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Topic: Revolutionary France

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  French Revolution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
During the French Revolution (1789-1799) democracy and republicanism replaced the absolute monarchy in France, and the French sector of the Roman Catholic Church was forced to undergo radical restructuring.
While France would oscillate among republic, empire, and monarchy for 75 years after the First Republic fell to a coup d'état by Napoleon Bonaparte, the revolution nonetheless spelled a definitive end to the ancien régime, and eclipses both subsequent revolutions in France in the popular imagination.
The bulk of the nobles argued for an aristocratic upper house elected by the nobles.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/French_Revolution   (4962 words)

 French Revolutionary Wars - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The French Revolutionary Wars occurred between the outbreak of war between the French Revolutionary government and Austria in 1792 and the Treaty of Amiens in 1802.
In addition to the ideological differences between France and the monarchical powers of Europe, there were continuing disputes over the states of Imperial estates in Alsace, and the French were becoming concerned about the agitation of emigré nobles abroad, especially in the Austrian Netherlands and the minor states of Germany.
France responded by declaring a new levy of hundreds of thousands of men, beginning a French policy of using mass conscription to deploy more of its manpower than the aristocratic states could, and remaining on the offensive so that these mass armies could commandeer war material from the territory of their enemies.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/French_Revolutionary_Wars   (2700 words)

 Encyclopedia: French Revolutionary Wars   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
France in the Middle Ages is, for the purpose of this article, the history of the region roughly corresponding to modern day France from the death of Charlemagne in 814 to the middle of the 15th century.
Early Modern France is the portion of French history that falls in the early modern period from the mid 15th century to the end of the 18th century (or from the French Renaissance to the eve of the French Revolution).
The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/French-Revolutionary-Wars   (7555 words)

 Encyclopedia: Revolutionary France   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The period of the French Revolution in the history of France covers the years between 1789 and 1799, in which democrats and republicans overthrew the absolute monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church perforce underwent radical restructuring.
While France would oscillate among republic, empire, and monarchy for 75 years after the First Republic fell to a coup by Napoleon Bonaparte, the revolution nonetheless spelled a definitive end to the ancien régime, and eclipses all subsequent revolutions in France in the popular imagination.
The slightest hint of counter-revolutionary thoughts or activities (or, as in the case of Jacques Hébert, revolutionary zeal exceeding that of those in power) could place one under suspicion, and the trials did not proceed over-scrupulously.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Revolutionary-France   (4125 words)

 French Revolution -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
He and Queen (Queen of France (as wife of Louis XVI) who was unpopular; her extravagance and opposition to reform contributed to the overthrow of the monarchy; she was guillotined along with her husband (1755-1793)) Marie Antoinette remained held under guard.
The politics of the period inevitably drove France towards war with (A mountainous republic in central Europe; under the Habsburgs (1278-1918) Austria maintained control of the Holy Roman Empire and was a leader in European politics until the 19th century) Austria and its allies.
In 1794 (French revolutionary; leader of the Jacobins and architect of the Reign of Terror; was himself executed in a coup d'etat (1758-1794)) Robespierre had ultraradicals and moderate Jacobins executed; in consequence, however, his own popular support eroded markedly.
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/f/fr/french_revolution.htm   (5094 words)

 The Family on Trial in Revolutionary France: Introduction
The French revolutionaries were ambitious in their attempts to transform the family, for they saw how profoundly politics and the gendered matters of daily life were intertwined.
The revolutionaries could not accomplish their essential legal, politico-cultural, and social goals without reforming domestic relationships, but reconstructing the family was neither a top-down nor an abstract process.
Revolutionary definitions and practices of citizenship did exclude women from essential aspects of political participation, including the right to vote, to hold political club meetings after October 1793, and to serve as officials, such as arbiters on family tribunals or deputies in Paris.
www.ucpress.edu /books/pages/10028/10028.intro.html   (7209 words)

 Conflicts with Revolutionary France, 1790-1805 (from Austria) --  Encyclopædia Britannica
The revolutionary wars, which may for convenience be held to have been concluded by 1801, were originally undertaken to defend and then to spread the effects of the French Revolution.
France is a highly complex and diverse land.
Revolutionary movements in China in the early 1900s were rooted in the idea that China had become increasingly weak and needed a radical change to maintain its territorial integrity and national pride.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-33359   (823 words)

Disorder grew in the Church of France; young and ambitious priests, better known for their political than for their religious zeal, were candidates, and in many places owing to the opposition of good Catholics those elected had much difficulty in taking possession of their churches.
At Avignon the Revolutionary Lécuyer, having been slain in a church, some citizens reputed to be partisans of the pope were thrown into the ancient papal castle and strangled (16-17 Oct., 1791).
The measures taken by the Convention to substitute the Revolutionary calendar for the old Christian calendar, and the decrees ordering the municipalities to seize and melt down the bells and treasures of the churches, proved that certain currents prevailed tending to the dechristianization of France.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/13009a.htm   (7795 words)

 Reviews in History:
Thus did the revolutionary government kill off that ‘motley group of extremists’ known as the Hébertists, in a move that typified the accelerating exclusion of foreigners from ‘key centres of French social and economic life and, above all, from involvement in every level of French politics’ (p.2).
He concludes that ‘For as long as France was at war and was dogged by domestic instability, the Revolution would not — and could not — return to its earlier, universal promise’ (p.315).
In the conclusion he notes that ‘the revolutionaries were pragmatic, restraining, even denying, the implications of their principles as circumstances dictated’ (p.336).
www.history.ac.uk /reviews/paper/lawrencePaul.html   (1438 words)

 Buecher Kaufempfehlung: Nationality and Citizenship in Revolutionary France The Treatment of Foreigners 1789-1799. von ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Foreigners were welcomed to France, to enrich the regenerated nation and to become citizens.
Some foreigners in France were guillotined, hundreds of others were jailed, expelled, watched closely and were obliged to carry special identity cards.
In defining the limit of the nation, the revolutionaries and foreignors alike faced difficulties which have particular ressonance today.
www.buchinsel.schnellsuchmaschine.de /0198208456-Nationality_and_Citizenship_in_Revolutionary_France_The_Treatment_of_Foreigners_1789_1799_von_Michael_Rapport_bei_Oxford_University_Press.html   (260 words)

 The French Revolution Essays and Articles at eNotes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
And throughout the whole of France the land was subject to quitrents, ground rents, dues in money or in kind payable by the peasant proprietor to his lord and irredeemable by the former.
In July 1789 France was wracked by what became known as the “Great Fear.” On the fourteenth of that month, a riot at the Bastille, a Paris prison and armory, had resulted in the death of more than one hundred people.
France’s first attempt at a republic—at a government that would represent the interests of all its citizens, not just the privileged few—came to an end when Napoleon took over.
www.enotes.com /french-revolution/s998   (4153 words)

 HY31920 - REVOLUTIONARY FRANCE 1770-1871   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
On the one hand, aspirations for greater political and social equality were encouraged; on the other, nightmare visions of social upheaval were conjured up.
Political agendas were established, both revolutionary and counter-revolutionary, which set the scene for ongoing conflict.
If the years from 1789 to 1871 saw major changes in the character of French society brought about by Revolution and war, there were in addition substantial changes in the structure of the economy and society and in the nature of social relationships.
www.aber.ac.uk /modules/future/HY31920.html   (404 words)

 Template without comments
They were mistaken; they were a portion of the past, but the whole past was France.
This outraged the people of France, and in 1830 there was another revolution in France, and Charles X was removed from power (Speilvogel, 744).
This chapter became as important in French history as the hundreds of years of absolute monarchy that preceded it, and cemented the fact that any sort of monarchy was no longer "rooted" in France.
www.mtholyoke.edu /courses/rschwart/hist255/kat_anna/lesmis5.html   (411 words)

 Greenwood Press Book on Publishing in Revolutionary France and America
The symposium was organized to commemorate the bicentenary of the French Revolution, to recognize the work of scholars and other specialists in France and the United States who are studying the history of publishing and reading, and to contribute to the development of a comparative methodology in the international study of book history.
In her introduction, Armbruster notes the importance of Thomas Jefferson in the events of revolutionary France and America and in the founding of the Library of Congress.
All of its projects, including the 1989 symposium on Publishing and Readership in Revolutionary France and America, are made possible by private, tax-deductible contributions from individuals and corporations.
www.loc.gov /today/pr/1993/93-092.html   (459 words)

 Letters From Revolutionary France   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Letters Written in France to a Friend in London is a vivid and astute first-hand account of the French Revolution as experienced by Major Watkin Tench, a Marine officer held prisoner in the town of Quimper, Brittany in 1794–95.
‘Accounts by British prisoners held in France during the early years of the wars between 1793 and 1815 are rare, so the twelve letters of Watkin Tench, a major in the marines, describing his imprisonment from November 1794 to May 1795, are significant.
This is a valuable essay, disentangling the various stages of the revolution in France, showing their effect on Tench’s imprisonment, and examining Tench’s firm Whig political principles.
www.uwp.co.uk /book_desc/1691.html   (561 words)

 The Forbidden Best-Sellers of Pre-Revolutionary France   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The study of literary and intellectual history often has tended to identify a canon, or core of classics, for each historical period and then study the broader corpus of works in relation to those classics.
Darnton also elaborates on the various categories of forbidden literature, including the works of philosophical pornography, utopian fantasy and political slander which fed the publics desire for transgressive works and, ultimately, undermined the foundations of monarchical legitimacy.
The Cheese and the Worms : The Cosmos of a Sixteenth-Century Miller
www.history-europe.com /The_Forbidden_BestSellers_of_PreRevolutionary_France_0393314421.html   (655 words)

 H-Net Review: Lauren M. O'Connell on Emulation: Making Artists for Revolutionary France   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
For Hunt, Joseph Bara, the child soldier who died in the line of Republican duty in 1794, is a generalized revolutionary type, the "child-hero" who stands at once for "the children of the republic" and "the internalized self-image of the revolutionaries as young, romantic heroes" (p.
But given that it deals with the period when David was in charge of revolutionary ceremonial and centers on the very issue of the gendering of political allegory, the reader might expect a more direct engagement with its arguments.
Crow's argument for the relevance of fatherlessness to the shape of painting in the revolutionary era is not limited to the compelling patterns of emulation among father-figures, sons, and brothers.
www.h-net.msu.edu /reviews/showrev.cgi?path=4941855929944   (2093 words)

 Revolutionary France   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Escape from Post-Commune France, is a personal account of her experiences by Jenny Marx.
When the First International was founded in 1864, its contacts in France were Proudhonists, who wanted to confine the International to study groups reading the works of Proudhon.
One of the most traumatic events to shake post-war France was the Algerian Revolution of 1959 which triggered a crisis in France.
www.marxists.org /subject/france   (1155 words)

 Catholicism in Revolutionary France (from history of Roman Catholicism) --  Encyclopædia Britannica
The age of Reformation and Counter-Reformation > The church in the modern period > Catholicism in Revolutionary France
More results on "Catholicism in Revolutionary France (from history of Roman Catholicism)" when you join.
He was primarily a novelist, but he excelled also in the short story and in literary criticism.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-43759   (904 words)

 History of the Paris Commune   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Marx explains the revolutionary achievements of the Paris Commune and the reaction to it by the French government of Thiers.
Written by Jenny Marx, this document describes her escape from France after the fall of the Paris Commune; after the massacres of over 30,000 workers, and the mass arrests of more than 38,000 workers.
Writings by Marxists on the Revolutionary history of France, from the Enlightenment and the Encyclopedists of the 18th century through the Great French Revolution of 1789, the early Communist movement to the Paris Commune.
www.marx.org /history/france/paris-commune/index.htm   (549 words)

 History Archive   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The hey-day of anarchism in France was between the Paris Commune and the World War I. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1803-1865)
Includes the “Manifesto of the 121,” published in 1960, as France stood on the precipice of civil war and documents of the PCF.
The events in the streets of Paris in May/June 1968 inspired young people across the world, but their ultimate failure to achieve revolutionary change triggered the development of new political and ideological currents, which would become influential across the world.
www.marxists.org /history/france   (323 words)

 Past & Present: The counter-Enlightenment and the low-life of literature in pre-Revolutionary France
The counter-Enlightenment and the low-life of literature in pre-Revolutionary France
Instigated and funded by courtiers and others engaged in the intrigues of ministerial politics, this literature, Popkin argued, should not be seen as the product of marginalized writers driven by social resentment.
Rather than passively accept that the radical messages of pamphlets and libelles were simply `graven' into the `soft wax' of `readers' minds', Chattier argued with Foucauldian overtones that this literature should be viewed as part of a broader cultural transformation, specific facets of which resist direct causal connection with the Revolution.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m2279/is_n159/ai_21029551   (926 words)

 French Culture | Books | Suzanne Desan: The Family on Trial in Revolutionary France (University of California Press ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
She shows how revolutionary politics and laws brought about a social revolution within households and created space for thousands of French women and men to reimagine their most intimate relationships.
From 1789, citizens across France -- sons and daughters, unhappily married spouses and illegitimate children, pamphleteers and moralists, deputies and judges -- all disputed how the family should be reformed to remake the new France.
In a narrative that combines national-level analysis with a case study of family contestation in Normandy, Desan explores these struggles to bring politics into households and to envision and put into practice a new set of familial relationships.
www.frenchculture.org /books/release/history/desanfamily.html   (498 words)

 The Family on Trial in Revolutionary France   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Families negotiated new social practices, including divorce, the reduction of paternal authority, egalitarian inheritance for sons and daughters alike, and the granting of civil rights to illegitimate children.
From 1789, citizens across France--sons and daughters, unhappily married spouses and illegitimate children, pamphleteers and moralists, deputies and judges--all disputed how the family should be reformed to remake the new France.
Suzanne Desan is Professor of History at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and author of the prize-winning Reclaiming the Sacred: Lay Religion and Popular Politics in Revolutionary France (1990).
www.ucpress.edu /books/pages/10028.html   (670 words)

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