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Topic: Roman numerals


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In the News (Tue 25 Nov 14)

  
  Roman Numerals
The Romans were active in trade and commerce, and from the time of learning to write they needed a way to indicate numbers.
The big differences between Roman and Arabic numerals (the ones we use today) are that Romans didn't have a symbol for zero, and that numeral placement within a number can sometimes indicate subtraction rather than addition.
You see a lot of Ms because Roman numerals are used a lot to indicate dates.
www.novaroma.org /via_romana/numbers.html   (507 words)

  
  Roman numerals
A numeral that is “out of order,” that is, that appears to the left of a numeral with a larger value, has its value subtracted from the value of the larger numeral.
Roman numerals encountered today usually begin with, at most, M's and only M's.
Today, Roman numerals are used mainly as an alternative to the Hindu-Arabic numerals in outlines and other instances in which two distinct sets of numerals are useful, for clock faces, for ceremonial and monumental purposes, and by publishers and film distributors who have an interest in making copyright dates difficult to read.
www.sizes.com /numbers/roman_numerals.htm   (958 words)

  
  Roman numerals Summary
The Roman numeral system for representing numbers was developed around 500 B.C. As the Romans conquered much of the world that was known to them, their numeral system spread throughout Europe, where Roman numerals remained the primary manner for representing numbers for centuries.
Roman numerals are commonly used today in numbered lists (in outline format), clockfaces, pages preceding the main body of a book, chord triads in music analysis, the numbering of movie sequels, book publication dates, successive rulers with identical names, and the numbering of some sport events, such as the Olympic Games or the Super Bowls.
Roman numerals remained in common use until about the 14th century, when they were replaced by Arabic numerals (thought to have been introduced to Europe from al-Andalus, by way of Arab traders and arithmetic treatises, around the 11th century).
www.bookrags.com /Roman_numerals   (5184 words)

  
  Roman numerals - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Roman numerals remained in common use until about the 14th century, when they were replaced by Arabic numerals (thought to have been introduced to Europe from al-Andalus, by way of Arab traders and arithmetic treatises, around the 11th century).
The use of Roman numerals today is mostly restricted to ordinal numbers, such as volumes or chapters in a book or the numbers identifying monarchs or popes (eg.
In chemistry, Roman numerals were used to denote the group in the periodic table of the elements.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Roman_numerals   (2940 words)

  
 roman numerals
I suppose this suggests that basic arithmetic with unwieldy roman numerals is sufficient to undertake the amazing feats of ancient roman building and civil engineering such as the roman aqueducts.
Through the ages Roman numerals have often been employed to mark dates, for example on books and buildings, to the point that we are literally surrounded by plenty of examples.
The Roman Numeral system was obviously pretty unwieldy and an evident shortcoming of it is the lack of simple means of defining larger numbers, possibly suggesting that the Romans had little need for such large arithmetics.
www.mariamilani.com /ancient_rome/roman_numerals.htm   (562 words)

  
 numeral   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Roman numerals were used only to record numbers.
The Roman numerals are the "sisters" of the Latin spoken numbers.
Like the words the numerals were not invented suddenly by one person, but were evolved gradually by the people who used them.
www.geocities.com /Athens/Stage/3591/numerals.html   (204 words)

  
 Uri's page-Roman Numerals
Roman numerals are still used today, more than 2000 years after their introduction.
Roman numerals are found in numbering paragraphs in complex documents to clarify which are main sections and which subsections so II.3.iv.(5).
Up until the eighteenth century Roman numerals were used in Europe for book-keeping even though the arabic numerals we use today were known and in use from around 1000 AD.
www.geocities.com /uripi/romnumb.html   (1591 words)

  
 [No title]
Until fairly recently a commonly used Roman numeral for 1,000 was "CI backwards C", derived from the Greek "phi", or "I" superimposed on "O".
Obviously, the cumbersome aspect of Roman numerals is one of the main reasons that they have been replaced by the Arabic system in our daily mathematical lives.
Roman numerals remain important as a part of the world's cultural past, and a unique way to express numbers.
www.col-ed.org /cur/math/math41.txt   (926 words)

  
 Roman Numerals   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Roman numerals have no place value, i.e., their position in a series of numerals does not determine their value.
Notwitstanding, numerals are written in descending order with the highest value numberal positioned at the leftmost end of the series.
What follows is a table of Roman numbers with their decimal number equivalent which you can use to build any Roman number with a value of up to several millions.
web.tri-isys.com /egtan/excursions/romanum.html   (960 words)

  
 Legion XXIV - Roman Numerals Page
Roman Numerals was the standard numbering system and method of Arithmetic in Ancient Rome and Europe until about 900 AD, when the Arabic Numbering System, which was originated by the Hindu's, came into use.
In some styles of Roman Numerals, "D" is sometimes represented by an "I" followed by a backwards "C", something like "I)"; and "M" is shown as a "C" followed by an "I" and a backwards "C".
Roman numerals were used primarily for counting, as the ancients had little use for, or understanding of "calculation" or arithmetic as we know it today.
www.legionxxiv.org /numerals   (701 words)

  
 Math Forum: Ask Dr. Math FAQ: Roman Numerals
A numeral is a symbol used to represent a number.
The biggest Roman numeral is M, for 1000, so one easy way to write large numbers is to line up the Ms: MMMMMMM would be 7000, for instance.
Introduction to Roman numerals, their history, large numbers, and a Java applet that converts a number from Roman to Arabic numerals.
mathforum.org /dr.math/faq/faq.roman.html   (1578 words)

  
 PlanetMath: Roman numerals
Roman numerals are a method of writing numbers employed primarily by the ancient Romans.
It place of digits, the Romans used letters to represent the numbers central to the system:
This is version 5 of Roman numerals, born on 2002-08-20, modified 2004-04-02.
planetmath.org /encyclopedia/RomanNumerals.html   (159 words)

  
 Units: Roman and "Arabic" Numerals
Nonetheless, the Roman symbols for numbers continue to be used in a variety of ways, most of them rather stereotyped: to mark the hours on clock faces, to number pages in the prefaces of books, to express copyright dates, and to count items in a series (such as the Super Bowls of U.S. professional football).
Roman Numeral Year Dates, a Conversion Guide, by Christopher Hardy: guide to various practices that have been used in the past in writing Roman numerals.
Roman Numerals, Roman Numeration System, by Gérard P. Michon, has an advanced discussion of how large numbers were represented in the Roman system.
www.unc.edu /~rowlett/units/roman.html   (1003 words)

  
 Kids.net.au - Encyclopedia Roman numerals -   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The sytem of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome.
Some rules regarding Roman numerals state that a symbol representing 10^x may not precede any symbol larger than 10^(x + 1); use XCIX not IC for 99.
The BBC uses them to denote the year in which a programme was made.
www.kidsseek.com /encyclopedia-wiki/ro/Roman_numerals   (429 words)

  
 Roman Numeral Conversion and Self Test
Roman numerals cannot be negative and there is no roman numeral zero.
The calculator accepts non-standard roman numerals such as IM and IIII, but such numerals are normalized to their canonical form.
The maximum number that can be represented in Roman Numerals by this calculator is 3,999,999.
ostermiller.org /calc/roman.html   (225 words)

  
 Math Forum: Ask Dr. Math FAQ: Roman Numerals
A numeral is a symbol used to represent a number.
The biggest Roman numeral is M, for 1000, so one easy way to write large numbers is to line up the Ms: MMMMMMM would be 7000, for instance.
Introduction to Roman numerals, their history, large numbers, and a Java applet that converts a number from Roman to Arabic numerals.
mathforum.com /dr.math/faq/faq.roman.html   (1578 words)

  
 ITOG-U - Course: Roman Numerals (xc-002)   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Each roman numeral has a particular value and the placement of the numeral does not change unless specific conditions are met.
First, Roman Numerals are additive and are written from largest to smallest from left to right.
This additive action of Roman Numerals is used until you reach a value just before the value of the next highest numeral.
www.itog.com /xc-002.shtml   (973 words)

  
 Roman Numeral Dates | Conversion Guide
This page is intended as a guide to deciphering Roman numeral year dates[1] as they are commonly found in the imprints of both modern and early printed books.
A well-known, but still often confusing feature of modern Roman numerals is the subtraction principle, which requires that a lower numeral appearing before a higher one[3] be subtracted from the higher value, not added to the total.
An exception is the numeral M, or 1000, which is used 4 times to represent our number 4000, since the Romans had no single-letter numeral representing a higher value than M. It is now also customary not to repeat the values V, L, or D (5, 50, or 500) in the same numeral.
www2.inetdirect.net /~charta/Roman_numerals.html   (2066 words)

  
 Roman Numeral / Arabic Numeral Conversion
Roman numerals are mathematically converted to Arabic numerals simply through the assignment of an Arabic numerical value to each letter and calculating a total.
The letters (roman numerals) are arranged from left to right with each letter decreasing in value as you go "down the line." The totals are derived through adding the numerical equivalent of all the letters.
To convert Arabic numbers into Roman numerals, type (in a blank cell) "ROMAN(A1)" where the "A1" references the cell containing the Arabic numeral you wish to convert.
www.weplan.com /romannumeral.htm   (368 words)

  
 Roman & Arabic Numerals
When a smaller Roman numeral proceeds a larger Roman numeral, it is subtracted from the larger Roman numeral.
The Roman numeral xc is equal to 90, because x (10) is smaller than c (100) and it proceeds c (100); therefore, x (10) is subtracted from c (100) to yield 90.
The Roman numeral cx is equal to 110, because x (10) is smaller than c (100) and it follows after c (100); therefore, x (10) is added to c (100) to yield 110.
www.muhammadanism.org /help/roman_numeral.htm   (246 words)

  
 Roman Numerals, Roman Numeration System - Numericana
When the second of the above conditions was not met in front of an M (or C) numeral, a medieval convention was that the number to the left of M (or C) was the number of thousands (or hundreds) which was to be added to the number located to the right of M (or C).
The basic rules of Roman numeration apply to such symbols: Any numeral is counted positively unless there's a larger numeral anywhere to its right, in which case it is counted negatively.
Your discussion of roman numerals left me wondering if combinations of superscripting and overstriking, say, would be an acceptable stretch of the Roman system to represent larger numbers...
home.att.net /~numericana/answer/roman.htm   (1564 words)

  
 The Roman Hand-Abacus
In the history of mathematics, the contributions of the Roman Empire are sometimes overlooked.
Roman Numerals are considered cumbersome and the Roman's lack of contributions to mathematics, and the lack of the Zero, are held in low esteem.
Since the Romans used Roman Numerals to record results, and since Roman Numerals were positively definitive, there was no need for a zero notation.
www.ee.ryerson.ca:8080 /~elf/abacus/roman-hand-abacus.html   (726 words)

  
 ROMAN NUMERALS   (Site not responding. Last check: )
To translate any Roman numeral one should first break the number down into separate processes; these breaks are indicated wherever a subordinate symbol follows one of higher value.
It is quite a complicated task to add two Roman numerals together or even to subtract one from another, and multiplication and division are both extremely difficult.
The Roman accountant's task would be simplified to some extent by the use of an abacus, or by utilising a complicated system of counting using both the digits and finger joints of each hand.
www.roman-britain.org /numerals.htm   (639 words)

  
 Math Forum: Ask Dr. Math FAQ: Roman Numerals
The biggest Roman numeral is M, for 1000, so one easy way to write large numbers is to line up the Ms: MMMMMMM would be 7000, for instance.
Introduction to Roman numerals, their history, large numbers, and a Java applet that converts a number from Roman to Arabic numerals.
Note that the Romans didn't worry about the subtraction principle unless they were actually writing their numbers down (and not always then).
www.mathforum.org /dr.math/faq/faq.roman.html   (1578 words)

  
 Roman numerals   (Site not responding. Last check: )
That is probably because the numerals represented numbers as they were depicted on an abacus - a calculating machine using pebbles or beads which were arranged from right to left in columns of units, tens, hundreds, thousands etc. That means that 99 could be represented as XCIX - 90+9 but never as IC.
However, in the Roman examples of Roman numbers which I have seen, where the subtraction rule was used for part of a number but not all of it, then it is the smaller end where it is not used.
However, between Roman times and the medieval period, the principles of writing numbers in Roman numerals were codified and the subtractive principle was always used.
www.wilkiecollins.demon.co.uk /roman/1999.htm   (486 words)

  
 Coolmath4kids - Calculators - Roman Numeral Calculator
Numerals which are powers of ten (I, X, C, etc.) can be repeated up to three times in a row; other numerals cannot be repeated.
The smaller numeral must be either one-fifth or one-tenth the valve of the larger one.
The smaller numeral must either be the first numeral in the expression, or be preceded by a numeral of at least ten times its valve.
www.coolmath4kids.com /calculators/romanus/index.html   (352 words)

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