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Topic: Reverse transcriptase


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RNA
AZT

In the News (Mon 17 Jun 19)

  
  Reverse transcriptase - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Since HIV uses reverse transcriptase, together with integrase, to infect human DNA with viral DNA, reverse transcriptase inhibitors are used to prevent this.
Reverse transcriptase is commonly used in research to apply the polymerase chain reaction technique to RNA.
Reverse transcriptase was discovered by Howard Temin at the University of Wisconsin, and independently by David Baltimore at about the same time.
www.wikipedia.org /wiki/Reverse_transcriptase   (516 words)

  
 Influence of Reverse Transcriptase Variants, Drugs, and Vpr on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Mutant Frequencies ...
Identification of a simian immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase variant with enhanced replicational fidelity in the late stage of viral infection.
Identification of a mutation at codon 65 in the IKKK motif of reverse transcriptase that encodes human immunodeficiency virus resistance to 2',3'-dideoxycytidine and 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine.
Y586F mutation in murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase decreases fidelity of DNA synthesis in regions associated with adenine-thymine tracts.
jvi.asm.org /cgi/content/full/77/3/2071   (6500 words)

  
 Evidence for Copurification of HERV-K-Related Transcripts and a Reverse Transcriptase Activity in Human Platelets From ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Moreover, by using a modification of the polymerase chain reaction-based reverse transcriptase assay in which activated DNA is added during cDNA synthesis to suppress DNA polymerase-mediated RNA-directed DNA synthesis, we have found that the particle-associated enzyme behaves like a retroviral reverse transcriptase, further supporting the conclusion that retrovirus-like, perhaps HERV-K sequences, encode this enzyme activity.
Another alternative source for the reverse transcriptase activity in these samples is that it is encoded by a LINE element or other retrotransposon.
Medstrand P, Blomberg J: Characterization of novel reverse transcriptase encoding human endogenous retroviral sequences similar to type A and type B retroviruses: Differential transcription in normal human tissues.
www.bloodjournal.org /cgi/content/full/90/10/4022   (6530 words)

  
 Low-Molecular-Weight Plasmid of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Codes for Retron Reverse Transcriptase and ...
Retron reverse transcriptases are unusual procaryotic enzymes capable of synthesis of low-molecular-weight DNA by reverse
Reverse transcriptase with concomitant ribonuclease H activity in the cell-free synthesis of branched RNA-linked msDNA of Myxococcus xanthus.
Reverse transcriptase from Escherichia coli exists as a complex with msDNA and is able to synthesize double-stranded DNA.
jb.asm.org /cgi/content/full/183/9/2852   (3884 words)

  
 Evaluation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Reverse Transcriptase Primer tRNA Binding by Fluorescence ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
molecule is utilized by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) to prime DNA synthesis from the viral RNA genome.
The presence of both overlapping and separate p/t and tRNA binding regions on RT was tested by examination of the affinity of a possible RT bisubstrate type inhibitor, containing motifs proposed to be essential for both tRNA and p/t binding.
Further analyses revealed that the tighter affinity is probably due to a preferred p/t binding mode and not to one expected if separate tRNA and p/t binding regions are accessed simultaneously by the same molecule.
pubs.acs.org /cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/bichaw/1996/35/i14/abs/bi9526387.html   (405 words)

  
 An Accurate Look into HIV   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The catalytic (p66) subunit of reverse transcriptase has four domains, shown here as different colored regions of the ribbon diagram.
To visualize the life cycle of the virus and two crucial enzymes -- reverse transcriptase (Figure 1) and protease (Figure 2) -- Larsen is taking advantage of numerous resources.
The primary source of scientific results on reverse transcriptase (RT), the CABM is conducting X-ray crystallography studies on the enzyme.
www.sdsc.edu /GatherScatter/GSsummer96/larsen.html   (1061 words)

  
 A Conserved Telomerase Motif within the Catalytic Domain of Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Is Specifically Required ...
Telomerase reverse transcriptase genes identified in Tetrahymena thermophila and Oxytrica trifallax.
Expression of mouse telomerase reverse transcriptase during development, differentiation and proliferation.
Reverse transcriptase motifs in the catalytic subunit of telomerase.
mcb.asm.org /cgi/content/full/23/23/8440   (5768 words)

  
 John Wrobel
Constructed and analyzed structural models of reverse transcriptases related to HIV-1 to study the evolution of residues involved in protein stability and folding.
Phenotype data from the mutant collection were combined with crystallographic data of several HIV-1 reverse transcriptase structures as well as the structure of the evolutionarily related Moloney murine leukemia virus reverse transcriptase to identify hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions critical for the protein stability of this enzyme.
Besides providing a better understanding of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in particular, this project demonstrated the utility of saturation mutagenesis to study the function and stability of proteins in general, especially for proteins for which no structural data are available.
www.unc.edu /%7Ewrobel   (1151 words)

  
 Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors impair endothelium-dependent relaxation by increasing superoxide -- Sutliff ...
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors impair endothelium-dependent relaxation by increasing superoxide -- Sutliff et al.
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors impair endothelium-dependent relaxation by increasing superoxide
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) have been used successfully to reduce acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
ajpheart.physiology.org /cgi/content/abstract/283/6/H2363   (229 words)

  
 Retroviruses
Reverse transcriptase is a DNA polymerase that uses RNA as its template.
its molecules of reverse transcriptase are carried into the cell attached to the viral RNA molecules.
The reverse transcriptase synthesizes DNA copies of the RNA.
users.rcn.com /jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/R/Retroviruses.html   (501 words)

  
 A 6-Basepair Insert in the Reverse Transcriptase Gene of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Confers Resistance to ...
Kellam, S.D. Kemp, and B.A. Larder (1991) Resistance to ddI and sensitivity to AZT induced by a mutation in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.
Insertion of two amino acids in reverse transcriptase during antiretroviral combination therapy: implications for resistance against nucleoside RT inhibitors.
Bebenek, T.A. Kunkel, and S.H. Wilson (1993) Mechanism of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase: termination of processive synthesis on a natural DNA template is influenced by the sequence of the template-primer stem.
www.jci.org /cgi/content/full/102/10/1769   (5877 words)

  
 Mechanistic studies show that (-)-FTC-TP is a better inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase than 3TC-TP -- FENG et ...
Kerr, S. G., Anderson, K. (1997) RNA dependent DNA replication fidelity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase: evidence of discrimination between DNA and RNA substrates.
Rittinger, K., Divita, G., Goody, R. (1995) Human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase substrate-induced conformational changes and the mechanism of inhibition by nonnucleoside inhibitors.
Kerr, S. G., Anderson, K. (1997) Pre-steady state kinetic characterization of wild type and 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT) resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase: implication of RNA directed DNA polymerization in the mechanism of AZT resistance.
www.fasebj.org /cgi/content/full/13/12/1511   (3627 words)

  
 Reverse Transcriptase
Wrobel, J.A., Conrad, M.J., Bloedon, E., Swanstrom, R., and Hutchison, C.A. Analysis of HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase: Comparing sequences of viral isolates with mutational data.
Wrobel, J.A., Chao, S.-F., Conrad, M.J., Merker, J.D., Swanstrom, R., Pielak, G.J., and Hutchison, C.A. genetic approach for identifying critical residues in the fingers and palm subdomains of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase.
Chao, S.-F., Chan, V.L., Juranka, P., Kaplan, A.H., Swanstrom, R., and Hutchison, C.A. Mutational sensitivity patterns define critical residues in the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase palm domain.
www.unc.edu /~wrobel/rt.html   (421 words)

  
 Real-Time Quantification of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase mRNA in Tumors and Healthy Tissues -- de Kok et al. ...
Real-Time Quantification of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase mRNA in Tumors and Healthy Tissues -- de Kok et al.
High telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) messenger RNA level correlates with tumor recurrence in patients with favorable histology Wilms’ tumor.
Ito H, Kyo S, Kanaya T, Takakura M, Inoue M, Namiki M. Detection of human telomerase reverse transcriptase messenger RNA in voided urine samples as a useful diagnostic tool for bladder cancer.
www.clinchem.org /cgi/content/full/46/3/313   (3555 words)

  
 Inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by RNA aptamers in Escherichia coli -- NICKENS et al. 9 (9): 1029 -- RNA
Hizi, A., McGill, C., and Hughes, S.H. Expression of soluble, enzymatically active, human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase in Escherichia coli and analysis of mutants.
Joshi, P. and Prasad, V.R. Potent inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by template analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors derived by SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment).
Kim, B. and Loeb, L.A. Human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase substitutes for DNA polymerase I in Escherichia coli.
www.rnajournal.org /cgi/content/full/9/9/1029   (2532 words)

  
 A Mutation at Position 190 of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Reverse Transcriptase Interacts with Mutations at ...
Sensitivity of wild-type human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase to dideoxynucleotides depends on template length; the sensitivity of drug-resistant mutants does not.
Catalytic properties of the reverse transcriptases of human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 and type 2.
The structure of unliganded reverse transcriptase from the human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
aac.asm.org /cgi/content/full/42/2/447   (4118 words)

  
 APHS can act synergically with clinically available HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors and is active ...
APHS can act synergically with clinically available HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors and is active against several drug-resistant HIV-1 strains in vitro -- Pereira et al.
A randomized, controlled, double-blind study comparing the survival benefit of four different reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapies (three-drug, two-drug, and alternating drug) for the treatment of advanced AIDS.
Evaluation of reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors in two-drug combinations against human immunodeficiency virus replication.
jac.oupjournals.org /cgi/content/full/51/5/1181   (4627 words)

  
 Mutations in HIV reverse transcriptase which alter RNase H activity and decrease strand transfer efficiency are ...
Mutations in HIV reverse transcriptase which alter RNase H activity and decrease strand transfer efficiency are suppressed by HIV nucleocapsid protein -- Cameron et al.
Mutations in HIV reverse transcriptase which alter RNase H activity and decrease strand transfer efficiency are suppressed by HIV nucleocapsid protein
Mutating a Region of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Implicated in tRNALys-3 Binding and the Consequences for (-)-Strand DNA Synthesis
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/94/13/6700   (4737 words)

  
 Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) for HIV & AIDS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
HIV's reverse transcriptase enzyme is needed to perform this process.
NRTIs contain faulty versions of the building blocks (nucleotides) used by reverse transcriptase to convert RNA to DNA.
When reverse transcriptase uses these faulty building blocks, the new DNA cannot be built correctly.
www.aidsmeds.com /NRTIs.htm   (369 words)

  
 DNA Replication Enzymes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Reverse Transcriptase (RT) is a DNA polymerase that will either use an RNA or DNA strand as a primer.
The polymerase function of RT is then able to synthesise the second strand of DNA, possibly primed by a rump of the viral RNA.
Reverse Transcriptase from HIV-1 is of tremendous medical interest as it is the target enzyme for the best known of anti-AIDS drugs, AZT, which acts by causing chain termination of the polymerase reaction.
www.biochem.ucl.ac.uk /bsm/xtal/teach/repl/rt.html   (357 words)

  
 Reverse Transcriptase Activity in Mature Spermatozoa of Mouse -- Giordano et al. 148 (6): 1107 -- The Journal of Cell ...
Reverse Transcriptase Activity in Mature Spermatozoa of Mouse -- Giordano et al.
Reverse Transcriptase Activity in Mature Spermatozoa of Mouse
We show here that a reverse transcriptase (RT) activity is present
www.jcb.org /cgi/content/abstract/148/6/1107   (273 words)

  
 HIV RT 3D Structures Index
The HIV Drug Resistance Database at LANL and the HIV Drug Resistance Database at Stanford are both sources of information on sites in the protease and reverse transcriptase proteins which mutate to create drug resistance in the virus.
HIV-1 (clone HXB2) reverse transcriptase (p65RT/RNAse and p51RT) with DNA/primer duplex and dNTP; 3.2 Angstom resolution.
The Reverse Transcriptase Structures Table at the Protein Structures Database (PDB) contains RT structures and RT-related stuctures (such as E. coli Klenow fragment), collected as a part of the September 2002 "Molecule of the Month" project at PDB.
hiv-web.lanl.gov /content/hiv-db/STRUCTURE/RT.HTML   (979 words)

  
 Mechanistic studies show that (-)-FTC-TP is a better inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase than 3TC-TP -- FENG et ...
Mechanistic studies show that (-)-FTC-TP is a better inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase than 3TC-TP -- FENG et al.
Mechanistic studies show that (-)-FTC-TP is a better inhibitor of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase than 3TC-TP
Reversion of the M184V Mutation in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Reverse Transcriptase Is Selected by Tenofovir, Even in the Presence of Lamivudine
www.fasebj.org /cgi/content/abstract/13/12/1511   (479 words)

  
 Substitution of proline 306 in the reverse transcriptase domain of hepatitis B virus regulates replication -- Lin et ...
Substitution of proline 306 in the reverse transcriptase domain of hepatitis B virus regulates replication -- Lin et al.
Substitution of proline 306 in the reverse transcriptase domain of hepatitis B virus regulates replication
reverse transcriptase (rtP306) has been suggested to constrain
vir.sgmjournals.org /cgi/content/abstract/86/1/85   (283 words)

  
 Abstract 13 - TMC120, a New Non- Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor, Is a Potent Antiretroviral in Treatment ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Abstract 13 - TMC120, a New Non- Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor, Is a Potent Antiretroviral in Treatment Naive, HIV-1 Infected Subjects.
13 TMC120, a New Non- Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor, Is a Potent Antiretroviral in Treatment Naive, HIV-1 Infected Subjects.
Background:TMC120 (R147681), a dianilinopyrimidine (DAPY) derivative, is a novel, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) with equipotent in vitro activity (IC = 1-10 nM) against wild-type HIV-1 and NNRTI-resistant variants encoding K103N, Y181C or G190A/S mutations.
www.retroconference.org /2001/abstracts/abstracts/abstracts/13.htm   (243 words)

  
 Genotypic Correlates of Phenotypic Resistance to Efavirenz in Virus Isolates from Patients Failing Nonnucleoside ...
Genotypic Correlates of Phenotypic Resistance to Efavirenz in Virus Isolates from Patients Failing Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Therapy -- Bacheler et al.
Genotypic Correlates of Phenotypic Resistance to Efavirenz in Virus Isolates from Patients Failing Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Therapy
Huang, W., Gamarnik, A., Limoli, K., Petropoulos, C. J., Whitcomb, J. Amino Acid Substitutions at Position 190 of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Reverse Transcriptase Increase Susceptibility to Delavirdine and Impair Virus Replication.
dx.doi.org /10.1128/JVI.75.11.4999-5008.2001   (630 words)

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