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# Topic: Richter Magnitude Scale

###### In the News (Sun 21 Jul 19)

 Richter Magnitude Richter showed that, the larger the intrinsic energy of the earthquake, the larger the amplitude of ground motion at a given distance. He calibrated his scale of magnitudes using measured maximum amplitudes of shear waves on seismometers particularly sensitive to shear waves with periods of about one second. Both the magnitude and the seismic moment are related to the amount of energy that is radiated by an earthquake. www.seismo.unr.edu /ftp/pub/louie/class/100/magnitude.html   (1477 words)

 Richter magnitude scale - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia It is a base-10 logarithmic scale obtained by calculating the logarithm of the combined horizontal amplitude of the largest displacement from zero on a seismometer output. Richter arbitrarily chose a magnitude 0 event to be an earthquake that would show a maximum combined horizontal displacement of 1 micrometre on a seismogram recorded using a Wood-Anderson torsion seismometer 100 km from the earthquake epicenter. By the beginning of the 21st century, most seismologists considered the traditional magnitude scales to be largely obsolete, being replaced by a more physically meaningful measurement called the seismic moment which is more directly relatable to the physical parameters, such as the dimension of the earthquake rupture, and the energy released from the earthquake. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Richter_magnitude_scale   (688 words)

 Moment magnitude scale - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The moment magnitude scale was introduced in 1979 by Tom Hanks and Hiroo Kanamori as a successor to the Richter scale and is used by seismologists to compare the energy released by earthquakes. The constants in the equation are chosen so that estimates of moment magnitude roughly agree with estimates using other scales such as the Richter magnitude scale. One advantage of the moment magnitude scale is that, unlike other magnitude scales, it does not saturate at the upper end. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Moment_magnitude_scale   (428 words)

 The Richter Magnitude Scale, Alaska Science Forum In the examples shown, a magnitude 2 earthquake would produce a deflection of 0.1 millimeter from an earthquake 100 kilometers away, or a deflection of 2 millimeters if it were only 20 kilometers distant. Magnitude scales in general often seem to be devised with a devilish intent to mislead. At the other end of the scale, a Richter magnitude could be assigned to an earthquake of any size, no matter how great, but the largest earthquakes ever recorded have not exceeded about magnitude 9. www.gi.alaska.edu /ScienceForum/ASF7/701.html   (800 words)

 Richter magnitude scale - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27) Developed in 1935 by Charles Richter in collaboration with Beno Gutenberg, both of the California Institute of Technology, the scale was originally intended to be used only in a particular study area in California, and on seismograms recorded on a particular instrument, the torsion seismometer. By the beginning of the 21st century, most seismologists considered the traditional magnitude scales to be largely obsolete, being replaced by a more physically meaningful measurement called the seismic moment which is more directly relatable to the physical parameters, such as the dimension of the earthquake, and the energy released from the earthquake. Intensity scales, such as the and Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale, are used to describe relative earthquake effects. www.marylandheights.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Richter_Scale   (731 words)

 ScienceDaily: Richter magnitude scale   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27) The diminution of amplitude due to distance between the earthquake epicenter and the seismometer is corrected for by subtracting the common logarithm of the expected amplitude of a magnitude 0 event at that distance. Intensity scales, such as the Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale and Japanese seismic intensity scale, are used to describe relative earthquake effects. Moment magnitude scale -- The moment magnitude scale was introduced in 1979 by Tom Hanks and Hiroo Kanamori as a successor to the Richter scale and is used by seismologists to compare the energy released by... www.sciencedaily.com /encyclopedia/Richter_magnitude_scale   (2233 words)

 Earthquake Size He based his scale on an analogy with the stellar brightness scale commonly used in astronomy which is also similar to the pH scale used to measure acidity (pH is a logarithmic measure of the Hydrogen ion concentration in a solution). Richter was pragmatic in his definition, and chose a value for a magnitude zero that insured that most of the earthquakes routinely recorded would have positive magnitudes. Richter's method became widely used because it was simple, required only the location of the earthquake (to get the distance) and a quick measure of the peak ground motion, was more reliable than older measures such as intensity. eqseis.geosc.psu.edu /~cammon/HTML/Classes/IntroQuakes/Notes/earthquake_size.html   (1780 words)

 What is meant by an earthquake's magnitude?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27) The Richter Magnitude Scale, as it has come to be known, is a measure of the amplitude of the seismic waves produced at the source of an earthquake. An increase of one unit on the Richter Scale, for example from magnitude 6.0 to 7.0, corresponds to a 10-fold increase in the amplitude of the seismic waves that shake the ground. Magnitude is related to the energy radiated from the earthquake source as seismic waves. www.jclahr.com /alaska/aeic/magnitude/mag_basics.html   (185 words)

 ::Pakearthquake::   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27) It is a base-10 logarithmic scale obtained by calculating the logarithm of the combined horizontal amplitude of the largest from zero on a seismogram. So, for example, an earthquake of magnitude 5 is ten times greater than one of magnitude 4 and an earthquake of magnitude 8 is 10(8-4) or 10000 times greater than one of magnitude 4. Furthermore, there is a saturation effect near 8.3-8.5, owing to the scaling law of earthquake spectra, that causes traditional magnitude methods (such as MS) to yield the same magnitude estimate for events that are clearly of different size. www.pakpk.com /pakearth/scale.html   (810 words)

 Paper Artcle - The Island   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27) The Richter magnitude scale was introduced by Charles F. Richter, a scientist in the California Institute of Technology in 1935. Richterâ€™s scale was developed based on the Stellar magnitude scale used in astronomy to describe the brightness of stars and other celestial objects. The magnitude of an earthquake is determined from the logarithm of the amplitude of the strongest wave recorded by seismographs. www.gissl.lk /paper_articles_tsunami/article_11.htm   (797 words)

 Earthquake Hazards Program: An Interview with Charles F. Richter   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27) Yes, without any significant contribution from me, he later worked out a version of the magnitude scale that used the measured amplitudes and periods of body waves, that is P (primary), S (secondary), and PP (P waves that are reflected at the Earth's outer surface and then continue on as P waves). But there is no "scale of 10" in the sense of an upper limit (as there is for intensity scales); indeed, I'm glad to see the press now referring to the "open-ended" Richter scale. What emerged, of course, was that the magnitude scale presupposed that all earthquakes were alike except for a constant scaling factor. neic.usgs.gov /neis/seismology/people/int_richter.html   (1855 words)

 [No title] Richter couldn't point to a building where the same method had been used before and he couldn't prove that the acoustics could be altered because he didn't run any scientific tests. Richter said he's not that particular about everything but he had to be about choosing the right shade of brick for the church addition. Richter's success can be attributed in part to his ability to infuse his work with idealism without losing touch with realities imposed by budgets and building codes. www.richterarchitects.com /pubdetails.asp?id=28   (1928 words)

 Page 19 -- Measuring Earthquakes Seismic Moment: Not actually a magnitude scale, seismic moment is an estimate of the energy of an earthquake, and as such, is typically given in units of Newton-meters (Nm). Moment Magnitude: The moment magnitude scale is a way of rating the seismic moment of an earthquake with a simple, logarithmic numerical scale similar to the original Richter magnitude scale. Surface-wave Magnitude: Surface-wave magnitude is calculated using the amplitude, on a long-period vertical seismometer, of surface waves with a 20-second period. www.data.scec.org /Module/sec3pg19.html   (545 words)

 Richter Scale, etc.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27) In 1935, Charles Richter was looking for a simple way to categorize earthquakes by the energy they release, rather than subjective descriptions of their impacts on human settlements. He decided on a scale that would emulate the stellar magnitude scale used by astronomers to measure the strength of stars. That's why a new magnitude scale was developed in the 1980's; the moment-magnitude scale relies on the lowest seismic frequencies, which are most sensitive to the scale of the earthquake-producing fault. amos.indiana.edu /library/scripts/richter.html   (251 words)

 lwf16 Richter defined seismic magnitude in terms of a particular type of recording device, called a Wood-Anderson seismograph, situated at a standard distance of 100 kilometers from an earthquake's epicenter. Richter appropriated from astronomy the idea of a logarithmic scale — based on powers of 10 — to accommodate the incredible range of earthquake sizes. It is true that the Richter magnitude scale is logarithmic, but this does not mean a magnitude 8 quake is 10 times stronger than a magnitude 7. geowords.com /e125/richter.htm   (1195 words)

 DMR - Brochure - EARTHQUAKES Magnitude is the most common method of describing the "size" of an earthquake. The magnitude of an earthquake is derived by measuring the amplitude of seismic waves on a seismogram. Magnitude scales are logarithmic which means that an increase of one unit for example from four to five, implies a 10-fold increase in ground displacement. www.mme.state.va.us /DMR/PUB/Brochures/quake.html   (1481 words)

 The Richter Scale - www.on-this-day.com The Richter magnitude scale was developed in 1935 by Charles F. Richter of the California Institute of Technology. On the Richter Scale, the magnitude of quake is expressed in whole numbers and decimal fractions. The Richter Scale is not used to express damage. www.on-this-day.com /onthisday/docs/assorted/richterscale.htm   (161 words)

 Richter magnitude scale: earthquakes: office of emergency management: departments: City of Fort Collins His method, known as the "Richter Magnitude Scale" uses a scientific logarithm to determine the magnitude of an earthquake by measuring the acceleration of the ground during a shock. However, the magnitude of the strongest quake ever recorded (Chili, 1960) was around 9.0 on Richter's Scale. The interesting thing about the Richter Scale is that for each incremental rating of one that an earthquake scores, its strength or energy is actually multiplied by a factor of 10. www.ci.fort-collins.co.us /oem/richter-scale.php   (279 words)

 The Richter Magnitude Scale The Richter magnitude scale was developed in 1935 by Charles F. Richter of the California Institute of Technology as a mathematical device to compare the size of earthquakes. The magnitude of an earthquake is determined from the logarithm of the amplitude of waves recorded by seismographs. Because of the logarithmic basis of the scale, each whole number increase in magnitude represents a tenfold increase in measured amplitude; as an estimate of energy, each whole number step in the magnitude scale corresponds to the release of about 31 times more energy than the amount associated with the preceding whole number value. earthquake.usgs.gov /learning/topics/richter.php   (627 words)

 Measurement   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27) Magnitude does not depend on population and effects to ground structures, but rather on wave amplitude and distance. This magnitude scale is logarithmic, meaning each step in magnitude is exponentially greater than the last. These magnitude scales differ by the type of wave amplitude that is measured from the seismogram and the mathematical formula used to determine the magnitude. scign.jpl.nasa.gov /learn/eq8.htm   (492 words)

 The Richter Scale   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-27) The Richter magnitude scale was orginally developed by Charles Richter and Beno Gutenberg to make more quantitative measures of the relative sizes of earthquakes in southern California. The Richter magnitude is related to the maximum amplitude of the S wave measured from the seismogram. Thus, a magnitude 7 (M 7) earthquake is 10 times as large as a magnitude 6 earthquake, and releases over 30 times more energy. www.thetech.org /exhibits_events/online/quakes/grams/richter.html   (99 words)

 How the Stellar Magnitude Scale Works The magnitude scale, by granting higher magnitudes to faint objects, is counterintuitive. On the Richter scale, a difference of "one" on the scale means a factor of ten in earthquake strength. The magnitude scale is unnecessarily complicated and awkward, but once you learn it, you have a valuable tool that turns all those strange numbers into meaningful information. www.noao.edu /outreach/nop/nophigh/steve6.html   (893 words)

 Richter Magnitude Scale for Measuring the Size of an Earthquakes California Institute of Technology, the scale was originally intended to be used only in a particular study area in California, and on seismograms recorded on a particular instrument, the stellar magnitude scale used in astronomy to describe the brightness of stars and other celestial objects. Japanese seismic intensity scale, are used to describe relative earthquake effects. www.edinformatics.com /inventions_inventors/richter_scale.htm   (752 words)

 Earthquakes & Man-Made Shocks | Measuring Earthquake Intensity The Richter scale of magnitude was created in 1935 by the American seismologist Charles F. Richter. Richter magnitudes increase logarithmically, which means that each level is ten times more powerful than the one before it. The Mercalli intensity scale was invented in 1902 by the Italian scientist Giuseppe Mercalli. www.seed.slb.com /en/scictr/watch/seismology/intensity.htm   (441 words)

 Earthquakes : The Richter Scale The strength of an earthquake is usually measured on one of two scales, the Modified Mercalli Scale and the Richter Scale. He took the existing Mercalli scale and tried to add a 'scientific' scale based on accurate measurements that could be recorded by seismographs (instruments used to measure vibration) regardless of their global location. The Richter scale for earthquake measurements is logarithmic. www.geography-site.co.uk /pages/physical/earth/richt.html   (700 words)

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