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Topic: Rutherford scattering


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  Station Information - Rutherford scattering
Rutherford Scattering was a phenomonon observed by Ernest Rutherford in the 1911 which led to the development of the orbital theory of the atom.
Rutherford conducted an experiment whereby he he shot a beam of alpha particles (Helium nuclei) at layers of gold leaf only a few atoms thick.
Rutherford concluded that the majority of the mass was concentrated in a minute, positively charged region (the nucleus) surrounded by electrons.
www.stationinformation.com /encyclopedia/r/ru/rutherford_scattering.html   (314 words)

  
 Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
He was known as the "father" of nuclear physics, pioneered the orbital theory of the atom, notably in his discovery of rutherford scattering off the nucleus with the gold foil experiment.
In 1895 Rutherford travelled to England for postgraduate study at the Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge (1895-1898), and was resident at Trinity College.
In 1898 Rutherford was appointed to the chair of physics at McGill University where he did the work which gained him the 1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Ernest_Rutherford   (560 words)

  
 Rutherford scattering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Rutherford scattering is a phenomenon that was explained by Ernest Rutherford in 1911, and led to the development of the orbital theory of the atom.
Rutherford scattering is also sometimes referred to as Coulomb scattering because it relies on static electric (Coulomb) forces.
At the time of the experiment, the atom was thought to be analogous to a plum pudding (as proposed by J.J. Thomson), with the negative charges (the plums) found throughout a positive sphere (the pudding).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Rutherford_scattering   (455 words)

  
 Scattering: Tutte le informazioni su Scattering su Encyclopedia.it   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Un semplice esempio di scattering può essere l'urto contro una sfera rigida.
Lo scattering Raman (dal nome del suo scopritore C.V. Raman che nel 1928 lo osservò per primo) è un esempio di scattering anelastico, ovvero di un urto fra particelle dove l'energia cinetica complessiva del sistema non si conserva (l'energia totale del sistema si conserva in tutti i tipi di urti).
Si definiscono fenomeni di scattering multiplo quei casi dove le particelle (o la luce) subiscono, all'interno del mezzo, un numero molto alto di eventi di scattering.
www.encyclopedia.it /s/sc/scattering.html   (2728 words)

  
 Rutherford scattering - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Rutherford scattering is a phenomenon that was observed by Ernest Rutherford in 1911 that led to the development of the orbital theory of the atom.
The discovery was made by Rutherford when he performed a gold foil experiment, in which he fired a beam of alpha particles (helium nuclei) at layers of gold leaf only a few atoms thick.
For head on collisions between alpha particles and nucleus, all the kinetic energy (\frac{1}{2}mv^2) of the alpha particle is turned into potential energy and the particle is at rest.
www.peekskill.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Rutherford_scattering   (419 words)

  
 Rutherford Scattering
The scattering process can be treated statistically in terms of the cross-section for interaction with a nucleus which is considered to be a point charge Ze.
The point of departure from Rutherford scattering in the case of the nucleus was the basis for the earliest evaluations of the nuclear radius.
The scattering of the alpha particle by the central repulsive Coulomb force leads to a hyperbolic trajectory.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/rutsca.html   (378 words)

  
 Rutherford scattering - Wikipedia
At the time the atom was thought to be a sort of plum pudding, with the electrons and protons mixed together like the ingredients of a cake.
Rutherford conducted an experiment whereby he he shot a beam of alpha particles (electrons) at layers of gold leaf only a few atoms thick.
Rutherford concluded that the majority of the mass was concentrated in a minute, positively charged region orbited by electrons.
nostalgia.wikipedia.org /wiki/Rutherford_scattering   (309 words)

  
 Rutherford Scattering
Rutherford himself remarked at the ceremony that he "had dealt with many different transformations with various time-periods, but the quickest he had met was his own transformation from a physicist to a chemist".
Rutherford's 1906 discovery that his pet particles were slightly deflected on passing through atoms came about when he was finding their charge to mass ratio, by measuring the deflection in a magnetic field.
Rutherford correctly deduced that in the large angle scattering, which corresponded to closer approach to the nucleus, the alpha was actually hitting the nucleus.
galileo.phys.virginia.edu /classes/252/Rutherford_Scattering/Rutherford_Scattering.html   (2533 words)

  
 Ernest Rutherford - Scientist Supreme
Rutherford adapted his detector of very fast transient currents for use as a frequency meter and used it to measure the dielectric properties of electrical insulators.
Rutherford always had a shift in mind, but only to Britain in order to be nearer the main centres of science, and to have access to more, and better, research students.
Rutherford was one of the first to determine that the energy involved in the radioactive decay of an atom was millions of times that of a chemical bond and he was the first to be convinced that the energy was internal to all atoms.
www.rutherford.org.nz /biography.htm   (4201 words)

  
 Rutherford Scattering   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Rutherford and colleagues were able to calculate the number of alpha particles which would be scattered into any angle based upon the number of nuclei and their spacing in the gold foil.
This scattering angle could be used to calculate the distance of closest approach and therefore the "radius" of the nucleus.
The Rutherford scattering experiment put to rest the Thomsen model of the atom, because it could be shown that a positive charge distributed throughout the classical volume of the atom could not deflect the alpha particles by more than a small fraction of a degree.
www.kemt.fei.tuke.sk /Predmety/KEMT422_SPAS/_web/Hyperphysics/rutsca3.html   (334 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Rutherford scattering
Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, OM, FRS (August 30, 1871 - October 19, 1937), called father of nuclear physics, pioneered the orbital theory of the atom notably in his discovery of rutherford scattering off the nucleus with his gold foil experiment.
Rutherford backscattering (or RBS, for Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry) is an analytical technique in materials science.
Deep Inelastic Scattering is the name given to a process used to probe the insides of hadrons (particularly the baryons, such as protons and neutrons), using electrons.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Rutherford-scattering   (899 words)

  
 Rutherford Scattering
Rutherford was able to determine the size of the nucleus by analyzing the scattering pattern of the alpha particles.
Rutherford assumed the mass of the nucleus was much greater than the mass of the alpha particle and therefore the nucleus did not move during the collision.
Rutherfordís scattering method is a sound way of analyzing the size of a round target.
www.wheatonma.edu /academic/academicdept/astronomy/observatory/atorion/papers/scattering.htm   (1868 words)

  
 Rutherford Scattering Experiment
Rutherford was at the time busy studying alpha particles, and in 1907 at McGill by accident discovered that alpha particles are slightly deflected when they pass through matter.
We now switch to scattering in the electrostatic field: essentially everything is the same as in the case of gravity, except that the force can be both attractive and repulsive, the latter being the case for alpha particles and a positively charged nucleus.
Rutherford's scattering experiment ushered the era of scattering as a powerful tool for studying physics at short distances.
www.pha.jhu.edu /~c173_608/rutherford/rutherford.html   (2071 words)

  
 ChemTeam: Discovery of Alpha Scattering
Rutherford found (in July 1905) that the alpha particle decreased in velocity, until at about 6,000 miles per second, it would not make its presence known by ionizing gases or darkening a photographic plate.
The slight shift of the vacuum-lines in the figure, relative to the air-lines, was due to an accidental displacement of the plate in transferring the metal sheets in the middle of the experiment.
This scattering of the rays probably also occurs with aluminium, but it would not be as evident in the experiments where the layers of foil are placed over the active wire between the source and the slit.
dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us /webdocs/Radioactivity/Disc-of-Alpha-Scatter.html   (1086 words)

  
 Rutherford Scattering
Rutherford worked out a detailed formula for the scattering (Rutherford formula), which matched the Geiger-Marsden data to high precision.
When the scattering departed from that predicted from Coulomb's law, it could be inferred that another force was coming into play and you could claim to have "hit" the nucleus.
Rutherford scattering was the first method used to measure the size of nuclei.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/nuclear/rutsca2.html   (1010 words)

  
 Rutherford scattering   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Rutherford, Geiger and Marsden therefore expected their positively charged alpha particles to be deflected only slightly by the positive charge spread across each of the gold atoms.
He had investigated the scattering of alpha-particles in hydrogen gas, where the atomic nuclei have only a single unit of positive charge (unlike gold atoms, which have 79 times as much charge).
Rutherford found that his scattering formula broke down with higher energy, that is higher velocity, alpha particles.
www.physics.ox.ac.uk /documents/PUS/dis/Rutherford.htm   (489 words)

  
 Crude Rutherford Scattering Applet   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
This is an initial pass at an interactive Rutherford scattering applet that simulates the scattering of alpha particles (helium nuclei) from a nucleus of gold.
The scattering part is shown to scale [where each pixel is about 1 femtometer] but the detector location is not to scale.
Rutherford later explained their results with a calculation that showed how the data were consistent with Coulomb scattering from a nucleus that was small enough that it could be treated as a point charge.
faculty.tcc.fl.edu /scma/carrj/Java/rutherford.html   (783 words)

  
 PIRA 7D50.00 MODELS OF THE NUCLEUS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Rutherford scattering on the OH Ink dipped balls are rolled down an incline toward a clear plastic potential hill on an overhead projector stage.
A magnet pendulum is repulsed by the pole of a vertical electromagnet.
On using the "Welch" ball bearing scattering apparatus to model the conditions of an experiment in nuclear physics as far as possible.
www.physics.ncsu.edu /pira/7modern/7D50.html   (349 words)

  
 Physics, physics, physics
It was quite impossible to explain the large-angle scattering of an alpha particle in terms of a large number of small-angle scatterings.
The analysis Rutherford used is one that has been repeated countless times since 1911 in studies of the structure of atoms, nuclei, and elementary particles.
The fraction of alpha particles scattered by at least the given angle is thus simply equal to the fraction of the area of the foil occupied by these discs - in other words, by the area of each disc times the average number of atoms per unit area in the foil.
www.physics.rutgers.edu /~zrwan/physics   (1452 words)

  
 Measurement: Rutherford Backscattering: Direct Profiling: Theory   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
The collision event between the He atom and the column IV element in the lattice results in a momentum transfer (in the laboratory inertial reference framed, which is defined to be the frame in which the initial velocity of the lattice center-of-mass is zero) from the incident alpha particle (ie He) to the lattice element.
The usual way to derive the relationship between initial energy, scattering angle, and energy lost by the alpha particle in the collision is to transform to the zero-momentum frame, in which bet momentum is conserved at the trivial value of zero.
The result is the scattering cross section represented in deriviative form, the derivative of the cross-section with respect to a differential solid angle evalulated at a particular solid angle and projectile energy.
nucleus.stanford.edu /~djconnel/research/Ge_graded_epi/measurement/rbs/direct/theory   (2487 words)

  
 ChemTeam: Rutherford Experiment
Rutherford announced the discovery of alpha particle scattering by air in Jan. 1906.
Rutherford did not work in a vacuum (although most of the experiments were!), but rather discussed his results with colleagues, including William H. Bragg (who, together with his son William L. Bragg, would win the 1915 Nobel Prize in Physics).
R is the source, S is the thin metal foil which scatters the particles, Z is the zinc sulfide screen that flashed when struck (it was called the scintillation method), and M is a microscope to view the flashes with.
dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us /webdocs/AtomicStructure/Rutherford-Exp-History.html   (1994 words)

  
 Deep Inelastic Scattering Encyclopedia Article, Definition, History, Biography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
Drawing on Rutherford's groundbreaking experiments in the early years of the Twentieth Century, ideas for detecting quarks were formulated.
Rutherford had proven that atoms had a small, massive, charged nucleus at their centre by firing alpha particles at atoms in gold.
The collision absorbed some kinetic energy, and as such it is inelastic (this compares to Rutherford Scattering which is elastic, with no loss of kinetic energy, taking into account recoils of the nuclei).
www.variedtastes.com /encyclopedia/Deep_Inelastic_Scattering   (798 words)

  
 nucleus   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-18)
By 1903, Rutherford had been elected to the British Royal Society and in 1904 he was invited to deliver the Bakernian Lecture which is a high honor in British science in whcih the lecturer reviews his or her lifetime of scientific achievements (he did it again in 1920).
However, the scatterings were so infrequent even in the more likely forward direction, that the probability of many successive such scatterings as the cause of backward recoil was prohibitively small.
Nonetheless, neglecting the problem of the electrons, Rutherford was able to derive the mathematical formalism which governs scattering of this sort: a point-like charged particle of one mass scattering from another of a possibly different mass and different charge.
www.pa.msu.edu /~brock/d0_homepage/physics-posted/surprise-nucleus.html   (1405 words)

  
 JCE Software, 5B2: Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford's famous alpha particle scattering experiments led to the development of the nuclear model of the atom and therefore represent one of the major milestones in our understanding of the fundamental nature of matter.
In addition to the scattering laboratory simulation, there are two atomic level simulations designed to let students perform experiments that Rutherford could only have dreamed about.
The first of these is called the Trajectory Analyzer because students may use it to explore the scattering interaction between an incident alpha particle and a single atom.
jchemed.chem.wisc.edu /JCESoft/Issues/Series_B/5B2/prog1-5B2.html   (402 words)

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