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Topic: Romanian War of Independence


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In the News (Wed 22 Oct 14)

  
  Romania - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography
Michael the Brave (Romanian: Mihai Viteazul) (1558-9 August 1601) was the Prince of Wallachia (1593-1601), of Transylvania (1599-1600), and of Moldavia (1600).
The Romanian Government, which is based at Victoria Palace, is headed by a prime minister, who appoints the other members of his or her cabinet and who is nearly always the head of the party or coalition that holds a majority in the parliament.
Romanian is spoken as a first language by 91% of the population, with Hungarian and Romani being the most important minority languages, spoken by 6.7% and 1.1% of the population, respectively.
www.arikah.com /encyclopedia/Romania   (5287 words)

  
 history of romania - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com
In 1877, Romania declared independence from the Ottoman Empire and, following a Russian-Romanian-Turkish war, its independence was recognized by the Treaty of Berlin, 1878, making it the first independent national state in the eastern half of Europe.
By the end of the war, the Austro-Hungarian and Russian empires were gone; governing bodies created in Transylvania, Bessarabia and Bukovina chose union with Romania, resulting in Greater Romania.
As a result of the ratification by King Carol II of the yielding of Northern Transylvania to Hungary, southern Dobrudja to Bulgaria, and Bessarabia and northern Bukovina to USSR in 1940, general Ion Antonescu was supported by the army to seize the leadership of Romania.
www.onpedia.com /encyclopedia/history-of-romania   (1800 words)

  
 Romanian History
The Romanian land is rich with petroleum deposits, placing the country in second position among European nations in terms of oil resources.
In 1877, Romanians waged another war of independence to free the country from the Turkish empire.
Romanian independence was granted a year later by the Berlin International Peace Congress.
my.execpc.com /~raa/romanian_history.htm   (1941 words)

  
 History of Romanians
Owing to their position, the Romanians south of the Danube were the first to be mentioned in historical sources (the 10th century), under the name of vlahi or blahi (Wallachians); this name shows they were speakers of a Romance language and that the non-Roman peoples around them recognised this fact.
A Romanian army, under the personal command of Prince Carol I, crossed the Danube and participated in the siege of Pleven; the result was the surrender of the Ottoman army led by Osman Pasha (December 10, 1877).
At that time the National Romanian Party in Transylvania played an important role in asserting the Romanian national identity; the party was reorganized in 1881 and it became the standard bearer in the struggle to achieve recognition of equal rights of the Romanian nation and it the resistance against the denationalization projects.
www.roembus.org /english/romanian_links/history_of_romanians.htm   (5696 words)

  
 Balkan politics in the Cold War years
Whatever their value as histories of the Cold War of the Super-Powers, such books obviously are useless as histories of the Balkans during the last fifty years: they ignore too much.
An independent Cyprus was acceptable to Archbishop Makarios III, an Orthodox cleric who was the leader of the Greek community, but not to Grivas or to nationalists in Athens.
The leading figures of Romanian literature, history and culture were censored and suppressed, and Russian language and literature studies flourished under state sponsorship.
www.lib.msu.edu /sowards/balkan/lect22.htm   (4120 words)

  
 Romanian Orthodox Elders and Spiritual Fathers
In 1925, the Romanian Orthodox Church was raised at the rank of a Patriarchate.
The Romanian Orthodox Church, develops its activity on the basis of the statute of organisation and functioning sanctioned by the Holy Synod in 1948 and acknowledged by the Presidium of the Grand National Assembly by the Decree no.233 on the 23rd of February 1949.
Valuable libraries of the Romanian Orthodox Church are : the Library of the Holy Synod, the Library of the Metropolitan Church of Sibiu and the libraries of the Neamt and Cernica Monasteries.
www.orthodoxphotos.com /Orthodox_Elders/Romanian/index.shtml   (2923 words)

  
 EXCERPTS ON ROMANIAN MONETARY HISTORY
The romanian leu, an imaginary computation unit, was divided into 40 parale/pennies and one penny [named in Romanian language para (pl. parale)] into 3 bani; the subdivisions were represented by turkish coins with close values.
This law established for the first time the national romanian currency; it was officially named leu, it comprised 100 ban(i) and it was based on a two-metals-system, namely coins were made of silver or gold; its value was represented by 5 grams of silver title 850/1000 or 0,3226 grams of gold title 900/1000.
The outbreak of the romanian Independence War [in 1877] triggered a cash crisis that was overcome by issuing mortgage bonds, which represented the first romanian banknotes.
www.genealogy.ro /banat/monetaryhistory.html   (1188 words)

  
 Romanian Club   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Cultures that enjoyed the comfort of a long tradition, as well as cultures that had recently emerged in the aftermath of the collapse of multinational empires discovered the need of examining their identity; inventing various types of otherness was part of this sometimes unpleasant process.
As a result of three turning-points in its modern history (the unification of the Romanian provinces in 1859, the rapid shift from a quasi-feudal society to a modern monarchy, the Independence War in 1877/78), Romanian culture vacillated between the imitation of foreign models and original manifestations.
It was, as I mentioned before a new continent that was perceived by the descendants of one of the oldest populations in Europe: Romanians.
www.columbia.edu /cu/romanian/articles/article_america.html   (3783 words)

  
 Roumanian Cruiser Elisabeta
By this time she was commanded by Capitan [that's Romanian for captain, not a typo] Vasile Urseanu, as Murgescu's duties overseeing the fledgling Royal Romanian Navy left him a bit too busy to pursue a fulltime flag command.
Faced with resolute Romanian refusal of either much-needed coal or provisions demanded by the Potemkin, the mutineers toyed briefly with the notion of purchasing the Elisabeta from her crew as a "getaway ship" capable of escaping from the eventual local return of the Tsarist Russian Navy.
When Romania entered the War in August 1916 the cruiser's advanced age and subsequent obsolescent condition led the Romanian High Command to remove her main armament for shore duty.
www.gwpda.org /naval/weliz000.htm   (3807 words)

  
 The Greek Revolution and the Greek State
The Greek revolution that began in 1821, followed by the war of independence, was the second of the "national revolutions" in the Balkans.
Turkey was at war with Persia, and in the Balkans Ali Pasha was in revolt.
The third phase of the war was characterized by foreign interference, and ran from 1825 until 1827.
www.lib.msu.edu /sowards/balkan/lecture6.html   (4163 words)

  
 Romania:   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
The fact that Romanians refer to themselves using a derivative of Romanus (Romanian: Român/Rumân) is mentioned in scholarly works as early as the 16th century by many authors, among them Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania, Moldavia and Wallachia.
He is claimed by the Romanians because of his Romanian father, Iancu de Hunedoara (Hunyadi János in Hungarian), and by the Hungarians because of his Hungarian mother.
During the period of the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary (1867-1918), Romanians in Transylvania experienced a period of severe oppression under the Magyarization policies of the Hungarian government.
winelib.com /wiki/Romania   (2884 words)

  
 "AXIS & LEGION MILITARIA" - Axis & Legion Militaria
As the war progress and countries changed alliance those awards were removed such as with Romania and Finland.
The Crimean campaign was one of the hardest battles that the Romanians fought, which amounted to loosing 40 percent of its combat strength.
Many Romanian mountain troops were used for rearguard actions against overwhelming odds while protecting the flank of the German V Corps.
axis101.bizland.com /RomanianAwards01.htm   (1179 words)

  
 Top20Romania.com - Your Top20 Guide to Romania!
The oldest surviving document written in the Romanian language is a 1521 letter which notifies the mayor of Braşov about the imminent attack of the Ottoman Turks.
During the time of Austria-Hungary (1867–1918), Romanians in Transylvania experienced one of the worst periods of oppression in their history in the form of Hungarianisation (Magyarisation and antiromanian policy) promoted by the government.
In 1940, at the beginning of World War II, Northern Bukovina and Bessarabia, Northern Transylvania, and southern Dobrudja were occupied by the Soviet Union by the Soviet Union invasion, Hungary and Bulgaria respectively, Romania being under the dictatorship of Carol II.
www.top20romania.com   (4177 words)

  
 Romania at Caribbean Topfunwebsites   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
At the end of the 18th century, the Austrian Empire (since 1867) incorporated Transylvania until 1918 at the end of World War I. The modern state of Romania was formed by the merging of the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia in 1859 under the domnitor Alexandru Ioan Cuza.
The decades-long reign of Communism under, ended in late 1989 (see Romanian Revolution of 1989), and the elections of 1990 were won by FSN, part of which, reformed as the Social Democrats, continued to be present in the democratically elected government until 1996 when CDR, a center-right coalition took power for one term.
The official language is Romanian language, a Romance language of the Italic subfamily of the family of languages, which are also called Romanic or Romantic languages.
www.topfunwebsites.com /guyana/romania.html   (1958 words)

  
 Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hence, in Romanian historic works, the war is known as the Romanian War of Independence.
Some described this war as "a war between the one-eyed and the blind", so many errors of strategy and judgment were committed on both sides.
The war resulted in decrease of the Muslim population in Bulgaria between 1876 and 1882: it is estimated that 262,000 died of various reasons and 515,000 fled
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Russo-Turkish_War,_1877-1878   (1695 words)

  
 Romania - World War II
Romanian jingoes in Odessa even distributed a geography showing that the Dacians had inhabited most of southern Russia.
During the war, Antonescu's regime severely oppressed the Jews in Romania and the conquered territories.
During the war, about 260,000 Jews were killed in Bessarabia, Bukovina, and in the camps across the Dniester; Hungary's Nazi government killed or deported about 120,000 of Transylvania's 150,000 Jews in 1944.
countrystudies.us /romania/22.htm   (893 words)

  
 CORA - Congress of Romanian Americans
He said that Law 10/2001 continues to be administered in a prejudicial manner, and urged the Romanian government to broaden the scope of in-kind restitution.
Romanian Television in the U.S. Romanian Satellite Network is a new network created with the purpose of bringing the best in Romanian television to all the Romanian families living in America.
Its main goal is to objectively present the Romanian tradition and news by broadcasting three distinctive television channels that provide access 24 hours a day to the most popular TV programs from Romania.
www.romanianamericans.org /nsltr_winter_spring_04.html   (2399 words)

  
 1877 - TvWiki, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
May 10 - Romania declares itself independent from Turkey (recognized in 1881 after the end of the Romanian independence war).
September 5 - Indian Wars: Oglala Sioux chief Crazy Horse is bayoneted by a United States soldier after resisting confinement in a guardhouse at Fort Robinson in Nebraska.
War between Russia and the Ottoman Empire (Russo-Turkish War), leading to the formation of Bulgaria in 1878.
www.tvwiki.tv /wiki/1877   (954 words)

  
 Romanian War of Independence - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Romanian War of Independence was fought in 1877 against the Ottoman Empire.
A day later, the Romanian government canceled paying its tribute to Turkey (914,000 lei) and the sum was given instead to the War Minister.
The peace treaty gave Romania its independence, the territories of Dobrogea, the Danube Delta, and Insula Serpilor, but Russia occupied the southern counties of Bessarabia (Cahul, Bolgrad and Ismail), which by the Treaty of Paris (1856, after the Crimean War) were included in Moldavia.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Romanian_War_of_Independence   (589 words)

  
 Coat of Arms of Romania
The coat of arms of Greater Romania was replaced in 1947, when the Romanian People’s Republic was proclaimed under pressure from the Soviet occupation troops, with a decorative effigy symbolizing the country’s riches guarded by ears of wheat and a rising sun as a background as well as a red star in the chief.
On the bird’s chest there is a quartered escutcheon with the symbols of the historical Romanian provinces (Wallachia, Moldavia, Transylvania, Banat and Crisana) as well as two dolphins reminding of the country’s Black Sea Coast.
In the first quarter there is again Wallachia’s coat of arms on azure: an eagle or holding in its beak a golden Orthodox cross, accompanied by a golden sun on the right and a golden new moon on the left.
www.roembus.org /english/romanian_links/stema.htm   (701 words)

  
 First World War.com - Primary Documents - King Ferdinand's Proclamation to the Romanian People, 28 August 1916
Published on the day war against Austria-Hungary was officially announced by Prime Minister Ion Bratianu, the King's proclamation alerted his people to the sacrifices ahead, but pointed to the great gains made possible by a successful outcome.
The war which for the last two years has been encircling our frontiers more and more closely has shaken the ancient foundations of Europe to their depths.
It has brought the day which has been awaited for centuries by the national conscience, by the founders of the Rumanian State, by those who united the principalities in the war of independence, by those responsible for the national renaissance.
www.firstworldwar.com /source/romania_ferdinandproc1.htm   (411 words)

  
 The "foreignness" of classical modern art in Romania Art Bulletin, The - Find Articles
Romanians of all strata subscribed to the belief in their national singularity as "Europeans" living in an Eastern environment whose habits, customs, and mores they purported to reject but for the most part accepted.
Of peasant background, Grigorescu began his career by painting icons for the Romanian Orthodox Church and later served as a frontline correspondent attached to the high command, recording the action on the Bulgarian front during the Romanian War of Independence, 1877-78 [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 3 OMITTED].
After being schooled in the distinctly Romanian context of heroic national events and traditional religious iconography and its corresponding visual style, Grigorescu went to Paris, where he absorbed Barbizon landscape aesthetics and the art of Jean-Francois Millet, Gustave Courbet, and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m0422/is_3_80/ai_54073947   (688 words)

  
 Avalanche Press
In her initial Romanian configuration she had three 120mm guns, but was also rebuilt in 1937-38 at Galati, landing her aft turret and receiving a fairly heavy anti-aircraft armament — six 37mm and four 20mm guns, further augmented during the war.
The Danube Division did not live up to its potential during the war; the monitors skirmished with the Soviet Danube Flotilla in the war’s opening days but did not directly challenge their enemies, as the rapid advance on land assured that the Soviets would have to withdraw soon regardless of Romanian actions on the river.
The Romanian monitors are valuable fire support assets to the Axis player in Red Steel, but we definitely undervalued them — the seven monitors are grouped into two river-bound artillery support units.
www.avalanchepress.com /RomanianFlotilla.php?mode=print   (982 words)

  
 The Civl War
The movement for autonomy and independence in the various national republics of the USSR has intensified.
Snegur pursued independence from the Soviet Union and recognition of independence from the western powers.
In 1991, the Supreme Soviet was renamed to be the Parliament of the republic, which subsequently declared its independence from the U.S.S.R., under the name of the Republic of Moldova.
www.mtholyoke.edu /~vteterce/thecivilwar.html   (581 words)

  
 The Honorary Consulate of Romania in Detroit   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-04)
Romanian musical life experienced a radical detachment from the Oriental and Balkan cultures.
The period between the national Independence War and the First World War (1914-1918), was dominated by artistic personalities of international fame, chief among them being George Enescu (1881-1955).
Today, Romanian and foreign concert halls still reverberate with the applause won by geniuses of Romanian music: George Enescu, Ciprian Porumbescu, George Georgescu, Constantin Silvestri, Ionel Perlea, Sergiu Celibidache, Ion Voicu, Dinu Lipatti, Hariclea Darclee, Nicolae Herlea entered the international constellation of music thanks to their art of interpreting the noble language of music.
www.romanianconsulate.com /music.htm   (308 words)

  
 First World War.com - Who's Who - Alexandru Averescu
During the Second Balkan War in 1913 Averescu served as army Chief of Staff.
In August 1916 however she finally entered the war against the Central Powers.
After the war Averescu was responsible for establishing the People's League political group which triumphed in Romania's 1920 elections.
www.firstworldwar.com /bio/averescu.htm   (355 words)

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