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Topic: Relativism

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  Relativism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Normative relativism is a family of non-empirical normative or evaluative claims to the effect that modes of thought, standards of reasoning, or the like are only right or wrong, correct or incorrect, veridical or non-veridical, relative to a framework.
Descriptive semantic relativism, as we will use the phrase, is the empirical claim that different groups, e.g., people living at different times or in different cultures, sometimes have different beliefs about the meaning of a word (where words are individuated independently of their meanings by such things as pronunciation or spelling).
Relativism about truth boils down to relativism about belief, but rather different sets of issues are typically connected with central beliefs or principles, on the one hand, and issues about relative truth, on the other.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/relativism   (18066 words)

 Moral Relativism (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Appraiser relativism suggests that we do or should make moral judgments on the basis of our own standards, while agent relativism implies that the relevant standards are those of the persons we are judging (of course, in some cases these may coincide).
Harman's relativism is presented as a thesis about logical form, but the relativist implication arises only because it is supposed that the relevant motivating reasons are not universal and so probably arose from an agreement that some but not all persons have made.
Relativism is sometimes associated with a normative position, usually pertaining to how people ought to regard or behave towards those with whom they morally disagree.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/moral-relativism   (10688 words)

 Cognitive Relativism [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
Thus, epistemological relativism, which asserts the relativity of knowledge, may be understood as a version of cognitive relativism, or at least as entailed by it.
This kind of relativism can take different forms depending on the nature of the standpoint or framework to which truth is relativized.
Relativism is the radical offspring of non-realism, which is itself descended from the idealism of Berkeley and Kant.
www.utm.edu /research/iep/c/cog-rel.htm   (5153 words)

Specific kinds of relativism may be distinguished according to (1) which kinds of claims the doctrine of relativism applies to, and (2) which viewpoint or perspective these claims are relative to.
Relativism is based on the belief that there are a multitude of perspectives that are equally justified when considered objectively.
As I said earlier, specific kinds of relativism may be distinguished according to which kinds of claims the doctrine of relativism applies to, and according to which viewpoint or perspective these claims are relative to.
faculty.vassar.edu /brvannor/relativism.html   (9716 words)

 Myswizard » Relativism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
Relativism is the view that the meaning and value of human beliefs and behaviors have no absolute reference.
A common argument against relativism suggests that it is inherently contradictory or self-refuting or self-stultifying: the statement “all is relative”; is either a relative statement or an absolute one.
Relativism, according to the Catholic and Aristotelian viewpoint, violates the philosophical principle of non-contradiction, a most fundamental principle of all thinking without which there is no way to understand each other nor any possibility of science.
www.myswizard.com /2005/12/16/relativism   (1432 words)

 BBC NEWS | UK | Magazine | What is relativism?
Relativism is "Different opinions, no one authority, and as many 'truths' as there are people or societies or cultures advancing different ways of doing things," says Simon Blackburn, Professor of Philosophy at Cambridge University.
The biggest problem that I have with these comments against Relativism is that the speaker is almost always the leader or an official of an organisation claiming to be the "one truth and morality".
Relativism does not equal moral dissolution: it merely recognises the blatant fact that there is a plurality of beliefs.
news.bbc.co.uk /2/hi/uk_news/magazine/4460673.stm   (1250 words)

Thus, relativism basically presents itself as a true doctrine, which means that it will logically exclude its opposites (absolutism or objectivism), but what it actually says is that no doctrines can logically exclude their opposites.
Relativism applied to value -- that truths of right and wrong, good and evil, and the beautiful and the ugly, are relative -- is usually called moral relativism.
Historicism always does that, and, for linguistic relativism, Wittgenstein actually provides us with a nice term for relative systems of value: "forms of life." The hard part is when we then ask if Hitler and Stalin simply had their own "forms of life," which were different from but not better or worse, than ours.
www.friesian.com /relative.htm   (4400 words)

Relativism is the theory that the truth is different for different people (not just that different people believe different things to be true).
Ethical relativism is the theory that the truth about what is right and what is wrong is different for different people.
It is not relativism to believe in the universal statement that all ethics depends on subjective feelings.
academics.vmi.edu /psy_dr/relativism.htm   (1065 words)

 Refuting Relativism
If you say it is neither true or false, then relativism isn't true since it states that all views are equally valid and by not being, at least true, relativism is shown to be wrong.
If you use relativism to refute logic, then on what basis is relativism (that nothing is absolutely true) able to refute logic which is based upon truth.
If you use relativism to refute logic, then relativism has lost its relative status since it is used to absolutely refute the truth of something else.
www.carm.org /relativism/relativism_refute.htm   (826 words)

 Moral Relativism; Morals, Biblical Counseling Topics, Psychology
Relativism is seen as required for a democracy of ideas and norms.
And the pro-lifer's affirmation that the unborn are fully human with a "right to life" amounts to denying the abortion-rights position that women have a fundamental right to terminate their pregnancies, since such a termination would result in a homicide.
Moral relativism has been rejected by a near unanimous number of both secular and theistic ethicists and philosophers.[6] Yet it is still popular to espouse this view in many of our secularized cultural institutions.
www.mustardseed.net /html/tomoralrelativism.html   (4502 words)

 Challies Dot Com: Challenges to the Church - Relativism
Relativism is a challenge every Christian must face, for it forms the very foundation for the morality (or lack thereof) of our culture.
Relativism is the view that truth is relative to a particular context and is not absolute.
Relativism is an irrational, inconsistent view which many tacitly accept, but which few adhere to with any consistency.
www.challies.com /archives/001240.php   (2105 words)

 Cultural Relativism
Cultural relativism is an anthropological approach which posit that all cultures are of equal value and need to be studied from a neutral point of view.
The implications of cultural relativism and historical particularism have been significant to anthropology and to the social sciences in general.
Although her use of this approached is extremely reductionistic it represents a new direction in cultural relativism by transcending the data collection of historical particularism and attempting to organize the data in an explanatory manner.
www.panam.edu /faculty/mglazer/Theory/cultural_relativism.htm   (1442 words)

 Ethical Relativism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
Each version of ethical relativism, then, is composed of both a negative and a positive element—the negative claim that there are no absolute or objective ethical truths and a positive account of that to which ethical truths are relative.
Subjective relativism is also able to provide a seemingly more acceptable verdict in the case of reformers who challenge or reject the values of their culture.
Because conventional relativism subordinates the will of the individual to the will of the culture or society, it seems that little room is left over for individuals to make their own, autonomous decisions about how they ought to live their lives.
www.acsu.buffalo.edu /~jbeebe2/relativ.htm   (10646 words)

 Relativism [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
Relativism is sometimes identified (usually by its critics) as the thesis that all points of view are equally valid.
Critics of relativism typically dismiss such views as incoherent since they imply the validity even of the view that relativism is false.
For example, moral subjectivism is that species of moral relativism that relativizes moral value to the individual subject.
www.iep.utm.edu /r/relativi.htm   (352 words)

 Relativism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The term often refers to truth relativism, which is the doctrine that there are no absolute truths, i.e., that truth is always relative to some particular frame of reference, such as a language or a culture.
Elements of relativism emerged among the Sophists in the 5th century BCE.
The term "relativism" often comes up in debates over postmodernism and phenomenology.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Relativism   (2706 words)

Modern Relativism, on the other hand, though it too tends to pass into Scepticism, was in its origin a reaction against Scepticism.
The obvious objection to a Relativism of this kind is the outstanding thing-in-itself, which is not, and can never become, and object of knowledge.
The principal argument upon which this Relativism rests, is fundamentally the same as that used by Berkeley in his famous "Dialogue between Hylas and Philonus".
www.newadvent.org /cathen/12731d.htm   (2414 words)

Relativism is the view that judgments about truth and falsity, good and bad, right and wrong are relative to the individual person or culture.
Relativism denies that there can be any objectivity in matters of truth or morality.
An ethical relativist restricts relativism to ethical matters; an ethical relativist might not be an epistemological relativist.
instruct.westvalley.edu /lafave/relativ.htm   (1898 words)

 Moral relativism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Moral relativism, however, encompasses views and arguments that people in some cultures have held for a very long time (see for example the ancient Taoist writings of Chuang Tzu from the 4th century BCE).
Moral relativism generally stands in marked contrast to moral absolutism, moral realism, and moral naturalism, which all maintain the existence of moral facts: facts that entities can both know and judge, whether through some process of verification or through intuition.
Some relativists regard this as an unfair criticism of relativism; they argue that this approach actually becomes a descriptive, or meta-ethical, theory and not a normative one; and that relativists may have strong moral beliefs, notwithstanding their foundational position.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Moral_relativism   (3031 words)

 Ethical Relativism
Ethical relativism is the theory that holds that morality is relative to the norms of one's culture.
If ethical relativism is correct, there can be no common framework for resolving moral disputes or for reaching agreement on ethical matters among members of different societies.
Ethical relativism reminds us that different societies have different moral beliefs and that our beliefs are deeply influenced by culture.
www.scu.edu /ethics/practicing/decision/ethicalrelativism.html   (1075 words)

 [No title]
A Response to Relativism A. All principles of relativism are self-contradictory 1.
Socrates in the fourth century BCE disproved the third form of relativism by merely demonstrating that if I say that you are false, that means you are false, since my judgment is the proper judgment.
Conclusion A. Relativism is based on faulty principles and is in contradiction with God’s Word 1.
www.deusvitae.com /faith/outlines/relativism.txt   (903 words)

 Does the Bible Contain False Prophecies
Relativism is the doctrine which denies, either universally or in regard to some restricted system, the existence of absolute truth or values.
Professor Josef Seifert exposes the skepticism and relativism characteristic of much modern thought and draws on Augustine's work in laying the foundations of knowledge.
This article deals with the issue of religious relativism and the frequently heard statement that "all religions are paths to God."  This statement is considered by many to be quite sophisticated and even beautiful.
www.geocities.com /mnapologetics/relativism.htm   (532 words)

 Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger
Therefore, although a certain right to relativism in the social and political area should not be denied, the problem is raised at the moment of setting its limits.
On the one hand, relativism is a typical offshoot of the Western world and its forms of philosophical thought, while on the other it is connected with the philosophical and religious intuitions of Asia especially, and surprisingly, with those of the Indian subcontinent.
Relativism remains and the attempt to conform to it, but what it offers us is so empty that the relativist theories are looking for help from the theology of liberation in order to be able to put it into practice.
www.ewtn.com /library/CURIA/RATZRELA.HTM   (5882 words)

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