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# Topic: Roman arithmetic

 Roman arithmetic - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography In modern education, the Roman arithmetic used by the Romans is seldom taught. The preferred method is to convert the Roman numeral into an Hindu-Arabic numeral and solve the equation using a modern positional notation system. Except for historical purposes, none of this is particularly useful to the grade student unless it is used to demonstrate the existence of different numeral systems and their impact on arithmetic and to do that, the student needs to learn how to perform arithmetic operations in the native numeral system. www.arikah.com /encyclopedia/Roman_arithmetic   (832 words)

 Roman abacus The Roman pound, libra, consisted of 12 unicae (28 grams) and a measure of volume, congius, consisted of 12 heminae (0.273 litres). The Roman abacus predates the Chinese "invention" of the Suan Pan by centuries; The Romans traded with the Chinese over the Silk Road and the similarity of the two abaci suggest that Mongol traders transferred the technology to the Chinese before invention of the Suan Pan in the 13th century; www.xasa.com /wiki/en/wikipedia/r/ro/roman_abacus.html   (636 words)

 Mirror for Internet Encyclopedia - Wikinfo | Roman arithmetic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) In modern education, the Roman arithmetic used by the Romans is Seldom taught, preferring to instruct students to convert the Roman numeral into an Arabic numeral and solve the equation using a modern positional notation system. While that's more practical, it is not really learning how to add, subtract, multiply and Divide Roman numerals, it is Only making the student practice converting from Roman to Arabic and back again. The use of subtractive notation with Roman numerals increased the complexity of performing basic arithmetic operations without conveying the benefits of a full positional notion system. www.internet-encyclopedia.us /index.php/wiki.php?title=Roman_arithmetic   (874 words)

 Units: Roman and "Arabic" Numerals Nonetheless, the Roman symbols for numbers continue to be used in a variety of ways, most of them rather stereotyped: to mark the hours on clock faces, to number pages in the prefaces of books, to express copyright dates, and to count items in a series (such as the Super Bowls of U.S. professional football). In late Roman and medieval times, after D and M were adopted as the symbols for 500 and 1000, a custom arose of writing a bar over a number to multiply that number by 1000. Roman Numerals, Roman Numeration System, by Gérard P. Michon, has an advanced discussion of how large numbers were represented in the Roman system. www.unc.edu /~rowlett/units/roman.html   (1003 words)

 php-deluxe.net - description Roman abacus Since the Romans used Roman numerals to record results, and since Roman numerals were all positive, there was no need for a zero notation. It may be also possible to infer that they were familiar with the concept of a negative number as Roman merchants needed to understand and manipulate liabilities against assets and loans versus investments. The Roman counting board incorporates mixed-base arithmetic (in the two rightmost columns), another original enhancement by the Romans that is not present in any other abacus. www.php-deluxe.net /encyclopedia,index.page,Roman-abacus.htm   (580 words)

 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Boethius Roman statesman and philosopher, often styled "the last of the Romans", regarded by tradition as a Christian martyr, born at Rome in 480; died at Pavia in 524 or 525. Descended from a consular family, he was left an orphan at an early age and was educated by the pious and noble-minded Symmachus, whose daughter, Rusticana, he married. When, however, his enemies accused him of disloyalty to the Ostrogothic king, alleging that he plotted to restore "Roman liberty", and added the accusation of "sacrilege" (the practice of astrology), neither his noble birth nor his great popularity availed him. www.newadvent.org /cathen/02610b.htm   (1398 words)

 Roman abacus: These two characters are to be found in the table of Roman Fractions on P75 of 'Numbers' by Graham Flegg. The Roman abacus has the refinements attributed to the modern Japanese Soroban; i.e. The Roman abacus incorporates mixed-base arithmetic (in the two rightmost columns), another original enhancement by the Romans that is not present in any other abacus. www.winelib.com /wiki/Roman_abacus   (749 words)

 Math Forum: Ask Dr. Math FAQ: Roman Numerals Introduction to Roman numerals, their history, large numbers, and a Java applet that converts a number from Roman to Arabic numerals. Note that the Romans didn't worry about the subtraction principle unless they were actually writing their numbers down (and not always then). Arithmetic with Roman Numerals and Division with Roman Numerals, Jim Loy www.mathforum.com /dr.math/faq/faq.roman.html   (1578 words)

 Roman Numeral Arithmetic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) Roman Numerals were used in Europe until the 18th century and even today in certain applications. Roman Numerals are not a positional system and contain no symbol of zero. It is important to remember that the Romans did not think in terms of our familiar numbers—they thought only in terms of the Roman Numbers. turner.faculty.swau.edu /mathmaterials/roman.html   (2068 words)

 Mirror for Internet Encyclopedia - Wikinfo | Subtractive notation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) Subtractive notion is an Early form of positional notation used with Roman numerals as a shorthand to replace four or five characters in a numeral representing a number with usually just two characters. By encoding information about the number into the order of the numerals, subtractive notation transformed the Roman numeral system from an variation of a unary numeral system which used alphabetic characters to represent groupings of tally marks (a position-independent counting system). While simplifing the presentation of numerals, subtractive notation removed from Roman arithmetic the advantages of a tally system for speedy addition and subtraction without adding the flexibility of later postional notations sytems for mathematics. www.internet-encyclopedia.us /index.php/wiki.php?title=Subtractive_notation   (277 words)

 The Lightspan Network - sw You will learn how to write and subtract roman numerals, find out why they are not used today, and work some practice problems. Also offered is a history of roman numerals, as well as information about the use of roman numerals on clocks. The roman numerals for 1-13 is depicted here using toothpicks. www.lightspan.com /common/studyweb/sw.asp?target=http://www.studyweb.com/links/10698.html   (245 words)

 The Date of Easter   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) In 1582 Gregory XIII (Pope of the Roman Catholic Church) completed a reconstruction of the Julian calendar and produced new Easter tables. The western (Roman Catholic and Protestant) Christian churches use the Gregorian tables; many eastern (Orthodox) Christian churches use the older tables based on the Julian Calendar. For example, 7 divided by 3 is equal to 2 in integer arithmetic. aa.usno.navy.mil /faq/docs/easter.html   (975 words)

 Roman numerals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) The system of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, and was adapted from Etruscan numerals. Roman numerals are commonly used today in numbered lists (in outline format), clockfaces, pages preceding the main body of a book, chord triads in music analysis, the numbering of movie sequels, book publication dates, successive rulers with identical names, and the numbering of some sport events, such as the Olympic Games or the Super Bowls. For arithmetics involving Roman numerals, see Roman arithmetic and Roman abacus. www.kiwipedia.com /roman-numeral.html   (138 words)

 wikien.info: Main_Page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) Subtractive notation is an early form of positional notation used with Roman numerals as a shorthand to replace four or five characters in a numeral representing a number with usually just two characters. By encoding information about the number into the order of the numerals, subtractive notation transformed the Roman numeral system from a variation of a unary numeral system which used alphabetic characters to represent groupings of tally marks (a position-independent counting system). While simplifying the presentation of numerals, subtractive notation removed from Roman arithmetic the advantages of a tally system for speedy addition and subtraction without adding the flexibility of later positional notations systems for mathematics. www.alanaditescili.net /index.php?title=Subtractive_notation   (283 words)

 Category:Arithmetic - Definition, explanation Printable arithmetic worksheets based on the 52 skill levels of... P-adic methods in arithmetic and algebraic geometry: part of the Special Year... A simple opensource library in C++ for arithmetic between elements and polynomials over finite fields. lexikon.calsky.com /en/txt/cat/arithmetic.php   (282 words)

 DBLP: Roman Kossak Roman Kossak, Henryk Kotlarski, James H. Schmerl: On Maximal Subgroups of the Automorphism Group of a Countable Recursively Saturated Model of PA. Ann. Roman Kossak, James H. Schmerl: Minimal Satisfaction Classes with an Application to Rigid Models of {Peano} Arithmetic. Roman Kossak, Mark E. Nadel, James H. Schmerl: A Note on the Multiplicative Semigroup of Models of Peano Arithmetic. sunsite.informatik.rwth-aachen.de /dblp/db/indices/a-tree/k/Kossak:Roman.html   (204 words)

 Roman Numerals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) Arithmetic with Roman Numerals, James G. Kennedy, American Math. A nice example of a number system other than our base 10 system that involves different symbols and incorporates different base arithmetic is the Roman system. Further intricacies of the system are the way in which the Roman numbers are written using combinations of these symbols. mathcentral.uregina.ca /QQ/database/QQ.09.98/jenkinson1.html   (362 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. Roman numerals use a basic set of seven symbols: Multiple symbols may be combined to produce numbers in between these values, subject to certain rules on repetition. www.maxpedia.org /cgi-bin/mp/m.pl?la=en&sw=Roman+numeral   (190 words)

 IV or IIII ? - Ancient Roman Empire Forums I think both are correct, but in writing and in print IV is a better choice and is used much more often. Originally, it was common to use IIII to represent "four", because IV represented the pagan god Jupiter. The Roman numerals are oriented to the center of the watch, that is why you get the upside-down VI for 6. www.unrv.com /forum/index.php?showtopic=5610   (922 words)

 Roman numerals - Everything on Roman numerals (information, latest news, articles,...) The system used in antiquity was slightly modified in the Middle Ages to produce the system we use today. For larger numbers (five thousand and above), a bar is placed above a base numeral to indicate multiplication by 1000. Roman numerals are commonly used today in numbered lists (in outline format), clockfaces, pages preceding the main body of a book, the numbering of movie sequels, and the numbering of some sport events, like the Super Bowls or Olympic Games. www.spiritus-temporis.com /roman-numerals   (211 words)

 Math Forum Discussions You are almost correct in speculating that the Romans calculated with an versions of Roman numerals exactly reflect the usage of the abacus. The classical Roman word for what we call today by the term "abacus" was www.mathforum.com /kb/message.jspa?messageID=1376830   (707 words)

 The Talk.Origins Archive Post of the Month: Feb. 1997 It has the effect of telling them that a moderately complex system is totally impenetrable, rather than that it is approachable and comprehsnsible. It's as annoying as watching someone try to present arithmetic to schoolchildren using Roman numeral notation. The NEJM review has schematics of the factors, showing the many homologies of domains. www.talkorigins.org /origins/postmonth/feb97.html   (1181 words)

 JewishJournal.com We have now entered the period Jews call “The Three Weeks.” These are the weeks between two fast days: one is the 17th of Tammuz (the day the walls of Jerusalem were breached) and the other is Tisha B’av, the ninth of Av, the day the Romans destroyed our Temple. Can you write the year you were born in Roman numerals? Roman children played many of the same games you play. www.jewishjournal.com /home/preview.php?id=14429   (176 words)

 Amfibi Cercador Web: Roman Numerals For arithmetics involving Roman numerals, see Roman arithmetic and Roman... Roman Numerals Roman Numerals Copyright © 1999 by Gareth Jones... Algebra -- Roman Numerals Roman Numerals One I Two II Three... ct.amfibi.com /search?query=Roman%20Numerals   (146 words)

 Fourth Grade Skills - interactive sites Arithmetic Four - (A game like Connect Four) A pair of students must answer arithmetic questions (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) to earn a piece to place on the board. Roman Numeral Converter - type in a number and convert it to Roman Numerals. Roman Numeral Interactive Online Games - many to choose from. www.internet4classrooms.com /skills_4th_original.htm   (2399 words)

 Mathematics Archives - Numbers He has also collected a bibliography on Mersenne Numbers and Primes. David Eppstein has implemented a number of simple number-theoretic algorithms for his own amusement, and provide them here on the net. Topics include Egyptian Fractions, J.H.Conway's "nimber" arithmetic, C++ fast algorithm for computing 2-adic inverse, C program for rational approximation of real numbers, etc. archives.math.utk.edu /subjects/numbers.html   (1310 words)

 Roman arithmetic Details, Meaning Roman arithmetic Article and Explanation Guide Roman arithmetic Details, Meaning Roman arithmetic Article and Explanation Guide Roman arithmetic Guide, Meaning, Facts, Information and Description Repeat Step 2 and 3 until multiplicator is empty www.e-paranoids.com /r/ro/roman_arithmetic.html   (805 words)

 Math.com Online Calculators   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-26) Roman Numeral Calculator - Just like Caesar used to have! Please be aware that there are certain limitations to all web-based calculators. The arithmetic used can lead to errors in some calculations when the numbers get very big or very small. www.math.com /students/calculators/calculators.html   (189 words)

 Links and Selected Readings - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF) Acronym stands for: Roman numeral for 2009, pronounced [EM-micks]. The number stands for the average of numbers of "14 actual computers very similar to MMIX". What Every Computer Scientist Should Know about Floating-Point Arithmetic by David Goldberg, including Doug Priest's supplement (PDF format) gcc.gnu.org /readings.html   (864 words)

 shannonbio.html When I catch up with him, he proudly shows me his seven chess-playing machines, gasoline-powered pogostick, hundred-bladed jackknife, two-seated unicycle and countless other marvels. Some of his personal creations -- such as a juggling W. Fields mannequin and a computer called THROBAC that calculates in Roman numerals -- are a bit dusty and in disrepair, but Shannon seems as delighted with everything as a 10-year-old on Christmas morning. Is this the man who, as a young engineer at Bell Laboratories in 1948, wrote the Magna Carta of the information age: The Mathematical Theory of Communication? www.research.att.com /~njas/doc/shannonbio.html   (3740 words)

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