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Topic: Reprisal

In the News (Tue 16 Jul 19)

  Encyclopedia: Reprisal   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Categories: Laws of war A letter of marque and reprisal was an official warrant or commission from a national government authorizing the designated agent to search, seize, or destroy specified assets or personnel belonging to a party which had committed some offense under the laws of nations against the assets or citizens of the...
Reprisal afterwards was to cruise in the English Channel.
Reprisal was the first vessel of the Continental Navy to arrive in European waters.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Reprisal   (753 words)

 USS Reprisal (1776) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
USS Reprisal, 18, was the first ship of what was to become the United States Navy to be given the name promising hostile action in response to an offence.
Originally the merchantman brig Molly, she was purchased by the Marine Committee of the Continental Congress on March 28, 1776, renamed Reprisal, and placed under the command of Captain Lambert Wickes.
About October 1, Reprisal was lost off the banks of Newfoundland and all on board, except the cook, went down with her.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/USS_Reprisal_(1776)   (778 words)

 AllRefer.com - reprisal (International Law) - Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
reprisal, in international law, the forcible taking, in time of peace, by one country of the property or territory belonging to another country or to the citizens of the other country, to be held as a pledge or as redress in order to satisfy a claim.
A reprisal, technically, is not an act of war, because it is solely in response to conduct that violated international law.
The Covenant of the League of Nations and the Charter of the United Nations classify reprisals as acts endangering peace.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/R/reprisal.html   (266 words)

 Encyclopedia article: Reprisal   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
In warfare, a reprisal is a limited and deliberate violation of the laws of war (additional info and facts about laws of war) to punish an enemy for breaking the laws of war (additional info and facts about laws of war).
A legally executed reprisal is not an atrocity (An act of atrocious cruelty).
Circumstances usually dictate that reprisals can only be taken against people innocent of the original violation, which increases the probability that the reprisals will themselves be viewed as hostile acts, risking a vicious circle (An argument that assumes that which is to be proved) of violations by both sides.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/r/re/reprisal.htm   (216 words)

 PERMISS - Reprisal   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Acts of reprisal against an individual should be reported immediately to an EEO Counselor.
Reprisal may occur if someone threatens you or your career because you filed a complaint or discussed an issue with your chain of command.
Reprisal or retaliation against an individual for complaining destroys faith in unit leadership and can damage the human relations climate.
www.afpc.randolph.af.mil /permiss/civilian/c_263.htm   (258 words)

Letters of Marque and Reprisal are the licenses (also called commissions) to operate from the CS government.
Aug 21 Inquires whether letters of marque and reprisal will be issued to individuals, authorizing capture of vessels on the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers belonging to the enemy's government.
Harrison concerning letters of marque and reprisal given by C. Government to privateers Jeff Davis and Petrel, copies of which he desires sent him as counsel for prisoners of the privateers in Philadelphia.
www.csnavy.org /marque,reprisal.htm   (2554 words)

 NIH - OEODM - EEO Policies & Resources - Policy on Reprisal
Reprisal, in addition to being illegal, has a negative effect on the productivity of work life, employee well-being, and morale.
Therefore, I expect all NIH supervisors and managers to renew their commitment to respect employees’ rights so that employees are empowered to report charges of fraud, waste, mismanagement, and discrimination without fear of reprisal.
Any supervisor or manager found to have engaged in reprisal will be disciplined in accordance with the NIH Table of Offenses and Penalties.
oeo.od.nih.gov /policiesresources/policy_reprisal.html   (321 words)

 USS Reprisal
Captain Wiekes with the crew of the Reprisal, aided by Capt. John Barry with the crew of the Le~ington, was able to keep off the boats sent from H.B.M.S. KingJisher, and to save about 200 barrels of powder.
On February 5th, the Reprisal captured the Lisbon packet, 2 days out of Falmouth, after a hard fight of 40 minutes, in which two of the Reprisal's officers were seriously wounded and one man killed.
In April 1777 the Reprisal was joined by the Continental vessels Lexington' 16 guns, and the Dolphin, 10 guns, these three vessels eonstituing a squadron under the command of Wiekes.
www.multied.com /NAVY/Brigatines/reprisal.html   (703 words)

 Letters of Marque and Reprisal
A reprisal could be a seizing of property or guilty persons in retaliation for an attack and injury.
So a Letter of Marque and Reprisal would authorize a private person, not in the U.S. armed forces, to conduct reprisal operations outside the borders of the U.S.A. Such Letters are grantable not just by the U.S. Constitution, but also by international law, which is why it was able to be included in the Constitution.
The Letters are grantable whenever the citizens or subjects of one country are injured by those in another country and justice is denied by the government of that country, as happened with the attack by persons who were in Afghanistan.
www.progress.org /archive/fold232.htm   (649 words)

 Boston.com / News / World / Middle East / Low-level Ba'ath members targeted in reprisal killings
They say the killings are part of a shadowy reprisal campaign to hunt down former rank-and-file Ba'ath officials.
The killings suggest a frightening trend in a country where tens of thousands of state employees were forced to join the party as a condition for employment and where Ba'athists were expected to inform on everyone else.
After the war, Isam said, Saadi suspected there would be trouble but assumed the reprisals would be limited to former high-level officials, or such symbols of Ba'athist rule as Daoud Qais, a singer whose songs praised Hussein.
www.boston.com /news/world/middleeast/articles/2003/09/28/low_level_baath_members_targeted_in_reprisal_killings   (896 words)

 06/05/1987 - Letter to DASHOS regarding reprisals.
The responsibility for establishing procedures and for assuring that reprisals do not occur is placed clearly on the agency by both the Executive Order and the Department of Labor's implementing regulations, 29 CFR Part 1960.
Some confusion was found to exist about the use of these procedures to prevent reprisals and a lack of knowledge on the part of employees was also apparent.
Decision was to assist agencies in clarifying and publicizing the use of procedures to prevent reprisal and not to establish a separate procedure for prevention of OSH reprisals.
www.osha.gov /pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=INTERPRETATIONS&p_id=19554   (1009 words)

 Air Piracy Reprisal and Capture Act of 2001
The September 11 Marque and Reprisal Act of 2001 provides Congressional authorization for the President to issue letters of marque and reprisal to appropriate parties to seize the person and property of Osama bin Laden and any other individual responsible for the terrorist attacks of September 11.
In the early days of the Republic, marque and reprisal were usually used against pirates who, while they may have enjoyed the protection and partnership of governments, where not official representatives of a government.
This is because using letters of marque and reprisal shows the people of the region that we are serious when we say our quarrel is not with them but with Osama bin Laden and all others who would dare commit terrorist acts against the United States.
www.house.gov /paul/congrec/congrec2001/cr101001.htm   (882 words)

Before slipping out to the Atlantic, the Continental armed brig Nancy of six guns had been sighted and chased by six British men-of-war as she was returning from St. Croix and St. Thomas with 386 barrels of gunpowder for the Army.
Captain Wickes with the crew of the Reprisal, aided by Capt. John Barry with the crew of the Lexington, was able to keep off the boats sent from HBMS Kingfisher, and to save about 200 barrels of powder.
He finally gained his point, and received permission to make his repairs and by excuses was able several times to defeat the intentions of those in charge of the port while he made ready for another cruise.
www.history.navy.mil /danfs/r5/reprisal-i.htm   (741 words)

 Amazon.com: Reprisal: Books: F. Paul Wilson   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Reprisal, the 5th book in F. Paul Wilson's epic "Adversary Cycle" started off pretty slowly, but by the end he had done something no other Author (Except William Peter Blatty with "The Exorcist"...) has ever done: Made me want to sleep with the lights on.....
Reprisal is the fabulous continuation of The Keep (excellent!) and Reborn (pretty good).
Reprisal is the second book of the Nightworld Trilogy; part of the Adversary Cycle from F. Paul Wilson.
www.amazon.com /exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0515105899?v=glance   (1494 words)

 Letters of Reprisal
Warrant to the Wardens of the Cinque Ports, which were the influential Naval ports located in the south of England, to issue Letters of Reprisal.
Reprisal issued because the Spanish captured his ship and goods.
Reprisal against Spain for capturing his ship and goods.
www.piratedocuments.com /Pages/letters_of_reprisal.html   (167 words)

 The Avalon Project : HR 3076 September 11 Marque and Reprisal Act of 2001 (Introduced in the House); October 10, 2001
To authorize the President of the United States to issue letters of marque and reprisal with respect to certain acts of air piracy upon the United States on September 11, 2001, and other similar acts of war planned for the future.
This Act may be cited as the `September 11 Marque and Reprisal Act of 2001'.
(c) No letter of marque and reprisal shall be issued by the President without requiring the posting of a security bond in such amount as the President shall determine is sufficient to ensure that the letter be executed according to the terms and conditions thereof.
www.yale.edu /lawweb/avalon/sept_11/hr3076_ih.htm   (402 words)

 Personnel Bulletin 752-1
Reprisal Panels are concerned only with reprisal allegations arising from EEO complaints.
Employees should be protected against reprisal for the lawful disclosure of information which the employees reasonably believe evidences--- (A) a violation of any law, rule, or regulation, or (B) mismanagement, a gross waste of funds, an abuse of authority, or a substantial and specific danger to public health or safety.
Reprisal panel members are not to wait for the completion of the EEO complaint to make a recommendation, but should do so within 45 days of receipt of a copy of the counselor's Notice, as provided in 752-203(e).
www.usda.gov /da/employ/apsd/bul7521.htm   (1881 words)

 Switzerland - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about Switzerland
When the war spread to the USSR and the Balkans the trade agreement Switzerland had made with the USSR earlier in 1941 became worthless.
Germany then brought pressure on Switzerland to enter into the closest possible economic association, and, as a reprisal against this second agreement, Great Britain intensified its blockade against Switzerland.
The country's position was made more difficult by attempts to subvert it from within by the highly organized German Nazi Party in Switzerland itself.
encyclopedia.farlex.com /Switzerland   (2789 words)

 reprisal on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Police warn of reprisal attack on teacher in traveller row Primary school head is told to vary his route home after he excluded pupils following a violent playground assault on parent
The Amish object to all war, including the one in Afghanistan, and fear reprisals from the surrounding community.
One student hides his face behind a homemade mask for fear of reprisal by the authorities.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/r1/reprisal.asp   (666 words)

 USATODAY.com - Israeli soldiers' remains displayed; Israel threatens reprisal   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The International Committee of the Red Cross said it was approached by the Israeli government with a request for help in retrieving the remains.
Israeli security officials said they warned the militants they could expect punishing reprisals if the remains were not returned.
The death of the six soldiers — the highest casualty count in a single army operation since November 2002 — renewed debate in Israel over a proposed withdrawal from Gaza.
www.usatoday.com /news/world/2004-05-11-israel-bomb_x.htm   (1036 words)

 Voyage of Reprisal
Robert Lawton is a young but seasoned shipmaster recently returned to London from a trading voyage to Spain, where Spanish officials and the dreaded Inquisition had attacked his men and stolen his cargo.
Never keen on leading the life of a corsair, Lawton is nonetheless drawn into a "reprisal venture" led by an old family friend, the hardened sea dog Richard Hawthorne.
Voyage of Reprisal draws on the author’s extensive research into the period and presents a careful reconstruction of life at sea aboard an Elizabethan war galleon; her crew forms a microcosm of a 16
www.authorhouse.com /BookStore/ItemDetail.aspx?bookid=7385   (1500 words)

 Al-Muhajabah's Islamic Blogs: Letters of Marque and Reprisal
One of the major problems with the "war on terrorism" is that the government can't seem to decide whether it's a war or a police action.
Basically, the letter of marque and reprisal is a way to take action against a non-governmental foreign group while still abiding by the Constitution.
In October 2001, Ron Paul, U.S. representative from Texas, introduced bills H.R. 3074, Air Piracy Reprisal and Capture Act of 2001, and H.R. 3076, September 11 Marque and Reprisal Act of 2001, to authorize the U.S. State Department to issue such Letters.
www.muhajabah.com /islamicblog/archives/the_clipboard/001806.php   (1600 words)

 VAOIG Hotline: Whistleblowing Information   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
If you believe you have suffered reprisal for whistleblowing, there are certain facts you should be able to establish.
The purpose of this outline is to familiarize you with the kinds of information you must present to successfully pursue your complaint.
Although not intended to be a difficult test, showing that the whistleblowing was a contributing factor in the action believed to be reprisal is the place that most whistleblower complaints break down.
www.va.gov /oig/hotline/whistle.htm   (575 words)

 Search Results for reprisal - Encyclopædia Britannica
The town, which is situated some 25 miles (40 km) southeast of Bourges, grew up around a monastery founded by St. Amand, a follower of St....
The indifference of Disraeli's government to the brutality of Turkish reprisals against risings in the Balkans, in 1875–76, brought Gladstone back to active politics.
In Greek legend, the eldest son of Priam and Hecuba, the husband of...
www.britannica.com /search?query=reprisal&submit=Find&source=MWTEXT   (407 words)

 Kurdish Reprisal Attacks Against Assyrian Christians in Iraq
(AINA) -- Assyrian protests against the proposed Iraqi constitution (English, Arabic) have resulted in deadly reprisal attacks against Assyrian Christian civilians by forces loyal to Masoud Barazani, the tribal chieftain of the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP).
On August 24, several hundred Assyrian (also known as Chaldean and Syriac) protestors demonstrated in the two Northern Iraqi Christian towns of Qaraqosh (Bakhdeda) and Telsqof (Tel-sqeepa) against the constitution's splintering of the Assyrian Christian community into separate groups identified as either Assyrian or Chaldean.
However, The KDP push to legally marginalize these communities in the proposed Constitution (AINA, 8-24-2005) as well as violently repress dissent through murder has also served to disillusion non-Kurdish communities with the democratic process.
www.aina.org /releases/20050829120706.htm   (994 words)

 USATODAY.com - Fannie Mae accountant cites 'threats, intimidation and reprisal'   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Fannie Mae workers who did not agree with Raines and Howard also were "ostracized and subjected to retaliation," while those who agreed to take part in the alleged improper accounting were promoted, according to Barnes.
Barnes described Fannie Mae — long praised as one of the country's most successful and admired corporations — as "plagued by a corporate culture that uses threats, intimidation and reprisal" against employees who raise red flags.
Any employee who retaliated or threatened retaliation would be disciplined or fired, she said.
www.usatoday.com /money/industries/banking/2004-10-06-whistle_x.htm   (827 words)

 The Liberty Committee   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Liberty Committee calls upon every U.S. citizen to support H.R. 3076 -- September 11 Marque and Reprisal Act of 2001 and H.R. 3074 -- Air Piracy Reprisal and Capture Act of 2001 introduced by Congressman Ron Paul (R-TX) on October 10, 2001.
Article I, Section 8, Clauses 10 and 11 of the U.S. Constitution grants Congress the power to define offenses against the law of nations and to authorize the use of nongovernmental persons or entities to capture those who commit those offenses.
H.R. 3076 would grant President Bush the authority to issue letters of marque and reprisal for the capture of those who are responsible for the September 11 attacks upon the United States.
www.thelibertycommittee.org /pressrelease10.11.01.htm   (276 words)

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