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Topic: Rocket propulsion

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  Rocket - MSN Encarta
Rockets are very powerful, but it is often more efficient to use several rockets, rather than a single rocket, to move an object to the desired place.
Chemical rockets use chemicals, in solid or liquid form, for fuel and oxidizer, or the chemical that contains the oxygen needed to burn the fuel (together, the fuel and oxidizer are called the propellant).
The huge solid rocket boosters of the space shuttle are put together in sections and are capable of about 13 million N (about 3 million lb) of thrust.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761577900_3/Rocket.html   (2282 words)

The physics of rocket propulsion dictates that large amounts of fuel must be burned in relatively short periods of time to avoid the energy expenditure of carrying unburned fuel too high.
Rocket motors vary considerably in type and design but generally it may be said that they all have at least three components.
The thrust of a rocket is generated, as we saw earlier, by the difference in pressure between the exhausted gas and the ambient, but much more importantly, by the high speed exit of the combustion bases.
www.csulb.edu /colleges/coe/ae/engr370i/ch05/ch4.html   (1108 words)

 Rocket Thrust Equation and Launch Vehicles
Although gravity has nothing whatever to do with the rocket propulsion chemistry, it has entered into the definition of specific impulse because in past engineering practice mass was expressed in terms of the corresponding weight on the surface of the earth.
As the altitude of the rocket increases along its trajectory, the surrounding atmospheric pressure decreases and the thrust increases because of the increase in pressure thrust.
By the rocket equation, assuming a specific impulse of 300 seconds, the fraction of the separated mass consumed by the propellant for the apogee maneuver is 46 percent from Cape Canaveral, 40 percent from Kourou, and 39 percent from the equator.
www.aticourses.com /rocket_tutorial.htm   (3798 words)

 Rocket Propulsion
The thrust force of a rocket motor is the reaction experienced by the motor structure due to ejection of the high velocity matter.
Thrust is the force that propels a rocket or spacecraft and is measured in pounds, kilograms or Newtons.
The rocket and fuel have a total mass M and the combination is moving with velocity v as seen from a particular frame of reference.
www.braeunig.us /space/propuls.htm   (4923 words)

 POWERLABS's Rocket Propulsion Page!
Also, my research with solid rocket fuels has reached the point where I would now be able to produce my own high performance rocket with a fair degree of certainty that it would work.
It made a beautiful rocket flame and an awful lot of noise, but when I really throttled it up the pressure inside the combustion chamber became so high that it pumped the fuel back along the fuel line and the engine started running roughly...
Rocket engines operate at very high pressures and can cause great damage if they are to explode.
www.powerlabs.org /rockets.html   (2228 words)

 Rocket Propulsion Test Complex-- Aviation: From Sand Dunes to Sonic Booms: A National Register of Historic Places ...
Rocket Propulsion Test Complex-In the foreground is the center's largest Test Stand the B-1, along with the A-2 and A-1 stands in the distance
The Rocket Propulsion Test Complex, or the National Space Technology Laboratories, was established in the early 1960s as the national rocket test range for large rocket propulsion systems.
The Saturn V rocket was one of the most reliable rockets ever built for the space program and was crucial to the effort to land a man on the moon.
www.cr.nps.gov /nr/travel/aviation/roc.htm   (813 words)

 Rocket Propulsion
Different propulsion systems develop thrust in different ways, but all thrust is generated through some application of Newton's third law of motion.
In a rocket engine, fuel and a source of oxygen, called an oxidizer, are mixed and exploded in a combustion chamber.
In a liquid rocket, the propellants, the fuel and the oxidizer, are stored separately as liquids and are pumped into the combustion chamber of the nozzle where burning occurs.
www.grc.nasa.gov /WWW/K-12/airplane/rocket.html   (570 words)

 AFRL Propulsion Directorate-Edwards Research Site   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
In 1959, the decision was made to relocate the rocket propulsion research and development personnel of the Power Plant Laboratory at Dayton, Ohio, to the Edwards facilities.
In mid-1959, the Directorate of Rocket Propulsion was joined by a group of scientists and engineers from the Rocket Branch of the Propulsion Laboratory at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio.
Large segmented solid rocket booster research and testing and the lab facilities insured that the industrial and technological basis for development of future large launch vehicles would be maintained.
www.pr.afrl.af.mil /history/Edwards   (1866 words)

 Rocket Propulsion, Newton's second law
Because of actio=reactio the rocket experiences a change in momentum equal in size but opposite in direction to that of the hot gases ejected from the engine.
Rocket propulsion is simply a collision process run in reverse.
is the velocity of the gases relative to the rocket.
www.physicsforums.com /showthread.php?t=32529   (1162 words)

 World Almanac for Kids
When a spacecraft fires a rocket blast in one direction, reaction against the rocket exhaust imparts momentum to the spacecraft in the opposite direction.
Despite the scientific foundations laid in earlier ages, however, space travel did not become possible until the advances of the 20th century provided the actual means of rocket propulsion, guidance, and control for space vehicles.
During the same general period, studies on spaceships and rocket propulsion were being conducted in several parts of the world.
www.worldalmanacforkids.com /explore/space/spaceexplore.html   (1800 words)

 Rocket Propulsion   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
a rocket carries both the fuel and the oxygen to burn it.
is the force, or "push" the rocket develops, measured in newtons or pounds (or tons for very big rockets).
However, once a solid rocket is ignited it cannot be shut down until all the propellant has been burned.
my.execpc.com /~culp/space/propulsn.html   (337 words)

 Rocket Principles
This formulation of the force relationship permits varying mass, as in rocket propulsion.
Rocket thrust results from the high speed ejection of material and does not require any medium to "push against".
Developing the expression for rocket thrust involves the application of conservation of momentum in an accelerating reference frame.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/rocket.html   (253 words)

 The Past and Future of Rocket Engine Propulsion
However, the notion of using rocket propulsion for space travel did not emerge until the early twentieth century.
He spent most of the next 20 years experimenting with gasoline/liquid-oxygen propelled rockets and devoted much of this time to developing rocket thrust chambers and turbopumps to transfer propellant from the tanks to the rocket chamber.
This society demonstrated the use of rocket propulsion to propel cars, sleds and airplanes and, through 1934, experimented with liquid rocket propellants such as gasoline and liquid oxygen.
www.fathom.com /course/21701743/session1.html   (1834 words)

 Rocket Propulsion   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
In the United States, Robert Goddard, a physics professor at Clark College, was the leading pioneer in rocket propulsion.
The Germans, who manufactured a luquid-propellant rocket that was utilized in the bombardment of London called the V-2, were most successful.
Since the technology to assemble space-launch vehicles is similar to that of a long-range ballistic missiles, the USSR and the United States were the only countries from 1957 to 1965 that had the capability to launch satellites.
library.thinkquest.org /19498/rockets.html   (428 words)

 Spacecraft propulsion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Spacecraft propulsion is used to change the velocity of spacecraft and artificial satellites.
All current spacecraft use chemical rockets (bipropellant or solid-fuel) for launch, though some (such as the Pegasus rocket and SpaceShipOne) have used air-breathing engines on their first stage.
Normal rocket launch vehicles fly almost vertically before rolling over at an altitude of some tens of kilometers before burning sideways for orbit; this initial vertical climb wastes propellant but is optimal as it hugely reduces airdrag.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Rocket_propulsion   (4185 words)

 Rocket propulsion engineering and analysis.
The expertise of Ottobrunn's rocket propulsion team is applied to the engineering, design, analysis and performance prediction of liquid propellant rocket engines and combustion chambers.
Rocket engine test analysis of injection head and ignition, combustion chamber efficiency and cooling.
The code also enables an assessment of the impact of transpiration cooling and combustion chamber cracks on the performance of rocket engines and the prediction of solid particle acceleration in kinetically compacted cold gas injection nozzles as used for the Vulcain 2 and VINCI developments.
cs.space.eads.net /sp/Analytical_Engineering/Rocket_Propulsion.htm   (542 words)

 AFRL Propulsion Directorate-Edwards Research Site
A nationwide initiative to improve and double the broad spectrum of the nation's rocket propulsion technology capability by 2010 is currently underway.
In 1995, the results of their study and planning provided a national master technology plan that outlined realistic propulsion goals and issued guidance for the plan's next 15 years and projected $1.8 billion cumulative budget.
The IHPRPT goals have established the propulsion performance, reliability,and cost-saving improvements to be demonstrated and validated at five-year increments.
www.pr.afrl.af.mil /technology/IHPRPT/ihprpt.html   (239 words)

 NASA - Dr. Robert H. Goddard: American Rocket Pioneer
The father of modern rocket propulsion is the American, Dr. Robert Hutchings Goddard.
Indeed, the flight of Goddard's rocket on March 16,1926, at Auburn, Massachusetts, was a feat as epochal in history as that of the Wright brothers at Kitty Hawk.
Yet, it was one of Goddard's "firsts" in the now booming significance of rocket propulsion in the fields of military missilery and the scientific exploration of space.
www.nasa.gov /centers/goddard/about/dr_goddard.html   (2149 words)

 Rockets and Space Transportation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
When a rocket flies from one planet to another, it typically fires a rocket engine to depart one planet, and perhaps fires another rocket engine to stop at the destination, but it can coast in between.
The rocket's equivalent of the automobile's distance is the Delta-V, typically measured in meters per second (m/s) or kilometers per second (km/s).
The oldest types of rockets are chemical rockets, in which two or more chemicals mix together, producing a chemical reaction.
www.pma.caltech.edu /~chirata/deltav.html   (1781 words)

 The Past and Future of Rocket Engine Propulsion
V for propulsion exhaust velocities of 4.5 and 41 km/s.
While chemical propulsion systems have thrust-to-weight ratios that often exceed unity (indeed this is needed to get a vehicle off the ground from a vertical launch position), EP systems are expected to havethrust-to-weight values thousands of times smaller than this.
Besides ion propulsion, researchers began conceptualizing systems that use electric arcs to heat gases to high temperature and thus provide thrust by expanding and accelerating the hot gases through a nozzle (as is the case of a chemical rocket), and that use electromagnetic forces to accelerate a highly ionized gas (plasma).
www.fathom.com /course/21701743/session3.html   (2617 words)

 ATI's Rocket Propulsion 101 course
This three-day course is based on the popular text Rocket Propulsion Elements by Sutton and Biblarz.
The objective is to give the engineer or manager the tools needed to understand the available choices in rocket propulsion and/or to manage technical experts with greater in-depth knowledge of rocket systems.
He is an independent consultant, writer and teacher of rocket system technology, experienced in launch vehicle operations, design, testing, business analysis, risk reduction, modeling, safety and reliability.
www.aticourses.com /rocket_propulsion.htm   (629 words)

 Wickman Spacecraft & Propulsion Co., CP Technologies and The Rocket Camp   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
It publishes an award winning bookset entitled How to Make Amateur Rockets that is being sold to amateurs, junior high schools, high schools, universities, government agencies and contractors in the United States and around the world.
The instructor will be John Wickman, a professional aerospace engineer and internationally known in the field of rocket propulsion.
Rocket launches are held on a monthly basis, Spring through Fall, with commercial (certified and uncertified) and experimental/homemade motors permitted at all launches.
www.space-rockets.com   (1404 words)

 Antimatter and Fusion for rocket propulsion
At its most basic level, an antimatter rocket is still a Newtonian rocket moving a space probe through action and reaction.
While true antimatter and true fusion propulsion will remain the "rockets of the future" for some time, a hybrid of the two might work in the near term.
Like all other forms of rocket propulsion, it's a sort of battery in which energy is expended to provide a large quantity in a tiny space, available on demand.
science.nasa.gov /newhome/headlines/prop12apr99_1.htm   (2162 words)

 Rocket Science Books: Rocket Propellant Thermochemistry and Combustion
This collection of hard-to-find propulsion information was selected from the huge International Series of Monographs on Aeronautical Sciences and Controlled Flight, which comprises many volumes of esoteric research information done during the 1940s and 50s.
Penner was Professor of Jet Propulsion at the Daniel and Florence Guggenheim Jet Propulsion Center (better known as GALCIT, and later to become the Jet Propulsion Lab--JPL), California Institute of Technology, in Pasadena, California.
The Rocket Science Institute is a non-profit scientific and educational foundation in support of "amateur" experimental rocket science, engineering, and technology.
rocketsciencebooks.home.att.net /combustion.html   (625 words)

 Rocket Propulsion - Teacher
After reading an explanation from a NASA Web-based textbook, you will demonstrate an understanding of the text by completing an activity on propulsion in which you will graph data and interpret the results.
Beginner's Guide to Rockets is a "textbook" of information prepared at NASA Glenn Research Center to help you better understand rockets and rocket propulsion.
Then using the background information given at Rocket Propulsion Activity, complete the activity designed to demonstrate your ability: (1) to complete calculations involving rocket propulsion and (2) to graph the results.
exploration.grc.nasa.gov /education/rocket/Lessons/propulsionS_tch.html   (303 words)

 NUCLEAR ROCKET PROPULSION - THE 1960S - Nuclear Thermal Propulsion
Together with the $328 million spent on technology development, $90 million spent on the Nuclear Rocket Development Station in Nevada, and $153 million on other test facilities, almost $1.4 billion (in then-year dollars) was spent on nuclear rocket development from 1955 to 1972.
The initial series of nuclear rocket tests was conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory, under the KIWI program, which eventually cost $177 million (in then year dollars).
The first nuclear rocket test, conducted in July 1959, used uncoated UO plates as fuel elements.
www.fas.org /nuke/space/c04rover.htm   (2265 words)

 E.R.P.S.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
We're experimenting with and developing new rocket engines using high density propellents that are storable at room temperature and that will allow us to demonstrate simplicity of operation and cost advantages for single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicles.
Most H2O2 rockets have used silver screens, which limit you to 85% concentrations because the heat generated becomes higher than the melting point of silver, thereby removing your catalyst and rendering your engine useless.
It will also be the first vehicle to test aerospike/airflow interactions at Max Q (the point of highest dynamic pressure), rocket engine restart in the atmosphere, base-first powered reentry and reusable sounding rocket operations and cost efficiency.
www.erps.org   (1312 words)

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