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Topic: Roman letters used in mathematics

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In the News (Tue 23 Apr 19)

  The Greek Alphabet in Science, Technology & Maths quiz -- free game
In the lower case, this letter, the 13th in the Greek alphabet, is frequently used as a symbol for the frequency of a wave.
This letter, the 18th in the Greek alphabet, is commonly used as the symbol of the summation operator in mathematics.
In the upper case, this letter is used to represent the SI unit of electrical resistance, the ohm.
www.funtrivia.com /playquiz.cfm?qid=200991&origin=   (804 words)

 NationMaster - Encyclopedia: 24 (number)
Aleph-0, the smallest infinite cardinal In mathematics, cardinal numbers, or cardinals for short, are a generalized kind of number used to denote the size of a set.
In mathematics, a unimodular lattice is a lattice of discriminant 1 or −1.
In mathematics, monstrous moonshine is a term devised by John Horton Conway and Simon P. Norton in 1979, used to describe the (then totally unexpected) connection between the monster group M and modular functions (particularly, the j function).
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/24-%28number%29   (3987 words)

  Latin alphabet
In the course of its history, the Latin alphabet was adapted for use for new languages, some of which had phonemes which were not used in languages previously written with this alphabet, and therefore extensions were created as needed.
An attempt by the emperor Claudius to introduce three additional letters was short-lived, but after the conquest of Greece in the first century BC the letters Y and Z were, respectively, adopted and readopted from the Greek alphabet and placed at the end.
The letter Y when introduced was probably called hy [hyː] as in Greek (the name upsilon being not yet in use) but was changed to i Graeca ("Greek i") as the [i] and [y] sounds merged in Latin.
www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/l/la/latin_alphabet.html   (3412 words)

 NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Fraktur (typeface)
Besides the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet, and the ess-zet and vowels with umlauts as well, Fraktur typefaces often include the long s, a variant form of the letter r, and a variety of ligatures once intended to aid the typesetter and which have specialized rules for their use.
Fraktur is today used merely for decorative typesetting; for example, a number of traditional German newspapers still print their name in Fraktur on the first page, and it is also popular for pub signs.
In mathematics, a σ-algebra (or σ-field) X over a set S is a family of subsets of S which is closed under countable set operations; σ-algebras are mainly used in order to define measures on S. The concept is important in mathematical analysis and probability theory.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Fraktur-(typeface)   (1991 words)

 numeral — FactMonster.com
The Romans used letters of the alphabet to represent numbers, and this system is still used infrequently for such things as page numbers, clock faces, and dates of movies.
Letters cannot be repeated three times, so XXXX is not used for 40; insteadt XL (50 minus 10) is. Like in the Greek system, there was neither a provision for place value or a symbol for zero.
Both the Arabic and the Roman symbols are believed to be related to this method: 1 or I is one finger, 2 or II is two fingers, and 3 or III is three fingers.
www.factmonster.com /id/A0836175   (960 words)

 International Commentary on Evidence
Use the same font face for all headings and indicate the hierarchy by reducing the font size.
Roman letters used in mathematical expressions as variables should be italicized.
Roman letters used as part of multi-letter function names should not be italicized.
www.bepress.com /ice/styleguide.html   (1341 words)

 Roman Notation | World of Mathematics
Roman notation is an additive (and subtractive) system of numerical notation, originally used within the ancient Roman empire that extended far past the Italian peninsula, in which letters are used to denote certain "base" numbers.
The seven letters (or symbols) of the Roman numeral system are I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, that stand, respectively, for 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1,000 in the Arabic numeral system.
Roman numerals are still in used today, more than 2000 years after their introduction, but only for certain limited purposes.
www.bookrags.com /research/roman-notation-wom   (697 words)

 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Arabic digit
Roman numerals consist of seven letters or marks.
The symbol is a member of a family of marks, such as letters, figures, or words, which alone or in a group represent the members of a numeration system.
The earliest numerals were undoubtedly marks used to make a tally of a count of a number of acts or objects, one mark...
www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=Arabic+digit   (1166 words)

 Mathematical Notation: Past and Future
There were weird sidetracks--like the proposal to use waxing and waning moon symbols for the four operations of arithmetic: a fine example of poor, nonextensible design.
For example, whereas he used letters to stand for variables, he used astronomical signs to stand for complete expressions: kind of an interesting idea, actually.
In particular, it emphasized using notation whenever one could, and somehow minimizing the amount of potentially imprecise text that had to be written.
www.stephenwolfram.com /publications/talks/mathml/mathml2.html   (4335 words)

 Abacus in Mathematics: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library
The abacus is used for calculating in the Middle East, Asia, and Russia and for teaching children the elements of arithmetic in many countries.
It is important to use concrete...students may be familiar with the use of an abacus to do their calculations.
She is interested in the Japanese approach to mathematics and drawing...Teaching Children Mathematics 5 (March 1999...Activities for the AL Abacus: A Hands-on...Teaching Experiment in the First Grade...
www.questia.com /library/encyclopedia/abacus-in-mathematics.jsp?l=A&p=1   (1541 words)

 UTR #25: Unicode Support for Mathematics
This report presents a discussion of the mathematics character repertoire of the Unicode Standard [Unicode] as used for mathematics, but this discussion is intended apply to mathematical notation in general.
Because many mathematical characters require special fonts, which may not be available on all systems, no glyph may be available to the browser when viewing or printing this report, or the glyph that is selected by the browser may be dissimilar from that shown, for example, in the Unicode code charts [Charts].
Arrows are used for a variety of purposes in mathematics and elsewhere, such as to imply directional relation, to show logical derivation or implication, and to represent the cursor control keys.
www.unicode.org /reports/tr25   (8798 words)

 Latin alphabet information - Search.com
In the course of its use, the Latin alphabet was adapted for use for new languages, some of which had phonemes which were not used in languages previously written with this alphabet, and therefore extensions were created as needed.
Although these 3 letters are no longer part of the Latin alphabet as used for English, eth and thorn are still used in modern Icelandic.
For a short time in Roman history, three new letters, called the Claudian letters, were added to the alphabet, but they were not widely received and were eventually removed.
www.search.com /reference/Roman_alphabet   (3354 words)

 Latin alphabet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In the course of its use, the Latin alphabet was adapted for use for new languages, some of which had phonemes which were not used in languages previously written with this alphabet, and therefore extensions were created as needed.
Diacritics are marks that are added to specific letters to modify their pronunciation.
The letter Y when introduced was probably called hy /hyː/ as in Greek (the name upsilon being not yet in use) but was changed to i Graeca ("Greek i") as Latin speakers had difficulty distinguishing /i/ and /y/.
www.higiena-system.com /wiki/link-Latin_alphabet   (3802 words)

 Science in India: History of mathematics: Indian Mathematicians and Astronomers,
Although scholars are divided about how early the symbol for zero came to be used in numeric notation in India, (Ifrah arguing that the use of zero is already implied in Aryabhatta) tangible evidence for the use of the zero begins to proliferate towards the end of the Gupta period.
Although the Chinese were also using a decimal based counting system, the Chinese lacked a formal notational system that had the abstraction and elegance of the Indian notational system, and it was the Indian notational system that reached the Western world through the Arabs and has now been accepted as universal.
There was already a long and established history in the use of decimal numbers, and philosophical and cosmological constructs encouraged a creative and expansive approach to number theory.
india_resource.tripod.com /mathematics.htm   (4603 words)

 Aristotle and Mathematics (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
It is not clear why Aristotle thinks one needs to learn mathematical axioms to learn anything, unless he means that one needs to learn them to learn anything in a mathematical subject or that axioms are so basic that they should form the first part of one ‘s learning.
Similarly, the explanatory relation between mathematical optics and geometry is not the same as the relation of optics to empirical optics.
Aristotle's rejection of intermediates involves showing that their advocates are committed to an unwieldy multiplicity of mathematical universes, at least one corresponding to each mathematical science, whether kinematics, astronomy, or geometry.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/aristotle-mathematics   (9432 words)

 History overview
Copernicus and Galileo revolutionised the applications of mathematics to the study of the universe.
The progress in algebra had a major psychological effect and enthusiasm for mathematical research, in particular research in algebra, spread from Italy to Stevin in Belgium and Viète in France.
The convention we use (letters near the end of the alphabet representing unknowns) was introduced by Descartes in 1637.
www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk /~history/HistTopics/History_overview.html   (1886 words)

 History overview
The Babylonian basis of mathematics was inherited by the Greeks and independent development by the Greeks began from around 450 BC.
We are, often without realising it, using a convention that letters near the end of the alphabet represent unknowns while those near the beginning represent known quantities.
The convention we use (letters near the end of the alphabet representing unknowns) was introduced by Descartes in 1637.
www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk /~history/HistTopics/History_overview.html   (1887 words)

 Illuminations: Code Crackers
Frequency analysis is the process by which the frequency of a letter in an encoded messages is compared with the frequency of letters in English words.
Continuing the same type of reasoning, the next five most common letters on the Letter Frequency chart are A, I, N, O, and R, all of which are just over 7%.
The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics is a public voice of mathematics education, providing vision, leadership, and professional development to support teachers in ensuring mathematics learning of the highest quality for all students.
illuminations.nctm.org /LessonDetail.aspx?ID=L587   (1659 words)

 PBS - Islam: Empire of Faith - Innovative - Algebra & Trigonometry
Medieval Muslims made invaluable contributions to the study of mathematics, and their key role is clear from the many terms derived from Arabic.
Traditional systems had used different letters of the alphabet to represent numbers or cumbersome Roman numerals, and the new system was far superior, for it allowed people to multiply and divide easily and check their work.
By the fourteenth century, Italian merchants and bankers had abandoned the abacus and were doing their calculations using pen and paper, in much the same way we do today.
www.pbs.org /empires/islam/innoalgebra.html   (390 words)

The 24 letters of the alphabet were all used as numerals, as were three obsolete letters, bringing the total to 27.
As with the Greeks, they used letters of the alphabet for numbers -- which meant that numbers could be confused with words, so they often prefixed ' or a dot over the number to indicate that it was a numeral.
The use of Arabic numerals was further encouraged when the Yorkshireman John Holywood (died 1250) produced his own book on the subject, which was quote popular; Singer, p.
www.skypoint.com /~waltzmn/Mathematics.html   (18907 words)

 Math Forum: Ask Dr. Math FAQ: Roman Numerals
The biggest Roman numeral is M, for 1000, so one easy way to write large numbers is to line up the Ms: MMMMMMM would be 7000, for instance.
Introduction to Roman numerals, their history, large numbers, and a Java applet that converts a number from Roman to Arabic numerals.
They used their mathematics for more practical purposes, such as building roads, bridges, and temples out of stone, keeping accounts, and supplying their armies.
mathforum.org /dr.math/faq/faq.roman.html   (1578 words)

 Islamic History in Arabia and Middle East
This alphabetical system is still used by the Arabs, much as Roman numerals are used in the West for outlines and in enumerating kings, emperors, and popes.
The new mathematical principle on which the Arabic numerals were based greatly simplified arithmetic.
Their adoption in Europe began in the tenth century after an Arabic mathematical treatise was translated by a scholar in Spain and spread throughout the West.
www.islamicity.com /mosque/ihame/Ref6.htm   (527 words)

 United States Kenpo Karate Assosication Home Page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Except for common foreign words and phrases, the use of foreign words and phrases should be avoided.
Use hanging indents for citations (i.e., the first line of the citation should be flush with the left margin and all other lines should be indented from the left margin by a set amount).
After the first cite in the text using the author-date method, subsequent cites can use just the last names if that would be unambiguous.
www.uskka.com /pfw.php?author   (1839 words)

 Sidonius Apollinaris, Letters. Tr. O.M. Dalton (1915) pp. xi-clv ; Introduction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
is justified by the letters alluding to the sojourn of Majorian in that town.
The enthusiasm for letters which such promotion implies is laudable in itself; but in the time of Roman decadence the reward fell to an artifice which sterilized instead of fertilizing the mind, and drove hearts capable of valiant action into channels of sentimental retrospect.
The Letters which yield most with least trouble are precisely those in which an eager personal interest in his subject, or the pressure of a busy life, or some unexpected necessity for haste have forced the writer to abandon his preoccupation with style and tell his business in a natural way.
www.tertullian.org /fathers/sidonius_letters_00_3_intro.htm   (20666 words)

 Changing Fonts in Mathematics Mode   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The `math italic' font is automatically used in mathematics mode unless you explicitly change the font.
The rules for changing the font in mathematics mode are rather different to those applying when typesetting ordinary text.
In mathematics mode any change only applies to the single character or symbol that follows (or to any text enclosed within braces immediately following the control sequence).
www.maths.tcd.ie /~dwilkins/LaTeXPrimer/MathFonts.html   (157 words)

 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Roman letters used in mathematics
Many Roman letters, both capital and small, are used in mathematics, science and engineering to denote by convention specific or abstracted constants, variables of a certain type, units, multipliers, physical entities.
Below is an alphabetical list of the letters of the alphabet with some of their uses.
The field in which the convention applies is mathematics unless otherwise noted.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Roman_letters_used_in_mathematics   (887 words)

 Halfbakery: Recursive Notation in Mathematics
I feel this is something lacking from mathematics...
I should mention in any case that certain Greek letters, including omicron, are not generally used in mathematical notation because they're hard (or impossible, depending on the typeface) to distinguish from Roman letters.
it is only used to express an infinite number of iterations when used in conjuction with either a recursive notation like that I suggest or discussed by you, or a variable series(a good example being the theory of definite integration)/product expression...
www.halfbakery.com /idea/Recursive_20Notation_20in_20Mathematics   (830 words)

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