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Topic: Roman and Byzantine Greece

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  Third Wave Travel - Discover Greek History - The Byzantine Empire   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
In the 4th century A.D Constantine became sole emperor of the Roman Empire and established a new Christian capital for the Empire on the site of the Greek city of Byzantium on the Bosporos and it soon became known as Constantinople, the city of Constantine.
Byzantine art and architecture, from its development in Late Antiquity until the fifteenth century was focused on the interpretation of Christianity.
Byzantine church walls were decorated with mosaics or frescoes and portable pictures known as icons.
www.thirdwavetravel.com /2a5.htm   (333 words)

  Roman and Byzantine Greece - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Greece and the empire as a whole faced a new threat from the Normans of Sicily in the late 11th century.
Greece was relatively peaceful and prosperous in the 11th and 12th centuries, compared to Anatolia which was being overrun by the Seljuks.
Greece was mostly used as a battleground during the civil war between John V Palaeologus and John VI Cantacuzenus in the 1340s, and at the same time the Serbs and Ottomans began attacking Greece as well.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/History_of_Byzantine_Greece   (2007 words)

 The Roman Army
All in all the Roman army consisted of 18 centuries of equites, 82 centuries of the first class (of which 2 centuries were engineers), 20 centuries each of the second, third and fourth classes and 32 centuries of the fifth class (of which 2 centuries were trumpeters).
If the Roman army had throughout most of the third and fourth century been undergoing a transition, gradually increasing the number of cavalry, then the end of this period of gradual change was brought about by a dreadful disaster.
Roman society was governed by class and so in effect there was three separate army careers possible, that of the common soldier in the ranks, that of the equestrians and that for those destined for command, the senatorial class.
www.roman-empire.net /army/army.html   (13499 words)

 NTU Info Centre: Ancient Greece   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The period from 1600 to about 1100 is described in History of Mycenaean Greece known for the reign of King Agamemnon and the wars against Troy as narrated in the epics of Homer.
Greece was divided into many small self-governing communities, a pattern dictated by Greek geography, where every island, valley and plain is cut off from its neighbours by the sea or mountain ranges.
As Greece recovered economically, its population grew beyond the capacity of its limited arable land, and from about 750 BC the Greeks began 250 years of expansion, settling colonies in all directions.
www.nowtryus.com /article:Ancient_Greece   (3057 words)

 History of Ottoman Greece at opensource encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire from the 14th century until its declaration of independence in 1821.
Greece was only peripherally involved in the Napoleonic Wars, but one episode had important consequences.
Greece under Ottoman rule, 1453-1831 (from Greece, history of) Arnold Toynbee, The Greeks and Their Heritages (1981), is a stimulating survey of the whole range of Greek history from prehistoric times to the present day.
www.springknow.com /History_of_Ottoman_Greece.html   (2078 words)

 Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc.
Decius and Herennius were killed in battle by the Goths in 251 -- the only Roman Emperors to die in battle (against external enemies) besides Julian (against the Persians, 363), Valens (against the Goths again, 378), Nicephorus I (against the Bulgars, 811), and Constantine XI (with the fall of Constantinople to the Turks, 1453).
This was the end of Roman Gaul, 541 years after Caesar had completed its conquest in 56 BC -- or perhaps 531 years since the defeat, capture, and death of the rebel Vercingetorix in 46 BC.
Also noteworthy as a benchmark for the beginning of Byzantine history in the time of the Leonines is the apparent disappearance of the traditional Roman tria nomina, the three names of praenômen, nômen, and cognômen, which have been given with previous Emperors.
www.friesian.com /romania.htm   (14460 words)

 Hellenic_civilization   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Marble statuette from the Cycladic islands, 3000 BC The Greeks are believed to have migrated southward into the Greek peninsula in several waves beginning in the late 3rd millennium BC, the last being the Dorian invasion.
The period from 1600 BC to about 1100 BC is described in History of Mycenaean Greece known for the reign of King Agamemnon and the wars against Troy as narrated in the epics of Homer.
The history of Ancient Greece is taken to end with the reign of Alexander the Great, who died in 323 BC.
www.comicscomics.com /search.php?title=Hellenic_civilization   (3166 words)

 European Court "Canea" Decision Against Greece
The Roman Catholic Church of the Virgin Mary (Tis Panagias) in Canea is the cathedral of the Roman Catholic diocese of Crete.
Furthermore, the Church of Greece's personality in public law stemmed from the close and very old relations between it and the State, the overwhelming majority of whose citizens were of the Orthodox faith.
As to the personality in public law of Greece's Jewish community, this was explained by the fact that the community was not only a religious organisation but also a union of persons who managed their own affairs and had a number of features in common, including their religion.
www.cesnur.org /testi/Greece.htm   (5110 words)

 Greece History: the Roman period: Information on the history in Greece during the Roman period
At the same time, Greece was threatened from the East by Persians, Parthians, and Bactrians and, by the West by the Romans who started expanding their power in the South of Italy and started getting in competition with the Greek colonies, especially Tarentum (Taranto) and Syracuse.
Greece under the Roman Empire, from 31 B.C. to 180 AD is described as the era of the Pax Romana, a Roman Peace between Rome and the central areas of the Empire like Greece and the Greek East.
The Roman welcomed the Greek culture and Latin and Greek became the dominant languages of the Empire.
www.greeka.com /greece-roman-period.htm   (323 words)

 The Empire   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
This covers the various phases of the Roman Empire: the original, the Western, the Eastern (Byzantine), and the Holy Roman Empire.
The Magister Militum was the supreme military commander of the Western Roman Empire from the late 300's onward.
Aëtius was the son of a Roman mother and a Scythian father.
www.hostkingdom.net /empire.html   (1704 words)

 Roman and Byzantine Theatre and Drama
The first Roman performance occurred in Rome around 364 B.C. The Romans have been known for using other cultures and practices and improving on them, and the same can be said of their approach to the theatre.
Romans borrowed Greek and Etruscan methods in their own theatre, but made them distinctly Roman by improving and modifying those methods.
The Romans also had what was called naumachiae or sea battles in which lakes were dug or amphitheatres like the Colosseum were flooded for the occasion.
www.cwu.edu /~robinsos/ppages/resources/Theatre_History/Theahis_3.html   (440 words)

 Medieval Sourcebook: Byzantium
The history of the Roman Empire 976-1078 by one of the liveliest writers of the middle ages.
The account of her father, the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I, by Princess Anna Comnena is perhaps the most important historical work by a woman writer written before the modern period.
This Life of seventh-century saint is a major source for Byzantine rural and social history, as well as about the cult of saints.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/sbook1c.html   (3403 words)

 Greece - Destination Guide - Hotel Near   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Romans, Arabs, Latin Crusaders, Venetians, Slavs, Albanians, Turks, Italians, not to mention the Byzantine Empire, have been and gone since the time of Alexander the Great.
All have left their mark: the Byzantines in countless churches and monasteries; the Venetians in impregnable fortifications in the Peloponnese; and other Latin powers, such as the Knights of Saint John and the Genoese, in imposing castles across the northeastern Aegean.
And despite recent improvements to the tourism "product", Greece is still essentially a land for adaptable sybarites, not for those who crave orthopedic mattresses, faultless plumbing, Cordon-Bleu cuisine and attentive service.
www.hotelnear.com /2445/Greece.html   (507 words)

 Travel Guide - Greece @ Cheap Travel Deals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Modern Greece is the result of extraordinarily diverse influences.
During the last few decades much of this has disappeared under the impact of Western consumer values, relegated to museums at best, but recently the country's architectural and musical heritage in particular have undergone a renaissance, with buildings rescued from dereliction and performers reviving, to varying degrees, half-forgotten musical traditions.
Greece hosts some excellent summer festivals too, bringing international theatre, dance and musical groups to perform in ancient theatres, as well as castle courtyards and more contemporary venues in coastal and island resorts.
www.femalefirst.co.uk /travel/1422004.htm   (770 words)

 Rough Guides Travel   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Outside the public sector, the meticulousness of Greek craftworkers is legendary, even if their values and skills took a back seat to the demands of crisis and profiteering when the evacuation of Asia Minor and the rapid 1950s depopulation of rural villages prompted the graceless urbanization of Athens and other cities.
Although senior clerics have recently depleted a huge reservoir of respect with regressive stances on a number of issues, even the most worldly young Greeks, who never otherwise set foot in a church, are still likely to be married, buried and have their children baptized with Orthodox rites.
Sprawling, polluted Athens is an obligatory, almost unavoidable introduction to Greece: home to over a third of the population, on first acquaintance a nightmare for many, but also, as Greeks themselves often joke, to megálo horió — the largest “village” in the country.
www.roughguides.com /store/details.html?ProductID=65   (2040 words)

 Greece history. Bronze, Minoan, Mycenaean, archaic, Hellenistic, roman, Byzantine & ottoman periods.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Period between the conquest of the Persian Empire by Alexander the Great and the establishment of Roman supremacy, in which Greek culture and learning were pre-eminent in the Mediterranean and Asia Minor.
It is called Hellenistic (Greek, Hellas, "Greece") to distinguish it from the Hellenic culture of classical Greece.
There was a close relationship between the emperor and the church, and it was during the Byzantine period that many standards were set for the Orthodox Church.
www.hellasholidayguide.com /greece_history.htm   (1069 words)

 Byzantium: The Byzantine Studies Page
It was, without any doubt, the continuation of the Roman state, and until the seventh century, preserved the basic structures of Late Roman Mediterranean civic culture: - a large multi-ethnic Christian state, based on a network of urban centers, and defended by a mobile specialized army.
The classic periods of ancient cultures [the fifth and fourth centuries BCE in Greece and the late republican/early imperial period in Rome] have long appealed to modern Western sensibilities because - as times of rapid change and innovation in art and literature - echoes and origins of the present have been seen there.
The counterpart to the dismissal of Byzantine culture was its exaltation by 19th-century Romanticism, and by a substrate of Christian, especially Anglican, intellectuals.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/byzantium   (1791 words)

 The History of Crete, Greece (Kriti, Hellas) - Roman Era, Byzantine Age, Venetian and Early Ottoman Period   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
As the Roman Empire disintegrated and the Byzantines grew in power the newly-named city of Constantinople (latterly Byzantium) became the capital of the Eastern Empire.
In 824 both Crete and Sicily were lost to the Byzantines and taken by the Arabs who used the island ports as bases for their piratical activities.
The Roman form of Christianity became the official religion in place of the old eastern orthodoxy, towns were given new names and many new buildings appeared.
www.makeitcrete.com /publish/articles/05/05/history3.html   (592 words)

 Byzantine Empire - Nicophorus and Leo - History for Kids!
After the Empress Irene was deposed in 802 AD, Nicephorus, the leader of the revolt against her, made himself emperor.
On the other hand, he fought successfully for Greece against the Slavs and Bulgars, and negotiated with Charlemagne to recognize his claim to the Imperial throne.
He managed to complete the treaty with Charlemagne, and so Charlemagne was officially recognized as a Roman Emperor.
www.historyforkids.org /learn/medieval/history/byzantine/leo.htm   (669 words)

 Medieval Sourcebook: Introduction
Devoted to Ancient, Medieval and Byzantine hagiographical sources.
Although initially the similarity of the contents of a book like Tierney's The Middle Ages and the collections of ninety years ago was striking, this is no longer the case.
Neither book provides much material on Byzantine and Islamic cultures, and in both women's history is underrepresented and more recent studies of gender and sexuality avoided.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/sbook.html   (2650 words)

 Archaeology Resources for Roman villas in Palestine, Sumaqa Roman village, Byzantine landscapes, Gertrude Bell and her ...
Rossiter J J 1989 "Roman villas of the Greek east and the villa of Gregory of Nyssa Ep.20" Journal of Roman Archaeology, 2.
For a Roman, the critical age was forty days of age, and for them the thought of infants up to the age of three or four being immolated in order to curry favour with deities in religious pacts was anathema.
First, the Romans tell us that it took place, and their contentions are at least partly supported by the discovery of the tophet - the tophet is the kind of thing that we expect to find if we were looking for confirmation of the Romans' observations about the Phoenicians.
www.btinternet.com /~eleanor.scott   (17637 words)

 History of Greece - Biocrawler definition:History of Greece - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
As parts of the Byzantine Empire, these areas and others were part of the Greek world for many centuries.
By the 15th century, however, nearly all the Greeks were living under the rule of the Ottoman Empire.
It was only in the 19th and 20th century, with the establishment of a Greek state and the expulsion of the Greeks from Turkey in the 1920s, that these two histories have been reunited within one territory.
www.biocrawler.com /biowiki/History_of_Greece   (310 words)

 Wooster in Greece   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Through visits to major prehistoric and historic sites, this course explores the Cycladic, Minoan, and Mycenaean civilizations; archaic and classical Greece; Hellenistic and Roman Greece; Byzantine Greece; and the Ottoman Empire.
To observe first-hand the monuments of Greece and Turkey and understand them in their chronological and historical context.
To understand certain fundamental problems of interpretation that archaeologists and ancient historians confront as they attempt to reconstruct the lost world of ancient Greece.
www.wooster.edu /programinwriting/greece380syllabus.html   (317 words)

 AllRefer Encyclopedia - Ancient History, Late Roman And Byzantine, Biographies Encyclopedia
AllRefer Encyclopedia - Ancient History, Late Roman And Byzantine, Biographies Encyclopedia
Ancient History, Late Roman And Byzantine, Biographies Articles
• Eutropius, consul of East Roman Emperor Arcadius
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/categories/ahistlatrombio.html   (109 words)

 The Rough Guide to Greece - 10th edition: Current Amazon U.S.A. One-Edition Data   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
In October you might hit a stormy spell, especially in western Greece or in the mountains, but for most of that month the "summer of yios Dhim'trios" (the Greek equivalent of Indian summer) prevails, and the southerly Dodecanese and Crete are extremely pleasant.
Absolutely the only book for Greece if you (a) like good food and nightlife and (b) have a serious interest in the cultural context of Ancient Greece.
But I went with Rough Guide for my trip last summer to Greece, and while some of the maps weren't as detailed as they could might have been, most of the recommendations were spot on.
www.usaflightinsurance.com /books-reviewed/1843532514.html   (1566 words)

 Roman and Byzantine Emperors   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
During his reign Byzantine strength decreased in the eastern Mediterranean, and Crete (826) and later Sicily fell to the Arabs.
In 1197 a new pope, Innocent III, inspired the 4th crusade with the objective of conquering and colonising the remains of the Byzantine Empire.
Alexius was deposed and a Latin emperor BALDWIN was enthroned by election among the victorious Venetians and Franks.
users.tibus.com /decline-and-fall/emperors.htm   (7735 words)

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