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Topic: Roman I of Bulgaria

  bulgaria - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com
The Republic of Bulgaria is a republic in the southeast of Europe.
Bulgaria was a significant European power in the 9th and the 10th century, while fighting with the Byzantine Empire for the control of the Balkans.
Bulgaria regained its independence in 1878 as an autonomous principality and was proclaimed a fully independent kingdom in 1908.
www.onpedia.com /encyclopedia/Bulgaria   (1412 words)

 Bulgaria - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article
The Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Република България) is a republic in the southeast of Europe.
Bulgaria joined NATO on 29 March, 2004 and is set to join the European Union on 1 January, 2007 after signing the Treaty of Accession on 25 April 2005.
According to the 2001 census, Bulgaria's population is mainly ethnic Bulgarian (83.9%), with two sizable minorities in the form of Turks (9.4%) and Roma (4.7%).
www.startsurfing.com /encyclopedia/b/u/l/Bulgaria.html   (1910 words)

 History of Bulgaria   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
At the beginning of the Christian Era, what is now Bulgaria constituted the Roman provinces of Moesia and Thrace, a territory in which Christianity was preached at a very early period, as proved by the Council of Sardica in 343.
As Bulgaria emerged from the throes of communism, it experienced a period of social and economic unrest that culminated in a severe economic and financial crisis in late 1996-early 1997.
Bulgaria officially became a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization on March 29, 2004 after depositing its instruments of treaty ratification in Washington, DC and hopes for a full membership in the European Union by 2007.
www.historyofnations.net /europe/bulgaria.html   (1058 words)

 Bulgaria MINING
Bulgaria was an important regional producer of nonferrous metal ores and concentrates, and was mostly self-sufficient in mineral requirements.
Mining and metalworking in the region was well documented by Roman times, when Bulgaria and Romania, known respectively as Thrace and Dacia, were important sources of base and precious metals.
The latter, which aimed to promote private enterprise and foreign investment, stipulated that underground mineral wealth was the property of the state, and provided for claims by domestic and foreign companies for the development and operation of mineral deposits for up to 35 years with potential 15-year extensions.
www.nationsencyclopedia.com /Europe/Bulgaria-MINING.html   (353 words)

 Roman of Bulgaria - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Roman (Bulgarian: Роман) was emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria from 977 and 997 (in Byzantine captivity from 991).
Roman was the second surviving son of Emperor Peter I of Bulgaria by his marriage with Maria (renamed Eirene) Lakapene, the granddaughter of the Byzantine Emperor Romanos I Lakapenos.
Roman managed to identify himself to the Bulgarian patrols, and was duly recognized by the Bulgarians as emperor, although as a eunuch he was ineligible for the throne.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Roman_I_of_Bulgaria   (550 words)

 Rome and Romania, Roman Emperors, Byzantine Emperors, etc.
Decius and Herennius were killed in battle by the Goths in 251 -- the only Roman Emperors to die in battle (against external enemies) besides Julian (against the Persians, 363), Valens (against the Goths again, 378), Nicephorus I (against the Bulgars, 811), and Constantine XI (with the fall of Constantinople to the Turks, 1453).
The very same institutions, both Roman and Christian in sum and detail, that failed in the West in the face of the German threat, did just fine in the East, long outlasting, and in two dramatic cases defeating, the German successor kingdoms.
This was the end of Roman Gaul, 541 years after Caesar had completed its conquest in 56 BC -- or perhaps 531 years since the defeat, capture, and death of the rebel Vercingetorix in 46 BC.
www.friesian.com /romania.htm   (13905 words)

 Bulgaria - RELIGION
From 1949 until 1989, religion in Bulgaria was mainly controlled by the Law on Religious Organizations, which enumerated the limitations on the constitution's basic separation of church and state.
Roman Catholic missionaries first tried to convert the Bulgarians during the reign of Boris I. They were unsuccessful, and Boris I led the Bulgarians in their conversion to Orthodoxy.
The former predominated in northern Bulgaria and the latter in the south.
countrystudies.us /bulgaria/26.htm   (2148 words)

 Roman Catholicism in Bulgaria - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
As an entity, the Catholic Church consists of two dioceses in Bulgaria, the Diocese of Sofia and Plovdiv and the Diocese of Nikopol, for those of the Latin Rite, and an exarchate with its seat in Sofia for those of the Eastern Rite.
The first one is the group of the Catholics of northwestern Bulgaria, who are successors of Saxon ore miners that settled the area in the Middle Ages and that gradually became Bulgarian, as well as people from the colonies of the Republic of Ragusa in the larger cities.
Bulgaria reestablished relations with the Vatican in 1990, and the Bulgarian government invited Pope John Paul II to visit Bulgaria.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Roman_Catholicism_in_Bulgaria   (979 words)

 Bulgaria   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
Despite that fact, Bulgaria saved the lives of its own 50,000 Jews from the Nazi death camps by refusing to comply with a 31 August 1943 resolution, which demanded their deporatation to Auschwitz.
Main article: Geography of Bulgaria Map of Bulgaria Bulgaria is comprised of the classical Regions of Thrace, Moesia and Macedonia.
Bulgaria has signed an accession treaty with the European Union and is set to join the block in 2007.
bulgaria.iqnaut.net   (1509 words)

 Bulgaria Holidays & Holidays in Bulgaria
Bulgaria as a country was formed in the late 7 th century when The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local Slavic inhabitants to form the first Bulgarian State.
In the centuries that followed, Bulgaria struggled with the Byzantine Empire to gain control of the Balkans, and by the end of the 14th century the country was besieged and conquered by Ottoman Turks.
Bulgaria regained its independence in 1878, but alas, having fought in the side of the Nazis during the two World Wars of the early 20 th century, it became encapsulated as part of the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in 1946.
www.archersdirect.co.uk /bulgaria_holidays.php   (2163 words)

Trade unions are required to demonstrate their membership strength through a periodic census of their members; however, employer representative organizations are not similarly required to demonstrate whom they represent in the trilateral process.
Child labor laws generally are enforced well in the formal sector, but NGO's believe that children increasingly were exploited in certain industries (especially small family-owned shops, textile factories, restaurants, family farms, construction, and periodical sales) and by organized crime (notably for prostitution and distribution of narcotics), where they often face illegal conditions.
An ILO-commissioned report on "Problems of Child Labor in the Conditions of Transition in Bulgaria" published the results of a study conducted during 2000, which found that 6.4 percent of children between the ages of 5 and 17, or approximately 80,000 children, were involved in paid employment in the informal sector.
www.erieri.co.uk /freedata/HRCodes/BULGARIA.htm   (1817 words)

Bulgaria is divided into two parts by the Balkan mountain, and also borders the Black sea.
After the Ottoman conquest of Bulgaria in 1396 the power that preserved Bulgarians from Ottoman assimilation during almost 5 centuries Ottoman ruling was the strong sense of ethnic belonging.
The primary religions [in Bulgaria] are “Bulgarian Orthodox 83.5%, Muslim 13%, Roman Catholic 1.5%, Jewish 0.8%, Uniate Catholic 0.2%, Protestant, Gregorian-Armenian, and other 1% (1998)”.
www.pitt.edu /~ethics/Bulgaria/culture.htm   (791 words)

 SP-P Publishing - Modern Counterfeits and Replicas of Greek and Roman Coins from Bulgaria
This is a second booklet on the counterfeits of ancient coins from present-day Bulgaria.In 1997, a team of three co-authors lead by Dr. Prokopov prepared and edited a first small book of fake coins, which was subsequently published in Sofia.
For the first time, 8 sets of new steel dies for striking of Roman Republican and Imperial coins are illustrated and commented.
Such imitations are offered for sale in museum giftshops as replicas and souvenirs in Bulgaria and in the West and North America for use in coin jewellery.
sp-p.net /first.htm   (413 words)

It is a rare and important artifact of the Roman Period as this region was the northern-most boundary of the Empire during the 2nd century AD.
In the Balkans, Roman camps and fortresses along the Danube were constantly being challenged by opposing tribes and armies.
Collected from a region that was once occupied by a Roman military camp and outpost, this arrowhead was utilized by Roman soldiers in one of the many violent and frequent battles that took place nearly two thousand years ago.
www.paleodirect.com /cbi-038.htm   (791 words)

 First Europe Tutorial - Roman Territorial Expansion
Roman and Carthaginian Territories in the Mediterranean 270 B.C.E. Rome's successful conquest of the Italian peninsula created a strong military ethos and provided the Roman state with considerable manpower.
Roman Domination of the Mediterranean 86 B.C.E. Rome's success in its territorial expansion can be credited to its military superiority and to its policy of absorbing conquered peoples.
During the last century of the Republic, Roman generals won victories in northern Africa and in southern France, where upon a Roman colony was settled in Narbonne and a road built to link Italy with Spain.
www.ucalgary.ca /applied_history/tutor/firsteuro/roman.html   (1314 words)

 'The Roman Empire under Constantine'
In accordance with the Roman "Julian calendar," the "Saturnalia" festival appears to have taken place on December 17th; it was preceded by the "Consualia" near December 15th, and followed by the "Opalia" on December 19th.
Roman Catholic Pope Gregory the XIII caused the current "Gregorian Calendar" to be adopted, in order to eliminate the solar time shift error that was introduced over the time period of 1,629 years by the inaccurate "Julian Calendar."
On the new Roman Catholic Gregorian calendar the shortest annual day was numerically shifted back 10 days to the 22nd of December, where it remains to this day; while the original order of the seven days of the week remained unchanged.
www.sabbatarian.com /Paganism/RomanEmpire.html   (2813 words)

 Peter I of Bulgaria - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Peter I was the son of Simeon I of Bulgaria by his second marriage to the sister of George Sursuvul.
Dissuaded from a direct attack against Bulgaria, Nikephoros II dispatched a messenger to the Kievan prince Sviatoslav Igorevich to arrange a Kievan attack against Bulgaria from the north.
Peter was considered a good ruler in the Middle Ages, and when Bulgaria fell under Byzantine rule (1018–1185), leaders of attempts to restore Bulgarian independence adopted his name to emphasize legitimacy and continuity.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Peter_I_of_Bulgaria   (1169 words)

Roman or some cognate means "novel" in all European languages including Turkish except for the languages of the British Isles and the Iberian Peninsula (giving loanwords like Bildungsroman); in such languages, the cognates of novel mean English "novella"
Roman alphabet (Latin alphabet), the standard script of the English language and most of the languages of western and central Europe, and of those areas settled by Europeans
Roman numerals, numeral system where certain letters which are given value
www.brainyencyclopedia.com /encyclopedia/r/ro/roman.html   (304 words)

 [No title]
The earliest man-made glass predated the Roman empire by 2000 years, but the Romans used a greater quantity and variety of glass than any other civilization before the Renaissance.
Glass had a long history of production in the eastern Mediterranean, and the majority of common glass objects were produced in Syria and Israel during the later centuries of...
Seafood formed the bulk of the Roman diet, and urchins were among the items particularly considered to be delicacies.
www.artigua.com /directory/Roman30.html   (582 words)

 Bulgaria slams competition - Sport news
In Seinajoki, Finland, at the 49th European Greco-Roman Wrestling Championship from April 11 to 14, the 28-year-old was very convincing in the 60kg category, reminding of his best year, 1998, when he was named the best Greco-Roman wrestler on the planet out of all categories.
Tenev, who was off of the national team for six years, fought in the final against Rinat Bikkinin of Russia, and lost the championship title in a close fight in the 55kg category.
In the final team rankings, Bulgaria was second with 39 points after Russia with 59 points and before Belarus with 31 points.
www.sofiaecho.com /article/bulgaria-slams-competition/id_4326/catid_34   (692 words)

 Roman Emperors - DIR Maximinus Thrax
Although Rome's senatorial elite was eventually able to bring about the downfall of this non-aristocratic emperor, the victory was only a temporary check on the rising importance of the military in the third century.
Maximinus was born around the year 173 in a village in Thrace (roughly modern Bulgaria and the European portion of Turkey).
He was physically imposing as a young man and embarked on a career in the Roman army.
www.roman-emperors.org /maxthrax.htm   (915 words)

 Bryn Mawr Classical Review 2000.10.26
This section also explains that the work is restricted to Latin inscriptions falling within the present boundaries of Bulgaria, a political unit which does not coincide with the borders of any Roman province (modern Bulgaria includes ancient Moesia Inferior, large parts of Thrace, and small sections of Moesia Superior and Macedonia).
Her stated aims in the catalogues are to collect the Bulgarian Latin material, assemble an exhaustive catalogue as part of a general onomasticon of Latin inscriptions of the Roman Empire, and assess the geographic and ethnic origins and social position of those named on the inscriptions.
In this work, the scholar interested in Romanization in the provinces will have a valuable new tool for the study of at least one part of the Roman world.
ccat.sas.upenn.edu /bmcr/2000/2000-10-26.html   (785 words)

 Bulgaria.com - History, Rulers of Bulgaria - Tsar Samuil   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
His younger brother Roman had been rendered impotent as a prisoner in Cosntantinople and in 978, though technically still tsar, he voluntarily surrendered the power to his military commander Samuil.
Under Samuil, Bulgaria was again established as a great power in the Balkans.
In a new drive against Bulgaria, Tsar Roman was again taken captive and later died in prison in Constantinople.
www.bulgaria.com /history/rulers/samuil.html   (944 words)

 Roman Map and Ring Terms   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
This section is to help give an idea where the Roman Rings are coming from, and helpful terms to help understand the designs.
The below map is the current country of Bulgaria as it was divided into Roman Provences and cities almost 1700 years ago.
This area at one time was the ancient Roman provence of Thracia.
www.geocities.com /tiffmeister68/rmnmap.html   (419 words)

 4.2.1 Black Museum Bulgarian
Since the fall of the Communist regime, Bulgaria has also emerged as a major center of forgery activity in many different areas, one of which is ancient coins.
He has a workshop and gallery in Haskovo, Bulgaria where he produces a variety of imitations of ancient coins.
The best description of his work is that he does not attempt to exactly imitate ancient coins, but instead produces imitations according to his own artistic interpretation.
www.classicalcoins.com /bulgarian.html   (725 words)

 Tour Bulgaria - Part 1 - Sofia, Plovdiv, Rila Monastery
Written records go back to Roman times, then Bulgaria became an important element in the Byzantine empire.
Sofia was a Roman outpost called Serdica and some old Roman ruins may be seen in an underground passage below the main street.
One of the oldest surviving churches in Europe, built by Emperor Constantine in the Fourth Century, Sveti Georgi (St. George) is located close by, behind the Hotel "Balkan".
www.biega.com /bulgaria1.html   (598 words)

 Bulgaria.com - Varna's home page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-10)
It was an inhabited place even before the Greeks established the colony of Odessos there about 580 B.C. Later, under the Romans and their successors, the Slavs, Varna became a major port trading with Constantinople, Venice and Dubrovnik.
The 2nd century thermae are the remains of the largest Roman public building in Bulgaria.
Coming across an extensive ancient building amidst the streets and houses of a modern city is not unusual in Bulgaria, but is always a delight.
www.bulgaria.com /varna   (294 words)

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