in a hospital, an outpatient surgery center or an office-based surgical suite.
Techniques for breast reduction vary, but the most common procedure involves an anchor-shaped incision that circles the areola, extends downward, and follows the natural curve of the crease beneath the breast.
www.plasticsurgery.org /public_education/procedures/ReductionMammaplasty.cfm   (1783 words)

  Reduction - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
In mathematics, reduction is the process of manipulating a series of equations or matrices into a desired 'simpler' format.
In cooking, reduction is the process of thickening a liquid mixture such as a sauce by evaporation.
In chemistry, reduction is the reverse of oxidation, i.e.
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /reduction.htm   (277 words)

 M.P.E.P. Section 2138.05, 'Reduction to Practice' (BitLaw)
Reduction to practice may be an actual reduction or a constructive reduction to practice, i.e., filing of a patent application.
The same evidence sufficient for a constructive reduction to practice may be insufficient to establish an actual reduction to practice, which requires a showing of the invention in a physical or tangible form that shows every element of the count.
1979) (Reduction to practice was not established for an intermediate useful in the preparation of a second intermediate with a known utility in the preparation of a pharmaceutical.
www.bitlaw.com /source/mpep/2138_05.html   (1170 words)

 Breast Reduction Information   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Reduction mammaplasty is not done for cosmetic purposes.
The operation of reduction mammaplasty is carried out to relieve the patient's symptoms and should not be confused with the so called "breast lift" or mastopexy procedure which is done for cosmetic purposes.
If you are contemplating a breast reduction procedure you should discuss your specific situation and wishes with the plastic surgeon you have chosen.
www.surgery.uiowa.edu /surgery/plastic/breduc.html   (955 words)

 Drug Policy Alliance: What Is Harm Reduction?
A harm reduction approach acknowledges that there is no ultimate solution to the problem of drugs in a free society, and that many different interventions may work.
Harm reduction mandates that the emphasis on intervention should be based on the relative harmfulness of the drug to society.
Harm reduction seeks to reduce the harms of drug policies dependent on an over-emphasis on interdiction, such as arrest, incarceration, establishment of a felony record, lack of treatment, lack of adequate information about drugs, the expansion of military source control intervention efforts in other countries, and intrusion on personal freedoms.
www.drugpolicy.org /library/factsheets/harm_reduction_nm.cfm   (541 words)

 Data Reduction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Reduction in quantization will reduce precision and introduce quantization noise.
Lossy coding is a system whereas data is not precisely reconstructed when decoded, but a (hopefully) accurate analogy is produced from the reduced data.
All reduction systems are employed to accommodate the limitations of the media involved.
www.mtsu.edu /~djbrown/Reduction.html   (932 words)

 reduction on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Reduction of glycemic and lipid levels in db/db diabetic mice by psyllium plant fiber.
Message to the Senate transmitting the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms.
Economic gains resulting from the reduction in children's exposure to lead in the United States.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/X/X-reductn.asp   (489 words)

 Article : Ultrasound Guided Water Enema for Hydrostatic Reduction of Childhood Intussusception - A Preliminary ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Once reduction was complete, the water was evacuated from the colon, and the abdomen was re-examined to determine whether there was any residual lesion or recurrence of intussusception.
Use of an enema for nonsurgical reduction of ileocolic intussusception in infants and children was initiated more than 80 years ago [4,5].
The reduction process can be directly watched in a lit room, and at the same time changes in the child's general condition, including breathing and abdominal distension can also be assessed.
ijri.org /articles/archives/19990902/gastrorad02.htm   (1722 words)

 oxidation and reduction on Encyclopedia.com
Similarly, reduction referred to a decrease in the amount of oxygen in a substance or its complete removal, e.g., the reaction of cupric oxide and hydrogen to form copper and water.
Common reductants (substances readily oxidized) are the active metals, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, carbon, carbon monoxide, and sulfurous acid.
Industrially, many redox reactions are of great importance: combustion of fuels; electrolysis (oxidation occurs at the anode and reduction at the cathode); and metallurgical processes in which free metals are obtained from their ores.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/o1/oxidreduc.asp   (922 words)

 International Strategy for Disaster Reduction
The secretariat of the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction launches an on-line game aimed at teaching children how to build safer villages and cities against disasters.
The Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR) is a major initiative launched in September 2006 through a partnership between the World Bank and ISDR to support national, regional and global capacities in reducing disaster risk, particularly in low and middle-income countries.
This pocket-sized booklet clarifies a few terms that both the climate change and disaster risk reduction disciplines use but often use differently, so as to avoid possible sources of confusion.
www.unisdr.org   (591 words)

 Reduction in English   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Stress and reduction in the phrases form the rhythm of the language and this is important to hear in order to have understanding.
Reduction in words: In multi-syllabic words, there is one main stress, and the other syllables can have a full vowel or a reduced vowel (a schwa --"uh" sound).
Reduction in sentences: In general, the content words (words that give the meaning) in a sentence are stressed and the structure words (more grammatical words) are unstressed and reduced.
grove.ufl.edu /~klilj/pron/red   (384 words)

 Breast reduction surgery: Decreasing your breast size - MayoClinic.com
Women who have breast reduction surgery span a range of ages, from their teens to their 80s.
Breast reduction surgery may decrease your ability to breast-feed.
Breast reduction surgery usually is performed under general anesthesia that you inhale as a gas or receive through an intravenous (IV) line.
www.mayoclinic.com /health/breast-reduction/WO00021   (1217 words)

 ISDR: About ISDR - Basic documents - A Safer World in the 21st Century
Disaster risk reduction therefore concerns everyone, from villagers to heads of state, from bankers and lawyers to farmers and foresters, from meteorologists to media chiefs.
Living with Risk: A global review of disaster reduction initiatives brings to light the urgent need for action to be taken – and the people who are doing so – towards building sustainable societies in an increasingly disaster-prone world.
Following the overwhelming feedback received for the preliminary edition of 2002, the ISDR Secretariat is pleased to present the full text of the 2004 version of the publication "Living with Risk: A global review of disaster reduction initiatives" (available for purchase from UN Sales Publications).
www.unisdr.org /eng/about_isdr/bd-lwr-2004-eng.htm   (758 words)

 reduction --¬† Encyclop√¶dia Britannica
The iron ore is not melted in the H-iron reduction...
To offset the loss in revenue from tariff reductions, a graduated income tax law was enacted as authorized by the newly adopted 16th Amendment to the Constitution.
U.S. legislation that amended the 1970 Clean Air Act; placed limits on industrial pollutants that cause acid rain; called for reductions in toxic and carcinogenic chemicals released by U.S. factories and reduction in automobile emissions; included reductions of 50 percent in industrial emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide, 70 percent in carbon monoxide from...
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9062994   (729 words)

 Okino's Polygon Reduction System
Not only is it 1/2 to 1/10th the cost of other single-purpose polygon reduction programs from other companies, but you also get access to the most refined set of 3D import/export converters on the market, as well as rendering, scene manipulation and dozens of other features.
I've found the Okino polygon reduction system to be a splendid tool which makes it easy to automate the process of making fantastic good-looking low-res models for animation with XSI and Maya.
If you are a Maya or 3DS MAX user and wish to utilize the polygon reduction system, first export out an Okino.bdf file using the special PolyTrans-for-Maya or PolyTrans-for-MAX plug-in systems, load that file into the stand-alone PolyTrans or NuGraf programs, perform the reduction, re-save the Okino.bdf file and re-load it into Maya or MAX.
www.okino.com /conv/polygon_reduction/geoman2/polygon_reduction.htm   (1069 words)

 Eldis - HIV and AIDS Key Issues: Harm Reduction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The harm reduction approach emerged in the late 1980's as a response to the increasing HIV prevalence among injecting drug users (IDUs).
Bangladesh is facing an increase in HIV prevalence in its injecting population and Nepal is facing a severe HIV epidemic among its injecting populations, with prevalence as high as 74 per cent among IDUs in the Katmandu valley.
American and Canadian networks such as the Harm Reduction Coalition, the North American Syringe Exchange Association and the Canadian Harm Reduction Network have pioneered public health services for injecting drug users against all odds, and have achieved significance in their work on treatment advocacy and the promotion of support groups.
www.eldis.org /hivaids/harmreduction.htm   (961 words)

 HUSH Super C   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The Super C is a stereo noise reduction system in which a single set of HUSH Threshold and Gate Threshold controls are used to manipulate both channels simultaneously.
The Super C is equipped with an effect IN/OUT (or bypass), and an input sensitivity switch conveniently located on the unit’s front panel.
HUSH has been THE name in noise reduction for guitar players for years and is equally at home on stage and in the studio.
www.rocktron.com /products/superc.html   (346 words)

 UNESCO | Education - Disaster Reduction
The explosive growth of megacities, their increasing vulnerability, the communication gap between scientists and end-users, the lack of attention of stakeholders on risk reduction are contributing to increase the impact of hazards such as floods, severe storms and earthquakes on people and society.
This requires the education of all sectors of society on disaster reduction practices based on the application of scientific and technical advances and integrated in the cultural environment.
Education for disaster reduction is a transdisciplinary exercise aimed at developing knowledge, skills and values which will empower people of all ages, at all levels, to assume responsibility for building a safer and sustainable future.
portal.unesco.org /education/en/ev.php-URL_ID=32523&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html   (461 words)

 Oxidation Numbers and Redox Reactions
Reduction can be defined as "a decrease in oxidation number".
The substance bringing about the reduction of the chlorine is the sodium, thus the sodium is called a reducing agent.
Notice that this time there are oxygen atoms in the reduction step that are not balanced.
www.chem.vt.edu /RVGS/ACT/notes/oxidation_numbers.html   (727 words)

 Staff Reduction | Saint Louis University
Short Term Reduction in Work Hours – Described as a scheduling arrangement in which the number of scheduled hours for affected positions within a work unit or department are reduced on a temporary basis.
When a short-term reduction in work hours is necessary, chairpersons and department directors will first ask for volunteers from specified positions, but may designate employees to take reduced hours if the number of volunteers is insufficient.
If a reduction in work hours becomes necessary for a period of time, ordinarily more than thirty consecutive days, the employment status may be changed to layoff status in accordance with the policy below.
www.slu.edu /services/HR/policies_staffred.html   (819 words)

 Internal Revenue Manual - 22.24.1 Burden Reduction Activities
As part of the Taxpayer Burden Reduction Strategy, the Office of Taxpayer Burden Reduction (OTBR) was established in SB/SE - TEC in January 2002.
All Taxpayer Burden Reduction Initiatives from TEC employees in the field should be forwarded through the TEC Territory Manager or Area Center of Excellence and the Area Burden Reduction Coordinator to OTBR for review and approval.
The Council is a coordination/facilitation body that approves and sponsors initiatives and studies, and ensures a strategic approach to taxpayer burden reduction.
www.irs.gov /irm/part22/ch04s01.html   (1008 words)

 Harm Reduction | JoinTogether.org   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Successful harm reduction is based on a policy, legislative and social environment that minimizes the vulnerability of injecting drug users (WHO).
The Harm Reduction approach is based on pragmatism, humanistic values and a neutral perspective, a focus on harms and a focus on immediate problems.
Internationally, Harm Reduction has been used in providing drugs to persons who are drug dependent, substitution of drugs to the addicted persons, modification of use patterns and routes of administration, provision of safer techniques and tools, and locations for safe drug-administration.
www.jointogether.org /sa/issues/hot_issues/harmreduction/more   (796 words)

 Improved Exercise Performance Following Lung Volume Reduction Surgery for Emphysema -- FERGUSON et al. 157 (4): 1195 -- ...
Reduction pneumonoplasty for patients with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 500 milliliters or less.
Role of lung reduction in lung transplant candidates with pulmonary emphysema.
Reductions in exercise lactic acidosis and ventilation as a result of exercise training in patients with obstructive lung disease.
www.ajrccm.org /cgi/content/full/157/4/1195   (4441 words)

 Breast reduction definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms
Breast reduction can also be used to even up the size of the breasts where one is much larger than the other, a condition known as unilateral macromastia (mammary hyperplasia).
Breast reduction is not recommended for young women whose breasts are not yet fully developed or for women who plan to breast feed since the surgery may impair the ability to breastfeed.
The operation of reduction mammaplasty should not be confused with the so called "breast lift" or mastopexy procedure which is done for cosmetic purposes.
www.medterms.com /script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33511   (422 words)

 Physiological characterization of variability in response to lung volume reduction surgery -- Ingenito et al. 94 (1): ...
C: response 3 depicts a pattern of response not immediately accounted for by Fessler-Permutt (5), in which a very small reduction in RV is accompanied by a reduction in TLC, such that no reduction in RV/TLC or increase in VC occurs.
reduction procedure in which 20-30% of tissue was resected, RV was minimally reduced at 6 mo follow-up.
Reduction pneumoplasty versus respiratory rehabilitation in severe emphysema: a randomized study.
jap.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/94/1/20   (5474 words)

 eMedicine - Breast Reduction, Vertical Bipedicle : Article by Patricia K Gomuwka, MD, FACS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
The reduction mammaplasty should match with the patient's expectations in alleviating symptoms and improving physical symptoms, the human relations issue, and cosmetic appearance.
This outcome study supported the hypothesis that reduction mammaplasty is an effective procedure and the treatment of choice for symptomatic mammary hyperplasia.
Postoperative documentation of objective improvement is in photographs and measurements of the nipple to sternal notch and the nipple to inframammary crease.
www.emedicine.com /plastic/topic416.htm   (2923 words)

 Source Reduction: Reducing Household Waste in Local Landfills HE-379
Source reduction prevents waste either by redesigning products [and packaging] or by otherwise changing societal patterns of consumption, use and waste generation.
SOURCE REDUCTION is one of many names for the idea of making responsible decisions that reduce the amount of household waste.
If large numbers of individuals and families begin practicing source reduction and cooperate in measuring the impact of those changes, we can make a difference in the home, at the workplace, and, as required by 1993 in SB 111, at the landfill.
www.bae.ncsu.edu /bae/programs/extension/publicat/wqwm/he379.html   (1252 words)

 Breast Reduction - A Complete Consumer Guide
Many women seek breast reduction surgery because of oversized breasts, a condition that is medically known as breast hypertrophy.
Breast reduction surgery is typically a highly successful procedure and patients are usually very pleased with the results.
While it is impossible to give you an accurate prediction for an individual breast reduction, this article gives you a good idea of the average costs and the factors to consider in predicting how expensive your desired procedure may be.
www.yourplasticsurgeryguide.com /breast-reduction   (532 words)

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