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Topic: Roman calendar

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  Ancient Roman Calendars - Crystalinks
Because a Roman calendar year defined the term of office of elected Roman magistrates, a pontifex maximus would have reason to lengthen a year in which he or his allies were in power, or to not lengthen a year in which his political opponents held office.
Roman dates before 32 BC were typically a day or two before the day with the same Julian date, so 1 January in the Roman calendar of the first year of the Julian reform actually fell on 31 December 46 BC (Julian date).
A revised Julian calendar was proposed during a synod in Constantinople in May of 1923, consisting of a solar part which was and will be identical to the Gregorian calendar until the year 2800, and a lunar part which calculated Easter astronomically at Jerusalem.
www.crystalinks.com /romecalendar.html   (3818 words)

 Ides of March
The term Ides comes from the earliest Roman calendar, which is said to have been devised by Romulus, the mythical founder of Rome.
Whether it was Romulus or not, the inventor of this calendar had a penchant for complexity.
Used in the first Roman calendar as well as in the Julian calendar (established by Julius Caesar in 45 B.C.E.) the confusing system of Kalends, Nones, and Ides continued to be used to varying degrees throughout the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance.
www.infoplease.com /spot/ides1.html   (442 words)

 Romans in Britain - The Roman calendar
The calendar used by the Romans went through many changes before the final Julian calendar was established by Julius Caesar in 46BC.
But the way in which the Romans read their calendar, and how they counted days of the month, are vastly different to the current method.
Despite the similarity between the modern calendar and the Roman calendar, the latter is harder to understand due to the manner in which the days are designated.
www.romans-in-britain.org.uk /arl_roman_calendar.htm   (346 words)

  Roman Calendar
This was the basic problem in the evolving construction of the Roman calendar: the reconciliation of the moon's lunation, a period of approximately 29.5 days, with the earth's annual orbit around the sun, a period of approximately 365.25 days.
Although these legendary beginnings attest to the venerability of the lunisolar calendar of the Roman Republic, its historical origin probably is the publication of a revised calendar by the Decemviri in 450 BC as part of the Twelve Tables, Rome's first code of law.
To correct for this retrogression and bring the calendar year back to the solar year, Pope Gregory XIII omitted these extra days, ordaining in 1582 that, for that year, October 4 was to be followed by October 15.
penelope.uchicago.edu /~grout/encyclopaedia_romana/calendar/romancalendar.html   (1456 words)

  Calendar - MSN Encarta
Calendar divisions are based on the movements of the earth and the regular appearances of the sun and the moon.
The variations among the many calendars in use from ancient to modern times have been caused by the inaccuracy of the earliest determinations of the duration of the year, together with the fact that a year cannot be divided evenly by any of the other time units: days, weeks, or months.
The Roman calendar became hopelessly confused when officials to whom the addition of days and months was entrusted abused their authority to prolong their terms of office or to hasten or delay elections.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761560321/Calendar.html   (1222 words)

 CalendarHome.com - Roman calendar - Calendar Encyclopedia
Because a Roman calendar year defined the term of office of elected Roman magistrates, a pontifex maximus would have reason to lengthen a year in which he or his allies were in power, or to not lengthen a year in which his political opponents held office.
An aspect of the Roman calendar that is quite unfamiliar to us is that each day had a "character", which was marked in the fasti.
Before 190 BC the alignment between the Roman and Julian years is determined by clues such as the dates of harvests mentioned in the sources.
encyclopedia.calendarhome.com /Roman_calendar.htm   (2177 words)

 Ancient Rome  ::  Daily Life   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Roman calendars only had three dates with separate names: the Kalends (kalendae), or 1st day of every month, the Ides, usually the 13th of a month but for three months the 15th, and the Nones (Nonae), or ninth day before the Ides.
Romans would indicate the date by relating how many days it was before one of the dates mentioned above, unless it was the day before, in which case the term pridie was used.
The number of Roman holidays was originally few in number, but some of the oldest and most time honored survived untilt the end of the republic, preserving the memory of an ancient agrarian society.
library.thinkquest.org /26602/timedates.htm   (1395 words)

 BibleTime.com - Roman Calendar Introduction
The Roman world went through a series of revisions in its calendars between its first adoptions near the founding of the city of Rome and the present, with the current Gregorian calendar being the current calendar used throughout the world.
Roman Calendar 713 to 415 BC This calendar was a Lunar calendar with 12 months, much like we would expect in any Lunar calendar.
Roman Calendar used until 714 BC This is the oldest known form of the Roman calendar.
www.bibletime.com /tool/spec/roman/index.html   (1772 words)

The ancient Roman calendar was closely linked to the science of astrology, and the teachings of Claudius Ptolemaeus, which were prevalent throughout the entire lifetime of Imperial Rome.
Equivalent with Roman Jupiter¹ or Greek Zeus, a sky-god who controlled the winds and weather, and made thunder sound by hitting the earth with his mighty hammer, which was manifested on earth as the destruction caused by bolts of lightning.
When the Gregorian Calendar was first implemented it was to cause uproar throughout the Roman-Catholic world because it required the deduction of thirteen days in order to bring the calendar back into line with the seasons, and many uneducated people rioted in the streets thinking that these days had somehow been deducted from their lifespans.
www.roman-britain.org /calendar.htm   (2391 words)

 Roman to Julian Conversion: Calendars   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Romans themselves normally identified their civil years eponymously, by the names of the consuls who were elected annually.
The structure of the Roman calendar after the reform of A.U.C. 709 = 45 is given in detail by the fifth century author Macrobius, and is confirmed by a number of fasti (calendars) surviving from the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius.
Michels, The Calendar of the Roman Republic 165ff., notes that Macrobius describes the day as being "in the middle" of the festival of the Terminalia -- a one-day festival, at least in Republican times -- which shows he was confused.
www.tyndale.cam.ac.uk /Egypt/ptolemies/chron/roman/chron_rom_cal.htm   (2956 words)

 Roman Calendars from Romulus to Julius Caesar
Romulus, the legendary first Roman king, was said to have made extensive changes to those month lengths, assigning twenty-nine days to some and thirty-one to others.
Januarius probably became part of the calendar about half a century after the time Rome was founded because Plutarch said that Numa, the king who followed Romulus, made it the first month of the year and made February the last.
B.C., Romans modified their method of marking time to keep it in phase with seasons, but not require intercalation of an extra month.
www.12x30.net /earlyrom.html   (1290 words)

 KET DL | Latin 3 | Mores | Time & Calendar-
The first Roman calendar, based on a lunar cycle, is said to have been introduced by Romulus.
Romans referred to the first day of each new month as the Kalendae (Calendae) from the Latin word calare which means to call out or announce with seriousness of purpose.
Caesar used the Egyptian calendar as a base and establish a new calendar drawn (the Julian calendar), with 12 months of 31 or 30 days, except February, which had 29 days.
www.dl.ket.org /latin3/mores/calendar/calendar.htm   (921 words)

 Roman Numeral Dates | Conversion Guide
A well-known, but still often confusing feature of modern Roman numerals is the subtraction principle, which requires that a lower numeral appearing before a higher one[3] be subtracted from the higher value, not added to the total.
For an overview of the Roman calendar see the discussion of the "Development of the Modern Calendar" under the entry for Calendar in The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th edition, ©2000.
Cappelli indicates that the Romans rarely used the subtraction principle and that the convention was equally uncommon during the Middle Ages.
www2.inetdirect.net /~charta/Roman_numerals.html   (2066 words)

 History & info - the Early Roman calendar
But since the Romans had, or had developed, a superstitious dread of even numbers, January was given an extra day; February was still left with an even number of days, but as that month was given over to the infernal gods, this was considered appropriate.
The so-called Roman republican calendar was supposedly introduced by the Etruscan Tarquinius Priscus (616-579 B.C.E.), according to tradition the fifth king of Rome.
Romans always reconciled differences between calendar and solar year lengths during the "Month of Purification." Whenever and however Roman calendars were modified to correspond to year length, it was always done after the 23rd day of February, traditionally the last day of the year.
webexhibits.org /calendars/calendar-roman.html   (3765 words)

 The Roman Calendar
The calendar in use was mainly solar, but the leap year rule was similar to that of a lunisolar calendar as there was a whole month intercalated in leap years.
During the Roman Republic the years were designated by the names of the consuls then in office(1).
The old Roman calendar was replaced by the Julian calendar worked out by the astronomer Sosigenes from Alexandria.
www.ortelius.de /kalender/rom_en.php   (1151 words)

 Roman calendar and Roman dates
The Roman calendar was altered many times as errors in previous calendars were corrected and political considerations led to compromises in those changes.
Modern scholarship suggests that the calendar introduced by Julius was in substantially its present form with February kept at 28 days (29 in a leap year) and that the other months were fixed at the lengths they nowhave.
The calendar was to remain unchanged for more than one and half millennia and apart from a minor adjustment which began to be introduced in 1582, it remains substantially the same today.
www.wilkiecollins.demon.co.uk /roman/calhis.htm   (2910 words)

 Roman calendar - NovaRoma
It was intended to align with both the lunar calendar and the solar calendar, through the means of intercalation
The Roman calendar operated through the use of three main days (the Kalends, the Nones, and the Ides), in reference to which all dates were given.
On Roman calendars the days were given nundinal letters (A to H) to help people see when the next market-day would be.
www.novaroma.org /nr/Roman_Calendar   (761 words)

 Facts and Figures: All Things Roman
According to Roman legend, the calendar used by the Romans began at the time of establishment of the Roman monarchy.
So calendar was still out of phase with the seasons (the Equinoxes and Solstices), because the Julian Calendar had a leap year on the year of a new century or centennial year.
Worse than that, since the old calendar had leap year in every centennial year, the Julian calendar was out of phase by 11 days with the equinox.
www.timelessmyths.com /classical/allthings.html   (1717 words)

 The Roman Calendar
Roman calendars, in addition to marking the nundinae, also contained letters that indicated what type of public business could be transacted on a given day.
Romans also thought that the Kalends, Nones and Ides of each month as well as the fourth day of each month were unlucky days (the way we would think of Friday the Thirteenth).
Roman priests were charged with knowing how to keep the calendar and maintaining it.
abacus.bates.edu /~mimber/Rciv/roman.cal.htm   (2701 words)

 The Roman Republican Calendar | polysyllabic   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Certain Roman religious customs, as well as the monthly subdivisions of Kalends, Nones, and Ides, indicate that the calendar was originally lunar, and that months began upon direct observation by a priest of the new moon.
To keep the calendar roughly in line with the seasons, a leap month (it had no name other than "the intercalary month") was inserted at the end of February.
Extant Roman calendars indicate this interval by giving each consecutive day a letter A through H. Note that this was simply a mnemonic marker.
www.polysyllabic.com /?q=calhistory/earlier/roman   (883 words)

substantial, element in the formation of the calendar is the record of the birthdays of the saints.
As regards existing documents, perhaps the oldest ecclesiastical calendar, in the proper sense of the word, which still survives, is the one which was in the possession of the Englishman St.
Hence the new Roman Breviary and Missal, which in accordance with a decree of the Council of Trent eventually saw the light in 1568 and 1570 respectively, contained a new calendar.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/03158a.htm   (9678 words)

 Calendar a History - Timekeepers
January was the eleventh month of the year in the ancient Roman calendar, however in the 2nd century BC it became the first month of the year.
January was the 11th month of the year in the ancient Roman calendar, however in the 2nd century BC it became the first month of the year.
The Gregorian calendar established January 1 as the beginning of the year and has been referred to as the "new style calendar" and the Julian referred to as the "old style calendar".
www.ernie.cummings.net /calendar.htm   (4200 words)

 Roman Calendar -- from Eric Weisstein's World of Astronomy
The Roman calendar originally started the year with the vernal equinox and consisted of 10 months (Martius, Aprilis, Maius, Junius, Quntilis, Sextilis, September, October, November, and December) having a total of 304 days.
The numbers still embedded in the last four months of the year are the fossil of this (September, October, November, and December, contain the Latin roots for the numerals seven, eight, nine, and ten,but now fall on the ninth, tenth, eleventh and twelfth months of the year).
The Roman calendar was eventually supplanted by the more rational Julian calendar in 46 BC.
scienceworld.wolfram.com /astronomy/RomanCalendar.html   (184 words)

 Roman Calendar
The calendar adopted by the Temple of the Religio Romana is based primarily on the Fasti Antiates Maiores, the only surviving Roman calendar that predates the reform of Julius Caesar.
The kalends fell on the New Moon and was held to be sacred to Juno.
The names of various deities are given in bold type, and those of Roman deities are given in larger fonts as above.
religioromana.net /calendar/romancalendar.htm   (618 words)

 Roman Calendar
Since this calendar has been made in the form of an almanac, we have included mention of certain dates of historical interest, Roman adages, some advice to Roman farmers, as well as prayers to various deities around their festivals, and anniversaries to the Temple of Religio Romana.
Where the names of deities appear in red this too, is taken from the Fasti and blue refers to Temple of Religio Romana anniversaries.
And since the Romans counted days inclusively, 2 June, for example, is three days prior to the nones on 5 June, but annotated ante diem IV Nonae Iunoniae.
www.religioromana.net /calendar/romancalendar.htm   (618 words)

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