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Topic: Roman letters

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In the News (Mon 24 Sep 18)

  Romanization systems
Yet it remains hard to understand how political interest groups in a single country, for whose people roman letters are something foreign, could impose on the people of many other countries who have grown up with roman letters, as a binding standard, a version of romanization that is impractical and foreign to their language.
Another characteristic of the Nippon romanization is that the same letter is pronounced differently (such as z in za and zi, or d in da and di), and sometimes the same sound is spelled differently (such as the IPA sound ʤ in zi and di).
In Hepburn romanization, consonants are pronounced as in English, and vowels are pronounced as in Italian.
www.hadamitzky.de /english/lp_romanization_sys.htm   (3114 words)

  Roman numerals Summary
Roman roads and aqueducts remain as a testament to the engineering feats that the Romans were able to accomplish with their flawed system.
Roman numerals are commonly used today in numbered lists (in outline format), clockfaces, pages preceding the main body of a book, chord triads in music analysis, the numbering of movie sequels, book publication dates, successive rulers with identical names, and the numbering of some sport events, such as the Olympic Games or the Super Bowls.
Roman numerals remained in common use until about the 14th century, when they were replaced by Arabic numerals (thought to have been introduced to Europe from al-Andalus, by way of Arab traders and arithmetic treatises, around the 11th century).
www.bookrags.com /Roman_numerals   (5184 words)

 roman - definition by dict.die.net
Roman candle, a kind of firework (generally held in the hand), characterized by the continued emission of shower of sparks, and the ejection, at intervals, of brilliant balls or stars of fire which are thrown upward as they become ignited.
Roman Catholic, of, pertaining to, or the religion of that church of which the pope is the spiritual head; as, a Roman Catholic priest; the Roman Catholic Church.
Roman cement, a cement having the property of hardening under water; a species of hydraulic cement.
dict.die.net /roman   (356 words)

 Roman Officer Arts and Design
The Romans had an usual relationship with the god Tiberinus in that they were fearful of him (due to his unpredictable nature concerning floods), but at the same time it was this god who told Aeneas, the legendary Trojan founder of their race, where to establish a settlement that would one day become Rome.
Again I think the Romans associated this with day break, which would mean that in addition to the tactical advantages of having the sun to their backs, they may have preferred ritually to have been in a position facing westward toward their enemy at daybreak.
The Roman official story is that she died from the bite of an asp, based on evidence from Octavian’s physicians stating that they had found two bite marks on her arm (yet no snake was found).
www.romanofficer.com /marblelogo.htm   (10096 words)

 Emigre Font Design Information: Vendetta
Slab serifs are evident on both lowercase and uppercase characters in roman types of the Incunabula period, but they are seen mainly at the feet of the lowercase letters.
So it was, that the first letters in my typeface arose from pondering how shapes of lowercase letters and capital letters relate to one another in terms of classical ideals and geometric proportions, two pinnacles in a range of artistic notions which emerged during the Italian Renaissance.
Hallmarks of roman type design from the Incunabula period are blended with contemporary concerns for the optimal display of letterforms on computer screens.
www.emigre.com /EFfeature.php?di=130   (1053 words)

 "Letters to Harry" -- The Harry Potter Title in Many Alphabets
The Roman alphabet can be traced back to Greek, Etruscan and Phoenician writing systems as early as 600 B.C./B.C.E. The Greek civilization and culture heavily influenced the Roman one, and there is a direct connection between the Greek and Roman alphabets.
Greek capital letters are very familiar to Americans who have attended colleges or universities and have either seen or belonged to fraternities and sororities, social or honors groups that use the letters for their names.
Cyrillic letters are based on the “uncial” version of the Greek alphabet, which has letters made from simple, rounded strokes.
www.angelfire.com /mi3/cookarama/letterharry.html   (2057 words)

 The Sophisticated Stitcher: A Stitcher's Guide to Lettering, Part 1
Roman typefaces take their name from the fact that these letter forms were first chiseled in stone in ancient Rome around the 3rd Century B.C. Roman is distinguished from other typefaces by the variations of thick and thin strokes in the individual letters and the use of serifs (finishing strokes).
In needlework history, use of Roman lettering is especially characteristic of Quaker samplers such as those made at the Westtown School in Chester County, Pennsylvania in the early 1800's, but is found on other early American samplers, as well.
Square serif letters are a subgroup of sans serif-they combine the single width of sans serif characters with squared-off finishing strokes.
www.thesophisticatedstitcher.com /art2001/lettering1.php   (1113 words)

 Roman Letters and Egyptian Performatives
Therefore letters do not always serve to secure the distinction between performance and reputation; they also act as the means of their mutual implication.
Letters have the effect of interrupting the theatrical scene present at that moment, in order to draw the addressee into another--figurative, mediated by language--scene.
While letters mainly function as the medium in which the relational dynamics of male emulation are negotiated, reorganising its measured subject-positions in relation to the discourse of reputation, it is through the relations that performance produces that sexual difference enters as a governing principle of that homosocial world.
homepages.tesco.net /~theatre/tezzaland/webstuff/antony.html   (4562 words)

One of the most striking changes in written Chinese in recent years is the increasingly common use of the Roman alphabet in both loanwords and native coinages.
Roman letters, in contrast, are non-discrete because only in combination with other letters can they form meaningful units of speech.
The use of Roman letters as fully discrete entities sets the Sino-alphabet apart from the Roman alphabet as used in other languages, and makes possible its assimilation into the Chinese writing system.
www.sino-platonic.org /abstracts/spp045_sino_alphabet.html   (482 words)

 Istria on the Internet - Linguistics - Glagolitic
The Cyrillic form of letters is used in all the liturgical books of the Greek Churches, whether Catholic or schismatic, which use the Slavonic language in their liturgy, and even the present Russian alphabet, the Grazhdanska, is merely a modified form of the Cyrillic with a few letters omitted.
The order of the letters of the alphabet in the Glagolitic and in the Cyrillic is nearly the same, but the letters bear no resemblance to each other, except possibly in one or two instances.
At present the Slavonic language for the Roman Rite, printed in Glagolitic characters, is used in the Slavic churches of the Dioceses of Zengg, Veglia, Zara, and Spalato, and also by the Franciscans in their three churches in Veglia, one in Cherso, two in Zara, and one in Sebenico.
www.istrianet.org /istria/linguistics/glagolitic/glago-history.htm   (1388 words)

 The Roman Empire   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
The thickness or thiness of a stroke is generally based on a square cut pen held at a certain angle, which yields various thickness strokes as the pen draw, for instance, a capital "O".
As the Roman Empire extended to different countries, examples of the formal letters would occur in monuments, but also in ink on paper adapted to formal proclamations.
Letters would be written on paper or on parchement, and these kinds of messages increased writing.
carroll1.cc.edu /~tselle/forth.html   (325 words)

Nowadays, the Roman alphabet, which is made up of 26 letters is used to print most books, magazines and newspapers.
Modifications were brought about by the Greeks with shapes of these letters, adding and dropping some letters, to form the 24-letter Greek alphabet of today.
The Etruscans taught the alphabet to the Romans and it has more or less the same form as it is today.
library.thinkquest.org /26890/alphabet.htm   (1089 words)

 Roman Empire Map for Sale
Exhaustively researched* over the course of two years and subject to five months of design and historical scrutiny, this 'poster' is not simply an artistic work, but truly an educational resource in its own right.
The map of the Roman Empire is presented in full, vibrant color measuring a versatile 24 " x 36 " (62 x 91 cm).
The land within the borders of the Empire is slightly shaded to bring out the limits of Roman influence with the ease of a glance.
www.unrv.com /roman-map-for-sale.php   (650 words)

 No. 1982: Dürer's Roman Letters
The Times Roman font includes both cases, even though lower case letters are not Roman at all.
Still, all the Times Roman letters, upper and lower case alike, are formed according to instructions given us in 1525 AD.
Not only were his letters included as exercises, but I was also learning to lay out sheet metal patterns, and design duct intersections, in accordance with his instructions.
www.uh.edu /admin/engines/epi1982.htm   (584 words)

 Greek Alphabet (PRIME)
However, at the time they were introduced, most scholars had been taught at least some Latin and Greek during their education, so the letters did not seem nearly so strange to them as they do to us.
The lower-case letters are used more often than the upper-case letters, but the latter are used often enough.
The lower-case letters are most often used for variables, such as angles and complex numbers, and for functions and formulas, while the upper-case letters more commonly stand for sets and spaces, and sometimes for repeated arithmetic operations such as adding and multiplying (see Sigma and Pi).
www.mathacademy.com /pr/prime/articles/greek/index.asp   (492 words)

 Wooden alphabet letters, wood alphabet letters, alphabet wall letters, decorative alphabet letters
Many prefer their letters to be standing for display on a mantle as a decorative alphabet letter or just a standard wood alphabet letter.
The dot on the lowercase letter "i" may or may not be connected depending on the font style.
Some lowercase letters are shorter (or taller) than the height you specify on the order form so that they will look porportionate to each other.
www.craftcuts.com /connected-letters.asp   (570 words)

 Epistolary Form
Most of the letters in the New Testament were intended as public letters.
Moreover, some "letters" in the New Testament may appear to be letters, but are actually short theological treatises.
Typically, in order to close a letter, the author may send greetings to and greetings from people known to both him and the reader(s), if this was applicable.
www.abu.nb.ca /courses/NTIntro/EpistForm.htm   (459 words)

 Roman Numeral Study of Poseidon Software and Invention
The red lightning mark after the M in the Roman Numeral selection area is the erase entry.
For compression purposes a method of subtraction was introduced by the users of Roman Numerals to the rules for writing and interpreting the Roman Numeral values.
The Roman's introduced a method of subtraction that compresses the length of the number, as in displaying 9, IX can be used which subtracts I (1) from X (10) to result in 9.
www.psinvention.com /zoetic/romanJava.htm   (1439 words)

 Xerox Arabic Morphology: Romanization
The vast majority of Arabic romanizations are transcriptions, designed to convey the surface pronunciation or the deeper morphophonology of words; and many Arabists see no purpose in a romanization that doesn't serve this purpose.
Because of unwritten vowels and other diacritics, and because of ambiguous and silent letters, standard Arabic orthography is a poor clue to pronunciation, especially for non-Arabic speakers who can't reliably guess which reading of a word is appropriate in syntactic context; conversely, a good phonological transcription is often a poor clue to standard orthography.
When the obvious letter substitutions run out, the usual course is to adopt Roman digraphs (or more generally ngraphs) to represent particular Arabic characters, but sloppy use of ngraphs disqualifies many orthographies from being faithful transliterations.
www.cis.upenn.edu /~cis639/arabic/info/romanization.html   (2193 words)

 Transliteration principles
Phonetic symbols are basically the letters of the Roman alphabet with special marks known as diacritic marks.
Roman transliteration which makes use of diacritic marks works better for Indian languages and in the last few decades some standardization has been effected based on the recommendation from the National Library in Calcutta.
Roman letter assignments in this scheme are phonetically equivalent to the aksharas of Sanskrit or other Indian languages.
acharya.iitm.ac.in /multi_sys/translit.html   (994 words)

Croatians used Roman letters in writing their languages.
In the preface to this Breviary the pope speaks of the language and letters employed therein, and gives St.
Dalmatian seminaries since the year 1828 has had the effect of increasing the use of the Latin in the Roman Rite there, and the use of the Glagolitic books has accordingly diminished.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/06575b.htm   (774 words)

 Block Letters / Wood Block Letters / Wooden Block Letters / Baby Block Letters
To add variety wood block letters are available with or without ribbons.
These letters are great as baby block letters or to spruce up any home décor.
Block letters measure 3.5” high x 4” wide x 1 ½” thick and are sold individually.
www.craftcuts.com /block-letters.html   (357 words)

 EDSITEment - Lesson Plan
Since the Romans passed their language to the next generations, the laws and literature of the Middle Ages were also written in Latin.
The main difference between the Roman alphabet and our alphabet is that in the old Roman alphabet C and G were not distinguished, and neither were I and J, and neither were U, V and W.
Here is a Roman mosaic you can look at with your students, who will be able to see that they know all the letters in the words and can even learn to understand them.
edsitement.neh.gov /view_lesson_plan.asp?id=520   (1240 words)

 Good Math, Bad Math : Roman Numerals and Arithmetic
Romans use a 10-base abacus for multiplication and division, the roman numerals where used for official symbolic representation of numbers that resulted.
The BBC still uses roman numerals in the final copyright tagline at the end of all its programs showing the year it was produced.
Roman numerals are nowhere near as cool as Greek numerals.
scienceblogs.com /goodmath/2006/08/roman_numerals_and_arithmetic.php   (3651 words)

 Roman Letters - History from a Personal Point of View - Finley Hooper and Matthew Schwartz
Addressing these and other questions, Finley Hooper and Matthew Schwartz have compiled a selection of letters from Cicero in the first century B.C. to Cassidorus in the sixth century A.D. The letters, sometimes surprising, occasionally amusing, but always impressive, provide new insights to Roman life.
With sixteen chapters, notable Romans write about themselves and their times, and about personal and public matters.
Some letters give a different perspective to history, while others talk of harvests, marriages, and day-to-day events.
wsupress.wayne.edu /classics/hooperrl.htm   (163 words)

 Hebrew in Roman letters
Hebrew letters do not correspond exactly to the letters you're reading right now - the Roman alphabet.
All of the various ways of spelling Qabala are transliterations, renderings in our letters of a completely different spelling system.
The letters "Quf," "Bet," "Lamed," "Heh," could be spelled many ways with our letters - it makes no difference.
borndigital.com /tree/esa/translit.html   (208 words)

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