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Topic: Rio Protocol


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  The 1995 Peruvian-Ecuadorian border conflict
In accordance with the Rio protocol, the subsequent decision issued in 1945 by Brazilian arbitrator Braz Dias de Aguiar delimiting the area of the Cordillera del Condor, and the aerial photographic survey taken between 1943 and 1946 by the U.S. Air force, the eastern slopes of the Cordillera del Condor constitute Peruvian territory.
The protocol of Rio de Janeiro established the Peruvian-Ecuadorian boundary on the basis of the status quo line agreed to six years earlier, by both countries in 1936, which essentially recognized each country's effective territorial possession at the time.
The Rio protocol established the borders on the basis of the status quo line agreed by Peru and Ecuador in 1936, according to the effective territorial possession held by each country at the time.
abyayala.nativeweb.org /ecuador/border/border1.html   (3685 words)

  
 Nearctica - Conservation - International - Rio Conference 2
Protocols shall be adopted at a meeting of the Conference of the Parties.
The text of any proposed amendment to this Convention or to any protocol, except as may otherwise be provided in such protocol, shall be communicated to the Parties to the instrument in question by the secretariat at least six months before the meeting at which it is proposed for adoption.
The annexes to this Convention or to any protocol shall form an integral part of the Convention or of such protocol, as the case may be, and, unless expressly provided otherwise, a reference to this Convention or its protocols constitutes at the same time a reference to any annexes thereto.
www.nearctica.com /conserve/internat/riocon2.htm   (3203 words)

  
 RIO group interventions
The Rio Group believes that the commitments undertaken by the international community for the conservation and protection of the environment and for sustainable development at the 1992 Rio Conference and the subsequent review Conference in 1997 are still valid and pending implementation.
The Rio Group is aware of the threat which global climate change represents for present and future generations and recognizes the importance of careful regulation of the flexibility mechanisms that are part of the Kyoto Protocol.
The Rio Group also wishes to highlight the need to promote international co-operation in the area of capacity building which is essential for developing countries to the implementation of the Protocol.
www.un.int /colombia/english/discursos/RIOenvironmentsd200ct00.htm   (1239 words)

  
 [Rio Protocol] | [All the best Rio Protocol resources at karaoke.velocityincome.com]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
The convention of Rio, protocol of Montreal and its agreements subsequent, as well as the protocol of Kyoto are good examples of actions undertaken by the international community.
The Rio Protocol, short for Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Boundaries between Peru and Ecuador, was signed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on January 29, 1942 between the Foreign Ministers of Peru and Ecuador, and with the participation of the United States, Brazil, Chile, and Argentina as "guarantors" of the treaty.
During the early 1960s, the Ecuadorian Government took the position that the entire protocol was invalid due to the fact that it had been signed under coercion and with foreign troops stationed in Ecuadorian territory, a stance that was modified by subsequent Ecuadorian governments, but that was never officially reverted until 1995.
karaoke.velocityincome.com /Rio_Protocol   (681 words)

  
 RIO 500 Communication protocol
Almost all the requests sent to the RIO have request type set to 0xC0 which means that the data transfer direction is set to Device-to-Host, the Type is set to Vendor and the Recipient is set to Device (see ths USB specs, chapter 9 for an explenation of these terms).
The Rio 500 differs significantly from its predecessor (the Rio 300) in terms of its memory map.
The Rio 500 works differently: the device desides were data will be stored and tells the software where in memory the last written information was stored.
rio500.sourceforge.net /rio_protocol.html   (1251 words)

  
 Working Papers - David Rockefeller Center for Latin American Studies   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Although the Rio Protocol gave the guarantors the role of enforcing the demarcation spelled out by that treaty, one of the ways in which they could fulfil their guarantor role was to act as mediators in any controversy that might arise regarding the application of the treaty
Their institutional memory of the history of the conflict, inscribed in their documentation regarding the Rio Protocol, took it for granted that Ecuador had not been dispossessed of a significant amount of Amazonian territory and that the responsibility for the 1941 war was shared by Ecuador and Peru.
More to the point, the guarantors were fully convinced that the Rio Protocol was a valid treaty because it had been ratified by the congresses of the two countries.
drclas.fas.harvard.edu /working_papers/?entity_id=6   (12255 words)

  
 Rio Protocol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Rio Protocol, short for Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Boundaries between Peru and Ecuador, was signed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, on January 29, 1942 between the Foreign Ministers of Peru and Ecuador, and with the participation of the United States, Brazil, Chile, and Argentina as "guarantors" of the treaty.
It encouraged a settlement at a meeting of North and South American foreign ministers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in January of 1942.
During the early 1960s, the Ecuadorian Government took the position that the entire protocol was invalid due to the fact that it had been signed under coercion and with foreign troops stationed in Ecuadorian territory, a stance that was modified by subsequent Ecuadorian governments, but that was never officially reverted until 1995.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Rio_Protocol   (303 words)

  
 Kyoto Protocol - The Woods Hole Research Center
The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement forged in Kyoto Japan in December of 1997 that seeks to limit world greenhouse gas emissions to slow the progress of global warming.
At the Second Earth Summit in Rio, it was generally agreed that the responsibility falls upon the developed nations to lead the fight against climate change, as they are largely responsible for the current concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
At least 55 parties to the convention (from among 176 nations) were needed to ratify the Protocol and the ratifying countries had to account for more than 55% of 1990 greenhouse gas emissions in order for the Protocol to become international law.
www.whrc.org /resources/online_publications/warming_earth/kyoto.htm   (1646 words)

  
 Territorial Disputes and Their Resolution: Peaceworks: Publications: U.S. Institute of Peace
ARTICLE VI Ecuador shall enjoy, for purposes of navigation on the Amazon and its northern tributaries, the same concessions which Brazil and Colombia enjoy, in addition to those which may be agreed upon in a Treaty of Commerce and Navigation designed to facilitate free and untaxed navigation on the aforesaid rivers.
Any doubt or disagreement which may arise in the execution of this protocol shall be settled by the parties concerned, with the assistance of the representatives of the United States, Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, in the shortest possible time.
The Governments of Peru and Ecuador shall submit this protocol to their respective Congresses and the corresponding approval is to be obtained within a period of not more than 30 days.
www.usip.org /pubs/peaceworks/pwks27/appndx1_27.html   (788 words)

  
 Understanding Global Climate Change | Politics: Summary of Kyoto Protocol
Five years after the Rio Accord on global climate change, the Kyoto Protocol was approved to strengthen it.
Links the terms used in the Rio treaty to sections of the Convention and to the 1987 Montreal Protocol on ozone depletion.
Protocol shall be open for signatures and ratification between March 1998 and March 1999.
www.facsnet.org /issues/specials/gcc/references/politics/summ.php3   (890 words)

  
 PEACEKEEPING IN THE UPPER CENEPA VALLEY
The response by the Guarantor Nations of the 1942 Protocol of Rio de Janeiro -- Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and the United States -- facilitated a rapid cessation of hostilities, with the objective of creating conditions for serious negotiations towards a diplomatic solution to a complex and highly emotional problem of long standing.
The notable exceptions to this include the invocation of the Rio Treaty by the OAS on several occasions in the 1950s and 1960s in response Central American border disputes, and the U.S.-instigated occupation of the Dominican Republic in 1965.
As the Ecuadorians have long felt that the protocol cannot be executed in the area in question, clearly one party contends that the area is in dispute, which is sufficient for the point being made.
www.carlisle.army.mil /usamhi/usarsa/ACADEMIC/MOMEPNDU.HTM   (9026 words)

  
 PERECUAD Case
Despite Ecuadoran claims to the contrary, the area of confrontation is "recognized as Peruvian by the 1942 Rio Protocol, the 1945 arbitration decision, the 1947 U.S. Air Force aerial survey, and the documents issued after the 1981 border conflict." 2.
The terms of the agreement provide for "forty observes to be stationed in both countries to supervise the cease- fire, the separation of forces and the eventual demilitarization of the conflict zone." 3.
Legal Standing: TREATY The 1942 Rio de Janeiro Protocol, signed by the United States and Latin American countries was designed to solve the border dispute as well as "present a unified hemisphere against the Axis powers in World War II." III.
www.american.edu /TED/PERECUAD.HTM   (1303 words)

  
 Understanding Global Climate Change | Politics: Earth Summit at Rio
The 1992 Earth Summit resulted in an overwhelming endorsement of the belief that human actions are contributing to changes in the global climate.
Ministers and diplomats from 154 nations came together in Rio de Janeiro from June 3-14 to call for international cooperation to reverse this trend.
The purpose of Kyoto would be to expand the scope of the Rio treaty by making voluntary emissions reductions mandatory.
www.facsnet.org /issues/specials/gcc/politics/earth.php3   (748 words)

  
 Climate change - international initiatives
Signed at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in June 1992 by over 150 nations including the United States of America, the Rio Climate Treaty came into force in March 1994 and has been ratified or acceded to by virtually every nation including all populous countries except Turkey.
By the mid-1990s it had become clear that the essentially voluntary measures of the Rio Treaty were not arresting an upward emissions trend in most of the industrialized world and this caused parties to the Rio Climate Treaty to look toward an emissions protocol with binding limitations on developed country parties.
To come into force the protocol required ratification or accession to it by 55 nations and ratification or accession to it by developed countries whose aggregate 1990 greenhouse emissions amounted to 55% of total developed country 1990 greenhouse emissions.
www.climate.org /topics/intaction/index.shtml   (1329 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Working within the Rio Protocol The first is the ability to conduct negotiations within the parameters of the Rio Protocol after January 1995.
The Protocol was a legitimate treaty under international law, after all, as it had been negotiated, signed, and duly ratified by the parties.
This device was inserted into the Rio Protocol as a vehicle by which the outside Afriendly@ countries could assist the parties to lay out and mark the boundary and could help work out any doubt or disagreement that might arise in the execution of the protocol.
www.bu.edu /ihi/site_links/ihi_event/download/ihip_e.doc   (5991 words)

  
 A Rio Blog : Weblog   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
For example, the rio group name is defined in reggie.config, cybernode.config, monitor.config and in the operational strings.
Rio was also fortunate to be open-sourced in the Jini community and nurtured.
I believe that Project Rio has the potential to become a truly successful open source project (more so than it already is) and has the opportunity to make a mark in the distributed computing arena.
jroller.com /page/rioblog   (5461 words)

  
 Territorial Problem between Ecuador and Peru
The Protocol of Rio de Janeiro, dated January 29, 1942, signed between Ecuador and Per# under circumstances in which Ecuadorian territory and sovereignty were subject to armed coercion, suffers from a basic geographic error because of the inexistence of one of the features which should serve as a boundary line.
In paragraph 1, clause B of this article, it is established that the boundary shall follow along "San Francisco creek, the 'divortium aquarum' between the Zamora river and the Santiago river, to the confluence of the Santiago river with the Yaupi".
Consequently the Protocol of Rio de Janeiro, whatever may have been its legal standing, did not establish a boundary line between San Francisco creek and the headwaters of the Coangos river, due to the inexistence of the geographic feature it provided for as a line in that sector.
ecuador.nativeweb.org /border/border2.html   (1676 words)

  
 i/oZONE Op-Ed: RapidIO Releases Flow Control Extensions for Data Plane Applications
The release of their new flow control spec is particularly good news for me because it will allow RIO to move beyond its original mission of providing intelligent from chip-to-chip connections, and enable it to support board-to-board and system interconnect functions as well.
RIO started as a technology-agnostic next-gen processor interconnect, mostly for control plane applications, but has evolved into a more general-purpose means of data transport as several manufacturers decided to migrate the technology to absorb or replace their proprietary mechanisms.
When RIO was solely for control plane, its focus was on performing relatively simple load/store and messaging functions with low latency and high transfer rates.
www.analogzone.com /ioop1006.htm   (1361 words)

  
 NotiSur - Latin American Political Affairs; May 19, 1995
The Rio Protocol ended a 1941 war between Peru and Ecuador, but Ecuador claims that its stipulations regarding the unmarked 78-km border section are not enforceable because they were based on erroneous geographic knowledge at the time.
For Peru, a lasting solution to the conflict means defining the disputed section of border according to the Rio Protocol, while for Ecuador what is needed is a comprehensive discussion of the territorial dispute, including renegotiating sovereign access to the Amazon River, which it lost in the aftermath of the 1941 war.
Rios Montt attempted to run for the presidency in 1990 but was blocked by a Constitutional Court ruling invoking the Article 186 prohibition.
ssdc.ucsd.edu /news/notisur/h95/notisur.19950519.html   (3904 words)

  
 Rio Receiver Protocol | DASNET
The Rio handles the "Select Music" menu items for Artist, Album, Genre, and Tracks in the same fashion.
When the user selects "Play All Music" for any given Artist, Album, or Genre, the Rio simply repeats the original results query with _extended=2, and plays the songs that are listed there.
When the Rio requests tag information for a specific file (like "tags/3a1"), it returns a binary response with tag information packed in.
www.dasnet.org /node/69   (1706 words)

  
 Ecuador Travel Guide - History
The U.S. had recently entered World War II and was mainly concerned with presenting a united front of the Americas, so peace was dictated more by the outcome of the 1941 war than by negotiations.
The failure of the Río Protocol to establish a precise boundary has made the assistance of the Guarantor Countries imperative through the years.
The Presidents of Brazil, Argentina and Chile -the Guarantor countries of the Protocol of Río de Janeiro with the United States of America-, the King of Spain, the Presidents of Bolivia, Colombia and Venezuela and U.S. Special Envoy Thomas Mack McLarty were in attendance.
www.ecuador-travel-guide.org /art&culture/History.htm   (3693 words)

  
 Ecuador Reform, Chaos, and Debacle, 1925-44 - Flags, Maps, Economy, Geography, Climate, Natural Resources, Current ...
Under the terms of the Rio Protocol, the informal name of the agreement, Ecuador renounced its claim to some 200,000 square kilometers of territory.
Shortly afterward, the Rio Protocol was ratified by a bare plurality of the Ecuadorian legislature (see fig.
The protocol became the focus of a surge of Ecuadorian national pride and concomitant opposition to Arroyo in a new coalition--the Democratic Alliance.
workmall.com /wfb2001/ecuador/ecuador_history_reform_chaos_and_debacle_1925_44.html   (1220 words)

  
 Rio Tinto| Minerals and Metals for the world | 2005 Sustainable Development Review |
Rio Tinto's emissions and the WRI/WBCSD Greenhouse Gas Protocol
On site emissions that Rio Tinto can exert direct management control over, such as emissions from fuel use, on site electricity generation, anode and reductant use, process emissions, land management and livestock (scope one);
Total emissions, which are on site emissions (scope one) plus emissions associated with purchased electricity and steam (scope two).
www.riotinto.com /SustainableReview/Environment/results/gas/Protocol.aspx   (287 words)

  
 First Kyoto Protocol Emission Credits Generated by Honduras
The Rio Blanco hydro project in Honduras will provide electricity for the municipality of San Francisco de Yojoa and the remainder will be distributed to the rest of the country.
Zumkeller is acting coordinator of the Cooperative Mechanisms Program for the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, the international treaty under which the Kyoto Protocol was agreed by 35 industrialized countries.
The protocol requires that the signatory nations reduce their emission of greenhouse gases by an average of 5.2 percent during the 2008 to 2012 time period.
www.ens-newswire.com /ens/oct2005/2005-10-20-01.asp   (1030 words)

  
 PROTOCOL OF AMENDMENT TO THE INTER-AMERICAN TREATY OF RECIPROCAL ASSISTANCE (RIO TREATY)
Bolivia: (Declaration made at the time of signature) Bolivia signs this Protocol of Amendment to the Inter- American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance without reservation in the conviction that this Protocol updates and improves the stipulations of the original instrument in the light of the changed circumstances.
The Delegation of Paraguay therefore considers that since the decisions or recommendations of the Organ of Consultation must be adopted by a two-thirds vote of the States Parties, a two-thirds vote of those States must also be required to rescind them.
Mexico: (Declaration made at the time of ratification) The Government of Mexico continues to consider that, except in case of self-defense, the collective measures to which Article 8 refers cannot be applied in mandatory form, given their coercive nature, without authorization by the Security Council of the United Nations.
www.oas.org /juridico/english/sigs/b-29(1).html   (858 words)

  
 Rio Receiver Hacking | DASNET
The Rio Receiver is a consumer-electronics device that sort of bridges the gap between computer-geeks and "normal" music lovers.
In the near future, I'll try to better document all the bits and pieces of its protocol, most of which is only documented as a matter of comments in the source files for the various aforementioned server projects.
For now, however, I've finally (as of December 29, 2001) broken most of the format of the layout files, and can describe here exactly how those are configured.
www.dasnet.org /node/68   (365 words)

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