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Topic: Reduction reaction


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In the News (Fri 24 May 19)

  
  Oxidation and Reduction
The reaction between magnesium oxide and carbon at 2000C to form magnesium metal and carbon monoxide is an example of the reduction of magnesium oxide to magnesium metal.
Oxidation and reduction are therefore best defined as follows.
Reduction occurs when the oxidation number of an atom becomes smaller.
chemed.chem.purdue.edu /genchem/topicreview/bp/ch9/redox.php   (1650 words)

  
  Redox
In chemistry, a redox reaction is a chemical reaction which consists of an oxidation reaction and a reduction reaction.
In the first half reaction hydrogen is oxidized from an oxidation number of zero to an oxidation number of +1.
In the second half reaction fluorine is reduced from an oxidation number of zero to an oxidation number of −1.
www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/r/re/redox.html   (298 words)

  
 Chemical Sciences: Electrochemical Terms and Concepts: Oxidation and reduction
Oxidation reactions are reactions in which the oxidation state(s) of the atoms of the element(s) involved increases.
A reduction reaction is the reverse of an oxidation reaction.
Reduction reactions are reactions in which the oxidation state(s) of the atoms of the element(s) involved decreases.
www.ualberta.ca /~jplambec/che/p102/p02072.htm   (646 words)

  
 Nitrate Reduction Test - Gonorrhea - STD information from CDC
The nitrate reduction test is based on the detection of nitrite and its ability to form a red compound when it reacts with sulfanilic acid to form a complex (nitrite-sulfanilic acid) which then reacts with alpha-naphthylamine to give a red precipitate (prontosil) as shown in Figure 2.
Reactions observed with the uninoculated medium control, and nitrate-negative, and nitrate-positive isolates are illustrated in Figure 3, Figure 4, and Figure 5, respectively.
Thus, the reaction may not occur in still cultures (particularly of slow-growing species) in which the medium is distributed in shallow layers that permit oxygen to diffuse into the medium.
www.cdc.gov /std/Gonorrhea/lab/tests/nitrate.htm   (2758 words)

  
 General Chemistry Online: Glossary:
For example, the reaction quotient for A + B = C + D is equal to (C)(D) / ((A)(B)), where the parentheses indicate concentrations.
Reduction is gain of one or more electrons by an atom, molecule, or ion.
Reduction is accompanied by a decrease in oxidation number.
antoine.frostburg.edu /chem/senese/101/glossary/r.shtml   (838 words)

  
 CORROSION FUNDAMENTALS
The oxidation reaction is the corrosion reaction as metal is essentially dissolved as it transforms from atoms to ions in a solution.
The reduction reaction is important as it is the basis of electroplating as ions in solution are deposited as atoms on a surface.
In this case the anodic reaction is such that a protective film is formed on the surface of the electrode.
www.egr.uri.edu /che/course/CHE534w/charpter2corosionFundamentals.htm   (4084 words)

  
 Re: Oxidation-reduction reactions
Example: The reaction between magnesium metal and oxygen to form magnesium oxide involves the oxidation of magnesium.
The reaction between magnesium oxide and carbon at 2000ºC to form magnesium metal and carbon monoxide is an example of the reduction of magnesium oxide to magnesium metal.
After electrons were discovered, chemists became convinced that oxidation-reduction reactions involved the transfer of electrons from one atom to another.
vclass.mtsac.edu:920 /chem1a/_disc4/0000007c.htm   (1746 words)

  
 Ch 26   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
A reduction reaction was originally limited to the type of reaction in which ores were "reduced" from their oxides.
Reduction is the process by which electrons are apparently added to atoms or groups of atoms.
In all chemical reactions, charge, number and kind of atoms, and number of electrons are conserved.
cougar.slvhs.slv.k12.ca.us /~pboomer/chemtextbook/cch26.html   (1262 words)

  
 Oxidation - Reduction
In this reaction silver ion is the oxidizing agent and lithium metal is the reducing agent.
The products of the reaction also constitute an oxidizing agent-reducing agent pair, but since silver metal is a weaker reducing agent than lithium metal (lithium ion is a weaker oxidizing agent than silver ion) at equilibrium the reaction lies far to the right.
Construct a reduction potential series for these three metals and their ions with the strongest oxidizing agent on the top left and the strongest reducing agent on the bottom right.
www.sonoma.edu /Chemistry/Chem115B/oxidation.html   (885 words)

  
 CHEMTUTOR REDOX AND ELECTROPLATING   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Redox is the term used to label reactions in which the acceptance of an electron (reduction) by a material is matched with the donation of an electron (oxidation).
A single replacement reaction is always a redox reaction because it involves an element that becomes incorporated into a compound and an element in the compound being released as a free element.
One of the important bits of information from adding the half reactions in this case is that the entire chemical equation will have to have two silver atoms for every copper atom in the reaction for the reaction to balance electrically.
www.chemtutor.com /redox.htm   (2249 words)

  
 Principles of Biology Review Notes
The energy concentrated in the reaction center is used to boost the electrons that came from photosystem II again to a high energy level.
The light-independent reaction occurs in the stroma of chloroplasts.
The light-independent reaction and the light-dependent reaction are coupled together for the benefit of making carbohydrate from CO The mechanism of converting CO to carbohydrate through the light-independent reaction is called the Calvin cycle, which has three stages: CO fixation, CO reduction, and regeneration of RuBP (Study Figure 7.8).
www.ksu.edu /biology/bio/test   (1898 words)

  
 Passivity and Polarization of Metal
The hydrogen atoms formed by the reaction of Equation (2-4) absorb on the surface of the metal and remain there until removed by one of two processes: combination of two hydrogen atoms to form molecular hydrogen, which is then released as a gas or reaction with dissolved oxygen to form water.
At low temperatures the reaction of Equation (2-6) is slow relative to the reaction of Equation (2-4) because, although the reaction is energetically favored, the combination of two hydrogen atoms requires a large activation energy.
Passivity is the buildup of a stable, tenacious layer of metal oxide on the surface of the metal that acts as a barrier separating the metal surface from the environment.
www.tpub.com /doechem1/chem131.htm   (1062 words)

  
 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
The reaction involves the net transfer of electrons from copper metal to Ag ions to produce whiskers of silver metal that grow out from the copper wire and Cu ions.
The key to identifying oxidation-reduction reactions is recognizing when a chemical reaction leads to a change in the oxidation number of one or more atoms.
Reactions in which none of the atoms undergoes a change in oxidation number are metathesis reactions.
chemed.chem.purdue.edu /genchem/topicreview/bp/ch19/oxred_1.php   (1937 words)

  
 Predictability (from oxidation-reduction reaction) --  Encyclopædia Britannica
There are practical limitations on predictions of the direction of spontaneity for a chemical reaction, the most important arising from the problem of reaction rates.
In a catabolic reaction, molecules are broken down into smaller components, and energy is released.
The iron ore is not melted in the H-iron reduction...
www.britannica.com /eb/article?tocId=49301   (829 words)

  
 Electrochemistry   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
In reaction (1) zinc went from elemental metallic Zn with an oxidation state of 0 to the zinc ion with an oxidation state of +2.
A redox reaction similar to reaction (1) took place and the electrons were transfered through the nerves and muscles of the leg, causing them to twitch.
Reaction (2b) is the reduction and has a standard reduction potential of +0.3394 V. We can find the potential for the reaction (2a), the oxidation, in the chart.
home.att.net /~v.d.singleton/genchem/electrch.htm   (5246 words)

  
 Half Reactions
A half reaction is a reduction or an oxidation reaction.
A half reaction does not occur by itself, at least two such reactions must be coupled so that the electron released by one reactant is accepted by another in order to complete the reaction.
Theoretically, an oxidation-reduction reaction takes place even when the reactants are well separated in space, as long as the flow of electrons and ions are facilitated by electrical connections (salt bridge and wire).
www.science.uwaterloo.ca /~cchieh/cact/c123/halfreac.html   (1268 words)

  
 Organic Chemistry at Penn State: Reactions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Here is just a list of the reactions that we discussed in detail in class.
E1 mechanism for tertiary or secondary allylic or benzylic substrates: the leaving group departs in a unimolecular rate-limiting step, generating the carbocation, which in the second step is deprotonated (with base) on the carbon adjacent to the cationc center, yielding the olefin; carbocation rearrangements may compete
E2 mechanism favored by strong bases: the base removes a proton from the carbon adjacent to one bearing the leaving group in a one-step bimolecular reaction that requires periplanar orientation of the hydrogen and the leaving group (anti-periplanar preferred)
courses.chem.psu.edu /chem38/reactions/reactions.html   (993 words)

  
 Spontan   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
reaction for reduction at the cathode and oxidation at the anode.
voltage indicates that the reverse reaction is spontaneous (i.e.
For the reduction half-reaction this is straightforward because it is already written to refer to the reduction of hydrogen ion:
wine1.sb.fsu.edu /chm1046/notes/Electro/Spontan/Spontan.htm   (551 words)

  
 UVM Chem 131 Final Project   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
The measured reaction stoichiometries are indicative only of the relative rate of the reaction between aqueous Fe(II) and Cr(VI) relative to the rate of the reaction between aqueous Fe(II) and dissolved oxygen but not of the absolute reaction rates.
Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) is environmentally favorable as the latter species is not toxic to most living organisms and also has a low mobility and bioavailability.
Despite the importance of this redox reaction, no mechanistic or kinetic information are available, which are needed to determine the rate of Cr(VI) reduction and to assess the role of oxygen in limiting this reaction.
www.uvm.edu /~swgordon/131-01/131web/christinejorgensen/chem131.html   (4626 words)

  
 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions: Redox
Redox reactions, or oxidation-reduction reactions, have a number of similarities to acid-base reactions.
Fundamentally, redox reactions are a family of reactions that are concerned with the transfer of electrons between species.
The number 12 is a common multiple of three (3) and four (4), so we multiply the aluminum reaction by four (4) and the oxygen reaction by three (3) to g et 12 electrons on both sides.
www.shodor.org /unchem/advanced/redox/index.html   (2044 words)

  
 Oxidation and Reduction Section 1
In Section 8.3 those reactions that involved a transfer of electrons were classified as oxidation-reduction reactions.
Table 14.2 lists the criteria of oxidation and reduction and states that the substance oxidized is the reducing agent in the reaction.
For this reaction identify the substance oxidized, the substance reduced, the oxidizing agent, and the reducing agent.
genchem.chem.wisc.edu /sstutorial/Text14/Tx141/tx141.html   (457 words)

  
 Oxidation-Reduction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
An oxidation-reduction reaction is a reaction in which some atoms oxidation numbers change.
Reaction (1) is an oxidation-reduction reaction because H changes from 0 to +1; O changes from 0 to -2
For each reaction below, identify the atom oxidized, the atom reduced, the oxidizing agent, the reducing agent, the oxidation half reaction, the reduction half reaction, and then balance the equation by the method of oxidation-reduction showing all electrons transfers.
www.chemistrycoach.com /Redox.htm   (236 words)

  
 #1 Site For Learning Chemistry
Reduction reaction means addition of hydrogen to a reaction.
In a broader perspective, an oxidation reaction is a reaction where an atom or ion looses electrons.
Similarly a reduction reaction is a reaction where an atom or an ion gains extra electrons.
home.att.net /~cat6a/chem_reac-I.htm   (889 words)

  
 Study of the oxygen reduction reaction on stainless steel materials in natural seawater - Influen...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
As the reaction is linked to the stainless steel surface state, the characterisation of the oxides films (composition, structure, thickness...) is essential to understand the mechanisms and the oxygen reduction kinetic.
The first aim of the study has been to correlate the oxygen reduction processes with the characteristics of the oxides layer as a function of the alloy surface treatment (mechanical polishing, electrochemical passivation and prereduction, chemical treatment with some acids or with hydrogen peroxide).
The second stage has consisted in following the evolution of the oxygen reduction processes and of the characteristics of the oxides layer with the aging of stainless steels in natural and artificial seawaters.
www.ifremer.fr /docelec/notice/2000/notice223-EN.htm   (307 words)

  
 What is Oxidation-Reduction Reaction? Meaning of Oxidation-Reduction Reaction - OzoneLab™ Glossary entry for ...
Oxidation and reduction always occur together simultaneously and are really opposite sides of the same reaction, which is often called the redox reaction.
In earlier years, oxidation referred to the combining of a substance with, or addition of, oxygen; and reduction meant the loss or reduction of oxygen.
Reduction is the acquiring of electrons (the ones lost in the oxidation process) by the oxidizing agent (which is said to have "been reduced" in the process).
www.ozoneservices.com /glossary/o/oxidationreductionreaction.htm   (303 words)

  
 Reduction Potential   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Thus the reduction potential of a molecule can be positive or negative, depending on whether it is bigger or smaller that that of H
An oxidation/reduction reaction consists of one of these half-reactions occuring as written (for the molecule which is reduced) and one in reverse (for the molecule which is oxidized).
Another way of looking at it is that electrons are being transferred from B to A. (This reaction is actually half-reaction #1 minus half-reaction #2).
tecn.rutgers.edu /bio301s/reduction_potential.htm   (192 words)

  
 LECTUREREDOX   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-30)
Non-metals undergo reduction or gain electrons as the move forward to the nearest inert gas.
The oxidizing agent in the component of an oxidation- reduction reaction that undergoes reduction or gain of electrons.
The reducing agent in the component of an oxidation- reduction reaction that undergoes oxidation or loss of electrons.
www.cat.cc.md.us /~cminnier/lectureredox.htm   (1149 words)

  
 oxidation-reduction reaction --  Encyclopædia Britannica
Many oxidation–reduction reactions are as common and familiar as fire, the rusting and dissolution of metals, the browning of fruit, and respiration and photosynthesis—basic life functions.
For example, the generation of electric current by the use of a so-called dry cell or by a storage battery can occur only by means of an oxidation–reduction reaction that takes place within the battery.
When an active metal such as sodium is placed in contact with liquid water, a violent exothermic (heat-producing) reaction occurs that releases flaming hydrogen gas.2Na(s) + 2HThis is an example of an oxidation-reduction reaction, which is a reaction in which electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9110112   (877 words)

  
 Redox Reactions - Title
This is clearly wrong, since we have a free electron, we must therefore multiply the reduction reaction times two, balancing the numbers of electrons transferred during the reaction.
The reaction taking place is then obtaining by combining the oxidation and reduction reaction.
The reaction will continue until all the Zn in the anode is depleted or all the Cu is removed from solution and deposited as Cu (s) in the cathode.
www.chemistry.nmsu.edu /studntres/chem112.spring.1997/Redox.html   (827 words)

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