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Topic: Republic of Mahabad

  Omnipelagos.com ~ article "Republic of Mahabad"
The republic's founding and demise was a part of the Iran crisis, a conflict between USA and USSR, which was a precursor to the Cold War.
The republic was led by President Qazi Muhammad and the Minister of Defense, Mustafa Barzani.
The Republic of Mahabad declared independence on January 22, 1946, but was never recognized by the international community, and was defeated a year later by the army of the central government of Iran once the occupying Soviets pulled out.
www.omnipelagos.com /entry?n=republic_of_%4Dahabad   (1061 words)

 Footnotes to History- K and L
Kalmykia, Republic of- Kalmykia is a remnant of the Mongol Empire near Cossack lands north of the Caucasus.
Karabakh, Republic of- Following the breakup of the Soviet Union, the Armenian enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh seceded in January of 1992 from Azerbaijan when Azerbaijan's president declared that Karabakh was under his direct personal control.
Kawthoolei, Republic of- The Karens are a tribe of eastern Burma.
www.buckyogi.com /footnotes/natkl.htm   (5933 words)

 Footnotes to History- M
Madawaska, Republic of- Northern Maine and southern New Brunswick, while seldom mentioned today as a potential powderkeg, were hotly contested by the US and Great Britain until the current border was agreed upon in 1842.
Mahabad, Free State of- During the Second World War, Persia was occupied by the Soviets and British.
Manchuria, Republic of- Zhang Zuolin (formerly known as Chang Tso-Lin) was a general in the Chinese Republican Army during the early years of the twentieth century.
www.buckyogi.com /footnotes/natm.htm   (4940 words)

 Kurdistan Republic of Mahabad
The republic's official name was "State of Republic of Kurdistan", but was also referred to as "National Government of Kurdistan".
The extent of the republic was never set — there were peaceful negotiations with the neighbouring Iranian province of Azerbaijan about which republic should control border towns like Khoy, Salmus and Orumiyeh in the north, and Miandouad in the east.
The republic introduced Kurdish as the official language, and the language to be used in educational institutions.
www.i-cias.com /e.o/kurdistan_republic.htm   (334 words)

 The Kurds in Iran   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
The Republic was outside the area actually occupied by Soviet forces stretching from Urmiya (Rezaiah) nortwards, and was unable to incorporate Kurdish areas of Saqqiz, Sanandaj and Kermanshah to south which were within the Anglo-American zone of control.
At a political level the Mahabad Government expected the USSR to stand by them although, since pragmatism had led the Soviet to approach tribal leaders in spring 1945 rather than to sponsor ideologically correct republics, this was wishful thinking.
West of Mahabad both the Mamesh and Mangur tribes (the closest tribes to the town) were bitterly hostile to Mahabad, to the extent that Barzani's men, who had outlasted their welcome in the area, were sent against them.
members.home.nl /hamira/hirankurds.htm   (2485 words)

 Kurdistan Observer
This Republic lasted less than a year, but it was endowed with a remarkable dynamism and managed to achieve several of the goals formulated in the PDK programme.
The Republic of Kurdistan was also a centre for co-operation and solidarity between all the various parts of Kurdistan throughout the Middle East.
The whole Kurdish nation saw the Mahabad Republic as a symbol of their aspirations and hoped that it would become the core of a struggle for the liberation of all Kurdistan.
kurdistanobserver.servehttp.com /jan06/22-1-06-mahabad-republic.htm   (2085 words)

 Republic of Mahabad -   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Image:Flag of Kurdistan.png Image:QaziMoahmmed.jpg Image:Republic of Kurdistan in Mehabad.png The Republic of Mahabad (also Republic of Kurdistan), established in Iranian Kurdistan, was the second independent Kurdish state of the 20th century after the Republic of Ararat in Turkey.
The Republic was part of the Iran crisis a conflict between USA and USSR.
The Republic of Mahabad declared independence on January 22, 1946, but the movement was defeated a year later by the army of the central government of Iran.
www.jaipurgrid.com /mediawiki/index.php/Republic_of_Mahabad   (233 words)

 News | Gainesville.com | The Gainesville Sun | Gainesville, Fla.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
A few month after the collapse of the republic in December 1946, Qazi Muhammad was hanged in public in Chuwarchira Square in the center of Mahabad (March 1947).
In October of 1958, Mustafa Barzani returned into his homeland of Northern Iraq, beginning a series of struggles to fight for an independent Kurdish state under the KDP party, carrying the same flag that was used in Mahabad [3].
Qazi Muhammad, though not denying the fact that they were funded and supplied by the Soviets, denied that the KDP was a communist party, stating this was a lie fabricated by the military authorities, and adding that his ideals were too different from the Soviets (Meiselas 182).
www.gainesville.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=Republic_of_Mahabad   (1079 words)

 publish.nyc.indymedia.org | Rebellions and General Strike in Iranian Kurdistan
Though a youth, Shawane was a well-known figure in Mahabad because of his involvement in the boycott of the presidential election last May. Perhaps this is the main reason that outraged the regime thugs who kidnapped him in June after the second round of the elections.
The roar of “Death to the Islamic Republic of Iran” and “Death to murderers” was heard loudly in the streets of Mahabad soon after word of Shawane’s tortured body spread.
The most outstanding was the achievement of the Democratic Republic of Mahabad in 1954 under the leadership of Ghazi Mohammad.
nyc.indymedia.org /en/2005/08/56280.html   (2592 words)

 The Kurdistan Republic of 1946 (KurdishMedia.com)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
The Kurdish Republic established relations with the Soviet Union and the Azerbaijan Republic.[16] A Kurdish army was formed which consisted of 70 officers, 40 non-commissioned officers and 1200 soldiers.
If the Republic of Azerbaijan was defeated an ideological ally and a communist government which was under the influence of the Soviet Union was to be defeated.
The Kurdish Republic of 1946 is also known as the Kurdish Republic of Mahabad because it was established in the town of Mahabad and its authority did not go beyond Mahabad and a few surrounding towns.
www.kurdmedia.com /articles.asp?id=8869   (3002 words)

 UNRESTS CONTINUE IN IRAN'S MINORITY-DOMINATED PROVINCES (Iran Press Service)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
Mustafa Barzani, Massoud’s father, was commander-in-chief of the republic of Kurdistan in Iran, headed by Qazi Muhammad in Mahabad in 1945.
Mahabad is located in northwestern Iran's West Azerbaijan province, and was established in 1946 as the first and only Kurdish state in history.
However, the Kurdish Republic of Mahabad was defeated later the same year.
www.iran-press-service.com /ips/articles-2005/august-2005/iran-unrests-6805.shtml   (4377 words)

The Turkish Republic is founded from the remnants of the Ottoman Empire.
The Kurdistan Republic of Mahabad is established under the leadership of Qazi Mohammad.
The Islamic Republic of Iran is convicted in the German court for the assassination.
groups.msn.com /KURDITGROUP/historyofthekurdsthetimeline.msnw   (1184 words)

 Republic of Kurdistan - postglobalinbox
In 1946 Kurdish Mahabad Republic came to be due to the impact of WWII on the region and the power struggles that ensued: Soviets vs. British wrangling of interest tipped the balance in favor of the Kurds, but for a brief period only (11 months of Kurdish independence in Iranian Kurdistan).
The weaknesses of the republic were the limitations of nationalist movements in the East, which evolved under conditions of Western (neo-)colonial rule and dictatorial nation-states but were, at the same time, challenged by new social forces such as the working class, women, modern intelligentsia, and modern media.
The Republic was able to eliminate the brutal national oppression perpetrated by the Iranian state as soon as the power of the central government was removed from this part of Kurdistan.
blog.washingtonpost.com /postglobalinbox/2006/08/republic_of_kurdistan.html   (17725 words)

 Kurdistan Regional Government (Iraq)
Mahabad, the old "sunny flag" was adopted by its parliament as the official Flag of the Republic.
Following these historic background, the National Flag is widely adopted in Kurdistan and has been set aloft by various Kurdish movements and entities in all sectors of the land.
The "sunny flag" has thus been consecrated by the blood of all Kurdish patriots of this century, from tens of thousands who fell in defending the independence movement under the Khoyboun, to the President of the Republic of Kurdistan and his elected cabinet who were hanged in sight of this flag by the foe.
www.crwflags.com /fotw/flags/iq-krg.html   (957 words)

 William Eagleton: "The Foreign Service Has Changed Much" - Middle East Quarterly
Back in January 1946, when Mahabad was situated between the British and Russian [World War II] zones [of occupation] in Iran, Kurdish nationalists had proclaimed a Mahabad republic.
My visits to Mahabad gave me a unique opportunity to interview participants in the republic, and I wrote a brief account of their history.
[6] The Mahabad Republic fell to the Iranian army in December 1946.
www.meforum.org /article/786   (4126 words)

The Republic of Turkey also initially defined its new borders as the "borders of the Misak-i Milli (National Pact), which include the areas settled by the Turkish and Kurdish majority".
The Democratic Party of Kurdistan was founded and subsequently the Kurdish Republic of Mahabad was proclaimed.
Not only the Republic of Turkey and Iran but also the newly formed national states of Syria and Iraq have done all that was necessary to keep control over those parts of Kurdistan that were granted to them and to assimilate and exterminate the Kurds.
www.americankurdishsociety.org   (4610 words)

 The Kurds in Iran: From the Mahabad Republic until Present
The prelude to this republic was the foundation of the komale (Komala-e Zhian-e Kurdistan -Committee for the Resurrection of Kurdistan), in 1942 (Entessar 17).
The Kurdish Republic of Mahabad was formed in December 1945.
One of the many reasons for the failure of the Republic was the fact that the Kurdish tribal leaders were not in support of the nationalistic cause and felt that that they had too much to risk.
www.geocities.com /nvaladi/Kurds.html   (3194 words)

 Text News
After 11 months of the first modern Kurdish self rule, the Republic of Mahabad was overthrown in 1946 and its leaders hung in public by the Iranian Shah’s supporters.
The followers of this current extreme ideology seem to be too rigid to understand the value of human life as evident by their terrorizing beheading behavior, suicide bombing, hanging in public, and callous assassinations.
The story of Shoan Qaderi who was killed, hung from the back of a vehicle, and driven through the streets of Mahabad recently is a clear example of the culture of a necrophilic and terrorizing individual or state.
kurdistanobserver.servehttp.com /3-8-05-opinion-artin-current-role-eastern-kurdistan.htm   (929 words)

 Workers World [Sam Marcy]: Kurdistan (April 18, 1991)
The Kurdish Republic of Mahabad existed from December 1945 to December 1946 in the northern part of Iran.
Whatever one may think of the Kurdish republic of Mahabad as a form of self-determination, it cannot be denied that it became the center of gravity, the pole of attraction for the people of Kurdistan.
Had the Allied powers agreed to a policy whereby both their forces and those of the USSR would withdraw from the area, there would have been an historic opportunity to test whether the Kurdish Republic of Mahabad was the appropriate form of self-determination for the Kurdish people.
www.workers.org /marcy/cd/sam91/1991html/s910418.htm   (2744 words)

 PDKI: Brief Historical Background -Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan
In less than two years after the collapse of the Republic, PDKI started its political and organizational activities anew, striking roots in most parts of Iranian Kurdistan, which was due mainly to the Kurdish people's desire to join the struggle aimed at fulfilling the Party's aspirations and reviving the honour of the Republic of Kurdistan.
A group of PDKI leaders, who were living in exile either in neighbouring countries or in Europe, returned to Iran before the collapse of the monarchy, actively participating in the uprising of the Kurdish people and assuming the status of leadership in the movement.
The uprising of the Iranian peoples having succeeded, PDKI declared its public activities in a meeting held in Mahabad, which was attended by representatives from all parts of Iranian Kurdistan.
www.pdki.org /articles1-25-8.htm   (854 words)

 Kurdistan Observer
Despite of these disparities there was no right of session for the republics, according to articles 5 (4) OF the Federal Constitution the borders of the Socialists Republic could not be changed without permission of all the republics.
On 22 January 1946 the Kurdish Republic of Mahabad came into existence by proclamation, but in December the same year the imperial army with the help of the Anglo-American forces entered the city and the killing and arrests that followed were as cruel as they were indiscriminate.
Analysis of Republic of Mahabad disintegration and barriers to the likelihood of Kurdish independendence.
mywebpage.netscape.com /kurdistanobserve/8-5-04-opinion-baqi-independent-realistic.html   (1605 words)

 Security incidents in Iraq, Nov. 12 :: www.rojname.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-11)
The republic lasted for a year (1946) and later in 30 March 1947 its leader, Ghazi Mohammad was hanged by Iranian government.
Its zone of influence was further to the south of Mahabad [3], around Marivan ad Sanandaj and was more radical than KDPI and has been involved with Fadaeian khalq in some peasant uprising against the land owners in Sanandaj and Marivan [5].
Republication and redistribution of KurdishMedia.com content is expressly prohibited without the prior written consent of KurdishMedia.com.
www.rojname.com /index.kurd?nuce=93565   (5241 words)

The Mahabad area was occupied neither by Britain or America nor by the Soviet Union.
This Republic lasted less than a year, but it was endowed with a remarkable dynamism and managed to achieve several of the goals formulated in the K.D.P. programme.
The Republic’s red, white and green flag was emblazoned with a sun surrounded by corns of wheat with a quill in the middle; the sun for freedom, the quill to underline the importance of education.
www.kurdistanica.com /english/politics/analysis/analysis-101.html   (2216 words)

 Republic of Mahabad
Intellectuals, tribal leaders, and undercover political parties had joined their efforts and strengthened their national unity in a solidified frame to create a regional government for east Kurdistan.After several meetings and consultations, they structured the backbone of a working government by assigning cabinet members, ministers, and their elected president (Qazi Mohammed).
On January 22, 1946, the newly self-created government of Mahabad announced for the Kurdish public and proclaimed their republic at the (Chwar Chira Square) which mean, Four-Lamp Square, in Mahabd city.
Unfortunately, after settling the aftermath of the war and establishing basis of Soviet military in eastern Europe, Soviet Union withdrew its troops from north Iran, virtually from Kurdistan, and the new Kurdish republic of Kurdistan was left unprotected and became vulnerable for its main enemy, Iran.
members.tripod.com /surkew/id49.htm   (287 words)

 Viva Mahabad - The Shwane Qadri Remembrance Site: Iran Security Forces Kill Youth At Point Blank, Drag Body In Town
Mahabad, (Eastern Kurdistan), Jul. 12 – Iran’s State Security Forces on Sunday opened fire at youths in the north-western volatile Kurdish town of Mahabad, leaving one young man dead and several others injured.
A group of friends were walking at an avenue in Independence Square in Mahabad at 22:30, when they were approached and attacked by an SSF convoy, plain-clothed Islamic vigilantes, and a number of agents of Iran’s dreaded Ministry of Intelligence and Security (VEVAK), according to several eye-witnesses.
Anti-riot police were brought in from the neighbouring towns of Miandoab and Naqadeh to stop the escalation of protests.
viva-mahabad.blogspot.com /2005/07/iran-security-forces-kill-youth-at.html   (385 words)

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