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Topic: Rowlatt Act

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  Rowlatt Act - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919 and basically authorised the government to imprison any person living in the Raj without trial on suspicion of being a terrorist.
These acts led to severe indignation from Indian leaders and the public which caused the government to implement repressive measures.
Some people who read this act found that constitutional opposition to the act was fruitless so on April 6th, a "hartal" was organised where Indians would suspend all business and fast as a sign of their hatred for this legislation.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Rowlatt_Act   (249 words)

 Protest against Rowlatt Act & Jallianwalla Baug Massacre
As the Defence of India Act was to expire six months after the conclusion of the war, a new set of emergency measures for the detention and containment of 'terrorists' to meet what was termed the 'continuing threat' were planned by the Government of India.
The government could not have known that the Rowlatt Act would become the occasion for the most widespread movement of opposition to British rule since the Rebellion of 1857-58 and indeed the springboard from which the movement for independence would be launched until India was to become irretrievably lost to the British.
The Rowlatt Act provided for the trial of seditious crime by benches of three judges; the accused were not to have the benefit of either preliminary commitment proceedings or the right of appeal, and the rules under which evidence could be obtained and used were relaxed.
www.indhistory.com /jallianwalla-bagh-massacre.html   (386 words)

 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Rowlatt Act
The Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919 and basically authorised the government to imprison people (Indians) without trial.
Mahatma Gandhi, when all Hell broke loose (1869-1948) was extremely critical of this act and argued that not everyone should be imprisoned if only certain people were committing these political crimes.
Indians found that constitutional opposition to the act was fruitless so on April 6th, a "hartal" was organised where Indians would suspend all business and fast as a sign of their hatred for this legislation.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Rowlatt_Act   (234 words)

 Continuing the Rowlatt frame work
The repeal proceeded on the footing that the Act was passed for a limited purpose, viz., for prosecuting emergency excesses, whereas the Supreme Court in VC Shukla's case pointed out that the Act is a permanent one.
We notice in the case of the validity of TADA (Kartar Singh) the emergence of a disturbing trend of the validation of arbitrary laws passed by the Parliament by the Court.
The Act is a reproduction of the TADA 1985 unexpurgated.
www.pucl.org /from-archives/Police/rowlatt.htm   (2841 words)

 Indian Independence Movement - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The agitation unleashed by the acts culminated on 13 April 1919, in the Amritsar Massacre in Amritsar, Punjab.
He was deeply distressed with the act, and the possibility that crowds of protestors would lose control like this in different parts of the country, causing the fight for national freedom to degenerate into a chaotic orgy of bloodshed, where Englishmen would be murdered by mobs, and the British forces would retaliate against innocent civilians.
The act brought in the council was defeated by one vote.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Independence_of_India   (7396 words)

 Mahatma Gandhi Research & Media Service - Chronology 1919
Sir W. Vincent announced in Imperial Legislative Council that Rowlatt Act was to be in operation for three years.
Wired congratulations to Swami Shraddhanand on Delhi’s opposition to Rowlatt legislation.
Gandhi sent cable to Secretary of State for India that he would resume civil disobedience in July unless Rowlatt legislation was withdrawn and a committee was appointed to enquire into Punjab disturbances.
www.gandhiserve.org /information/chronology_1919/chronology_1919.html   (2340 words)

 The Hindu : Miscellaneous / This Day That Age : dated December 14, 1954: Preventive Detention Act
The highlight of the debate was a vigorous denunciation of the measure by the Praja Socialist leader, Acharya Kripalani, and an equally stout defence by the Home Minister.
Kripalani used all the adjectives in his vocabulary to call the measure "a lawless law", "a fl Act" and "duplicate of Rowlatt Act".
Although normally he would have approached the House for an extension of the measure for two years only, the fact that in the third year they would be busy with the general elections in the country made him feel that extension for three years was quite justified.
www.hindu.com /2004/12/14/stories/2004121400410901.htm   (239 words)

 The Competition Master - Infobank - Indian History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
Regulating Act, 1773: was the first legislative interference by the British Parliament in the affairs of India.
Rowlatt Act (1919): Based on the recommendations of Justice Rowlatt, chairman of the committee appointed for curbing seditious movements in India, the Rowlatt Act was passed in 1919 giving unbridled powers to the government to arrest and imprison suspects without trial and crush civil liberties.
The Rowlatt Act was popularly known as the Anarchical and Revolutionary Crime Act.
www.competitionmaster.com /pages/infobank/infohist/r.html   (824 words)

 come connect.com
The British were obliged to repeal the defense of India act by which it had acquired extra-ordinary powers for the duration of the war.
Instead of rewarding the Indians for their efforts and help to the British in the war, they replaced that act by placing a notorious Act, described as Rowlatt Act, after the name of the Home Minister who had initiated them for consideration of the Central Legislative Assembly.
Immediately after the Rowlatt Act in January 1919, a meeting was convened by the Indian National Congress in Gandhi Ashram (Ahmedabad) wherein a resolution was passed to disobey this Act, if passed.
www.comeconnect.com /history/freedom2.htm   (1808 words)

 The Telegraph - Calcutta : Nation
New Delhi, July 13: The historic Old Secretariat building where the infamous Rowlatt Act was passed came close to being gutted in a fire that broke out this afternoon.
On March 18, 1919, the Rowlatt Act was passed by the Imperial Legislative Council.
Under the act, special courts were set up whose judgments could not be challenged.
www.telegraphindia.com /1040714/asp/nation/story_3493679.asp   (239 words)

 THE STATESMAN.....   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The reforms introduced in the act were based mainly on the proposals of the Montagu-Chelmsford report published on July 8, 1918.
The act substituted the Central Legislative Council by a legislature of two houses, which were the Indian Legislative Assembly and the Council of States.
On 18th of July of the same year the Rowlatt Act was passed which included three High Court judges would preside over a special court, which could record evidence, which was not permitted under the Indian Evidence Act.
www.pakistan.gov.pk /Quaid/politician5.htm   (452 words)

The Act of 1919 had contained a provision that at the end of ten years after the passing of that Act, i.e., in 1929 a Royal Commission would be appointed to enquire into the working of the Montford Reforms.
Dyarchy in the provinces — that unsuccessful innovation of the Act of 1919 — was abolished.
It was only an Act "to enable the representatives of India and Pakistan to frame their own Constitutions and to provide for the exceeding difficult period of transition." In other words, the Act merely formalised and gave legal effect to the promise made by Lord Mountbatten in his June 3 Plan.
www.zeelearn.com /global/millennium/century.html   (14914 words)

 India. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
Britain passed the Rowlatt Acts (1919), which enabled authorities to dispense with juries, and even trials, in dealing with agitators.
The act provided for the election of entirely Indian provincial governments and a federal legislature in Delhi that was to be largely elected.
In the first elections (1937) held under the act, the Congress, led by Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, won well over half the seats, mostly in general constituencies, and formed governments in 7 of the 11 provinces.
www.bartleby.com /65/in/India.html   (5946 words)

 iqexpand.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The Regulating Act of 1773 curbed the company traders' unrestrained commercial activities, and gave the British government supervisory rights over the Bengal, Bombay (now Mumbai), and Madras (now Chennai) presidencies.
The India Act of 1784 enhanced parliament's control by establishing the Board of Control, whose members were selected from the cabinet.
The 1935 act, the voluminous and final constitutional effort at governing British India, articulated three major goals: establishing a loose federal structure, achieving provincial autonomy, and safeguarding minority interests through separate electorates.
indian_independence_movement.iqexpand.com   (4621 words)

 BEGINNING OF THE GANDHI ERA   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
On the basis of this Committee’s recommendations two bills which came to be known as Rowlatt Bills or ‘Black’ Bills were introduced in the imperial Legislative council in February, 1919.
The Act was everywhere denounced as ‘Black Legislation’.
In a strongly worded letter to the Viceroy, Gandhiji said in August, 1920 that Britain had acted in the Khilafat matter "in an unscrupulous, immoral and unjust manner" and had been moving from wrong to wrong in order to defend the immorality.
www.careera1.com /Projects/summary/gandhiera.htm   (4460 words)

 BBC - GCSE Bitesize - SOS Teacher History india Rowlatt Act
The Rowlatt Acts were passed in March 1919 to try to curb the growing violence in many parts of India, but particularly in the Punjab.
The Acts were opposed by all the Indian members of the Imperial Legislative Council.
The Rowlatt Acts suggested that the British Government had no intention of relaxing its grip on India.
www.bbc.co.uk /schools/gcsebitesize/sosteacher/history/36228.shtml   (204 words)

 Kashmir Sentinel: March 1st - March 31st, 1999
Meanwhile, the debate on Rowlatt Bills, which aimed at curbing the civil liberties of Indians crystallised public opinion of political India.Kitchlew organised a series of meetings to raise voice against the Bills.
Already the Press Act, and the Defence Act, were in operation.
On 18th March, 1919 when the Rowlatt Act was passed, Dr Kitchlew condemned the day as a fl one against the autocratic government on 23rd March Dr Kitchlew seconding the resolution against the new Act asked people to take the vow of Satya Graha given by Gandhi to liberate their country in a constitutional way.
www.kashmirsentinel.com /march1999/10.html   (2011 words)

 Rowlatt act - Sify.com
The Rowlatt Act passed in 1919 authorised the government to imprison people without trial.
Gandhi was the most vehement critic of the political violence which their act represented.
The Rowlatt Act came into effect on 10th March in 1919.
sify.com /itihaas/fullstory.php?id=13375125   (329 words)

 The Education Forum > 20th Century India
The act was later withdrawn and it was considered as a success of the political maturing of Indians.
Indian Council Act 1892, spread of awareness among the young Indians, prepared grounds for democratic political activities and rise of extremist form of democratic political activities.
Simon Commission: It was formed as per a clause of 1919 Act; Indians boycotted it because it did not have any Indian representative on it; “Simon Go Back” was the response of the Indians; it became the cause of the death of Lala Lajpat Rai.
educationforum.ipbhost.com /lofiversion/index.php/t3232.html   (19346 words)

To further strengthen the British government, the Rowlatt Act which authorised the government to imprison any person without trial or conviction in a court of law, was passed despite opposition trom every Indian member of the Central Legislative Council.
Gandhiji launched the Satyagraha Sabha to oppose the Rowlatt Act÷members vowed to court arrest and there were demonstrations, hartals and stikes all over India.
Ironically, General Dyer was born in India and though he was condemed by those in power in Britain, he was supported by many Britons in India after his gruesome act.
majitha.netfirms.com /jalianwala.htm   (626 words)

 Mahatma Gandhi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In 1906, the Transvaal government promulgated a new Act compelling registration of the colony's Indian population.
In Champaran, a district in the state of Bihar, he organized civil resistance on the part of tens of thousands of landless farmers and serfs, and poor farmers with small lands, who were forced to grow indigo and other cash crops instead of the food crops necessary for their survival.
The Rowlatt Act of 1919, which empowered the government to imprison those accused of sedition without trial, was passed.
www.wikipedia.org /wiki/Mohandas_Gandhi   (7852 words)

 Rowlatt Acts --  Encyclopædia Britannica
Their object was to replace the repressive provisions of the wartime Defence of India Act (1915) by a...
Covers rules and regulations related to land acquisition, penalty and enforcement, and endangered plants along with marine mammal protection act of 1972.
Hamlet Act III Scene I: To Be Or Not To Be
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9001206?tocId=9001206   (767 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The Rowlatt Act was a dead letter even when it was promulgated, and that fl act was finally even repealed.
The substance of the first Act was that no one could trade without a licence issued by an official appointed in accordance with its provisions.
The chief provision of the other Act was that only such immigrants as were able to pass the education test in a European language could enter the Colony.
www.forget-me.net /en/Gandhi/satyagraha.tex   (23760 words)

 Freedom Movement
The Rowlatt Bills aimed at restricting civil liberties of the Indian population in the name of curbing terrorist activities.
One of the Acts was passed on March 23, 1919.
Others felt that Dyer had committed an "unexampled act of brutality and perpetrated a deliberately calculated massacre...for them this was an act of terrorism which, far from saving India, ignited the spark of Indian nationalism.
bombay-book.htmlplanet.com   (5739 words)

It was a poignant irony that having played a commendable role as a Congressman in the Independence movement, he, in 1938, found himself leading the Justice Party which was somewhat of an asylum for blind supporters of the British.
It was the only party in India to have supported the infamous Rowlatt Act; not only that, they had even the depravity to defend the Jallianwala Bagh massacre.
Though CNA had given up the demand for Dravidanadu only to escape the clutches of the Anti-Secession Act, he also exhibited rare courage in doing it, for it was the foundation on which his party had been built.
indianleaders.tripod.com /leaders_DURAI.htm   (1502 words)

The full report of the Rowlatt Committee was published on January 19, 1919 and the bills were introduced in the Supreme Legislative Council by William Vincent on February 6 of the same year.
The anti-Rowlatt Act agitation brought Gandhiji to the fore of the National Freedom Movement with a new technique.
Two other chorus songs are considered by many as more defiant in tone including the one sung by Nazrul himself at the inaugural session of the Students' Conference.
pib.nic.in /feature/fe0699/f0406991.html   (1019 words)

 Indian Independence Movement: Key Landmarks in the Indian Freedom Struggle
In spite of the Rowlatt Act of 1919 that sought to extend the provisions of martial law, a wave of mass demonstrations, strikes, and civil unrest confronted the British authorities.
The British rulers were taken by surprise by the courageous resistance of the workers and the official Government Report for the year noted with alarmed amazement how Hindus and Muslims had resisted their power unitedly.
In many respects, the analysis of Indian conditions by the Ghadar Party and of the Indian Communists was very similiar, and in spite of the repression they faced, their message continued to draw followers.
members.tripod.com /%7EINDIA_RESOURCE/freedom.html   (5422 words)

 Saga of Sacrifice & Struggle2
The Land Alienation Act 1900 had failed in its objective of saving the agriculturist from the clutches of the moneylenders.
Instead of rewarding the Indians for their efforts and help to the British in the war, they replaced that act by placing two notorious bills, described as Rowlatt Bills, after the name of the Home Minister who had initiated them for consideration of the Central Legislative Assembly.
Immediately after the Rowlatt Bill in January 1919, a meeting was convened by the Indian National Congress in Gandhi Ashram (Ahmedabad) wherein a resolution was passed to disobey this Act, if passed.
www.punjabilok.com /misc/freedom/freedom_struggle2.htm   (5280 words)

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