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Topic: Root morpheme

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  Root (linguistics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Inflectional roots are often called stems, and a root in the stricter sense may be thought of as a monomorphemic stem.
This distinction between the word as a unit of speech and the root as a unit of meaning is even more important in the case of languages where roots have many different forms when used in actual words, as is the case in Semitic languages.
In these, roots are formed by consonants alone, and different words (belonging to different parts of speech) are derived from the same root by inserting vowels.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Root_morpheme   (487 words)

 Morphemes and Allomorphy
Morphemes are form/meaning pairings (where "form" = distinctive string of sounds).
Morphemes can be roots or affixes, depending on whether they are the main part or dependent part of a word (cf.
In this example, the first two morphemes were borrowed into English from different languages, a sufficient reason for thinking of them as different elements and hence distinct morphemes.
www.ruf.rice.edu /~kemmer/Words04/structure/morphemes.html   (568 words)

 Root (linguistics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For example, chatters has the inflectional root or lemma chatter, but the lexical root chat.
Roots can be either free morphemes or bound morphemes.
The root rupt is written as if it were a word, but it's not.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Root_(linguistics)   (487 words)

 اتصل بنا   ENGLISH   مجلة ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Nida’s definition of morpheme matches with this definition, particularly when she says: morpheme is “the smallest meaningful unit in the structure of a language” (1944 : 4).
Bound morphemes are of two kinds- those which can stand alone, and are for some reason or another annexed to some other morpheme, and those which in all their ourrence are bound, and cannot stand alone.
It is in this latter sense of bound morpheme the term affix is here used, and it is in the manner demonstrated above that the distinction between the free morpheme or morpheme word and the bound morpheme is established.
www.uluminsania.net /b1.htm   (7654 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
A root identifier in a root ad hoc pair must be given exactly as it occurs in the analysis (an etymology or a gloss, depending on the assignment to the `M' field in the root section of the dictionary code table).
A root identifier in a suffix ad hoc pair must be given exactly as it occurs in the analysis (an etymology or a gloss, depending on the assignment to the `M' field in the root section of the dictionary code table).
A morpheme property is inherited by all allomorphs of the morpheme.
www.ai.mit.edu /courses/6.863/doc/ample.mac   (17106 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Morphemes can be put together or changed in many different ways; these changes usually signal some kind of meaning change.
Affixation: an affix is attached to a root morpheme.
Prefixes attach before the root, infixes go in the middle of the root, and suffixes attach at the end of the root.
www.ling.hawaii.edu /~uhdoc/morphology_F04.doc   (427 words)

 Introduction to Linguistics
In English, derivational morphemes are either prefixes or suffixes (ex: un- for unripe; and -ish added to boy to form boyish; in the latter, "-ish" changes the noun to an adjective).
inflectional morpheme-- a bound grammatical morpheme; an inflectional morpheme is a suffix in English.
For example, the English plural morpheme is realized through its various allomorphs: [ s ], [ z ], and [ ´ z ], as in 'cats' [ k æ t s ], 'dogs' [ d a g z ], and 'houses' [ h a w z ´ z ].
www.lli.ulaval.ca /khummel/defmorpho.htm   (355 words)

 SWAP Abstract: Boudelaa / Marslen-Wilson   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Each of these comprises three interwoven morphemes: a consonantal root morpheme that carries semantic information, a vocalic morpheme conveying syntactic information and a skeletal morpheme providing a canonical shape associated with a particular meaning or grammatical function.
Thus, the word [katam] ("conceal") is composed of the root morpheme {ktm} with the semantic load "concealment", the vocalic morpheme {a-a} with the syntactic information "active" and the skeletal morpheme {CVCVC} with the information "past tense".
The morphological priming effects observed both with opaque root morphemes and with word patterns are hard to account for as simply an interaction between form and meaning.
www.isca-speech.org /archive/swap/swap_023.html   (477 words)

 "Base Spelling on the Root Word"   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
And 'muscle' and 'muscular' are both spelt with a 'c', since this is part of the root word.
Pinker refers to this way of spelling as the method which is based on the same root word, or "morpheme" (a "morpheme" is the most basic unit of language - for example a complete word may consist of a root morpheme and a suffix morpheme).
He says for example that a spelling based on morphemes would help to distinguish between words that sound the same but have different meanings - like 'meet' and 'mete'.
www.e-speec.com /root.htm   (349 words)

 Linguistics by Steven Lewis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
morphemes occur at the end of a word and modify its base meaning.
Putting the three morphemes together we can infer that the word "exocytosis" refers to the process whereby cells secrete substances to their exterior.
If you learn the meanings of a few common morphemes, like "itis" and "sub" and "arthr" and "cyt," you will be able to infer meanings of words that contain these morphemes even though you may never have seen the whole words before.
www.kcmetro.cc.mo.us /pennvalley/biology/lewis/linguistics.htm   (429 words)

 Introduction to Morphology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
root morpheme: the morpheme that is the semantic core of a word
A bound morpheme that is attached in order to form a new lexical category (part of speech) and/or somehow alters the meaning (such as the suffix {-less})
Reduplication: the repetition of a specific morpheme or part of a morpheme to signal things like plural, tense, or degree.
plaza.ufl.edu /lulilm/morphologylectures.htm   (598 words)

 [No title]
Morpheme class declaration: \mcl ================================ A morpheme class declaration has three parts: the field code `\mcl', the name of the class, and the list of morphnames in the class (separated by spaces).
Root delimiter: \rd =================== For each analysis, the root (or roots), and the category of the first root, are delimited by a pair of reserved characters.
TRANSFER determines whether the morpheme to be inserted is a prefix or a suffix by determining which dictionary it occurs in.
www.ai.mit.edu /courses/6.863/doc/stamp.txt   (13826 words)

 sept 8
- ‘morph’ (a manifestation of a morpheme; cf.
In English, the root morpheme is generally a free morpheme.
Affixes - bound morphemes that do not belong to a lexical category: prefix (attached to the front of a base), suffix (attached to the end of a base), infix (an affix that occurs within a base – non-existent in English).
www.sfu.ca /~dmellow/ling32303/sept8.html   (1381 words)

 [No title]
A morpheme that has a relatively more-specific meaningthan a function morpheme; a morpheme that names a concept/idea in our record of experience of the world.
The phenomenon of variation in the pronunciation of a morpheme is called allomorphic variation or morphophonemic variation (since it is the phonemic makeup of a morpheme that is varying).
The morpheme 'electric' has two allomorphs: 'electri/k/' and 'electri/s/-'; the second occurs only when the suffix -ity' is attached to the word.
cla.calpoly.edu /~jrubba/morph.over.html   (2171 words)

 Distributed Morphology
Morphemes are thus the atoms of morphosyntactic representation.
For example, a 'noun' or a 'nominalization' is a Root whose nearest c-commanding f-morpheme (or licenser) is a Determiner, a 'verb' is a Root whose nearest c-commanding f-morphemes are v, Aspect and Tense; without Tense such a Root is simply a 'participle'.
For example, a Root morpheme in an appropriately local relation to a Determiner might be filled by cat, dog, house, table or any other Vocabulary item we would normally call a 'noun.' Harley and Noyer 1998 propose that such Vocabulary items are not in competition, as are the Vocabulary items inserted into f-morphemes.
www.ling.upenn.edu /~rnoyer/dm   (5136 words)

 Root (linguistics) - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Root (linguistics) - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography
Content words in nearly all languages represent root morphemes.
This page was last modified 13:17, 30 May 2005.
www.arikah.com /encyclopedia/Root_morpheme   (443 words)

Derivational morphemes derive a new word by being attached to root morphemes or stems.
To detemine what the morphemes are in such a list, what you have to do is to see if there are any forms that mean the same thing in different words, that is, to look for recurring forms.
In more complex cases, the next step will be to make a list of all the morphemes we find including free morphemes (root) and bound morphemes and indicate what the meaning of each morpheme and also whether they are root morphemes or bound morphemes.
www.ling.udel.edu /arena/morphology.html   (928 words)

 LIN 101: Words and Morphemes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
A morpheme is the minimal unit of linguistic expression that is associated with a meaning.
In a morphologically complex word, the morpheme that carries the central element of meaning is the root morpheme; those bound morphemes that operate on or modify the meaning of the root are affixes.
In English, the stem is usually the same for all affixed forms of the same root, so the need for a distinction between root and stem is not obvious.
www.ai.univie.ac.at /~harald/morphology.html   (1102 words)

 Vocabulary Design for Artificial Languages
Root morphemes that were used to create verbs can then be re-used with unrelated NOUN classificational morphemes in a way that is semantically IMPRECISE, intentionally, but which is mnemonically useful.
Basically, though, verbs are created by combining a root morpheme that indicates a state or action with a classifier which indicates the verb's argument structure.
Since there is no way to use verbal roots with noun classifiers, and vice versa, in a way that is semantically precise, you can either create a completely different set of root morphemes for nouns, or you can re-use the verb roots for their mnemonic value.
www.eskimo.com /~ram/vocabulary_design.html   (2971 words)

 Abduction The only of the three logical processes that can create novel ideas
The process of adding bound morphemes to a root morpheme; in English, it is usually done with prefixes (pre-, bi-) or suffixes (-hood, -ing).
In Korean, for example, roots and inflections are connected with a monosyllabic morpheme which must phonetically "match" the last vowel of the stem.
A grammatical change in which the original grammatical function of a word or morpheme is taken over by a marginal or new function, which eventually becomes the main function of the word in the lanaguage’s grammar.
linguistics.byu.edu /classes/ling450ch/def.html   (7753 words)

 Root Morpheme Encyclopedia Article, Definition, History, Biography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Looking For root morpheme - Find root morpheme and more at Lycos Search.
Find root morpheme - Your relevant result is a click away!
Look for root morpheme - Find root morpheme at one of the best sites the Internet has to offer!
www.karr.net /search/encyclopedia/Root_morpheme   (655 words)

 Brian E. Felt, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
Roots, on the other had, are accented, postaccented, or unaccented.
The category of words that consist of a prefix and a root, such as Russian proxOd 'passage', and zagAr 'sunburn', displays a certain amount of accentual unpredictability when the accentual properties of constituent morphemes are considered.
For example, the root /plat/ pay in Russian is a postaccented root, but when it appears in a prefixed noun such as doplAta 'additional payment', the word is no longer postaccented, but rather accented.
aatseel.org /program/aatseel/2001/abstracts/Felt.html   (270 words)

 bokane.org :: 2004.02.27 : context and keywords
This is actually easier in Chinese, because of the nature of the language, where all the syllables, morphemes bound or unbound, have their own meanings and combine and recombine amongst one another: the zhi in "fangshezhi" tells you that you're talking about a kind of medical treatment
Root morphemes and affixes were the topic in Xiandai Hanyu, "Modern Standard Chinese" class last Monday.
"A morpheme is the smallest unit of linguistic meaning," says the professor.
www.bokane.org /archives/context_and_keywords.html   (568 words)

 Linguistic Studies
Prefixes are affixes in front of a root; suffixes are affixes following the root.
A lexeme is not the same as the root of a word.
The root is a concrete morphological item which one can work with, whereas the lexeme is just an abstract concept.
home.tele2.ch /retus/03a0301.htm   (464 words)

 JNSL Volumes: Volume 28/2
We then show that since a Hebrew root morpheme is not a stem undergoing vowel modification.
We show that such a model succeeds in representing the equal, necessary, exclusive bond that holds between the root morpheme and the pattern morpheme.
Proposals to solve the obscure passage are reviewed and in the light of parallels gathered with regard to the experiencing of the emotion of fear, the suggestion is made that PWTS should rather be related to the basic meaning of PWTS "overflow".
academic.sun.ac.za /as/journals/jnsl/volumes/vol282.htm   (1311 words)

 Velan, Frost, Deutsch, and Plaut (in press)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
For weak roots, the complete three-consonantal structure is not kept in most of their derivations, and only two letters are consistently repeated in all derivations.
In a series of masked priming experiments subjects were presented with primes consisting of the weak roots letters which are repeated in all derivations.
The results showed that the two consistent letters of weak roots facilitated the recognition of targets derived from these roots.
www.cnbc.cmu.edu /~plaut/papers/abstracts/VelanETAL05LCP.hebMorph.html   (234 words)

 LIN 306 Morphology HW Answers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
the crow is 6: grammatical morpheme + lexical morpheme
crowlike is 2 or 5: root morpheme + derivational suffix
crows is 4: root morpheme + inflectional suffix
uts.cc.utexas.edu /~king/morph_hw   (196 words)

 World War 1 and 2 - Bound morpheme
Bound morphemes are morphemes that can only occur when attached to root morphemes.
Common English bound morphemes include: -ing, -ed, -er, and pre-.
Morphemes that are not bound morphemes are free morphemes.
www.worldwardiary.com /history/Bound_morpheme   (48 words)

 Linguistics 201: Typology
Let's look at data from three languages where words tend to be morphologically complex and roots tend to be bound: Navaho and Swahili.
Thus, most noun roots denoting basic concepts are bound morphemes.
In Swahili all noun roots, even ones denoting the most basic concepts, are bound morphemes which must be accompanied by a prefix marking which word class the noun belongs to:
pandora.cii.wwu.edu /vajda/ling201/test1materials/typology.htm   (881 words)

 Sept 18
Bound morpheme – must be attached to another element (e.g., a base): -s, -ness, re-, -ive, -ate
Affixes - bound morphemes that do not belong to a lexical category: prefix (attached to the front of a base), suffix (attached to the end of a base), infix (an affix that occurs within a base – non-existent in English – not on exams).
Clitics – morphemes that are bound for phonological reasons (are not a syllable by themselves)
www.sfu.ca /~dmellow/ling220/oct21.html   (503 words)

 Morphology - Study Questions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29)
What is the distinction between a free morpheme and a bound morpheme?
What is the distinction between a root and a base (a.k.a., stem)?
How does a phonologically conditioned morpheme differ from one that is morphologically conditioned?
web.uvic.ca /~judithn/morquest.html   (76 words)

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